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Origins of the Cold War


Origins of the Cold War End of WWII Uneasy allies Yalta designed to check Soviet power – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Origins of the Cold War

Origins of the Cold War
  • End of WWII
  • Uneasy allies
  • Yalta designed to check Soviet power

Origins of the Cold War 2
  • Eastern Europe
  • Elections held by Soviets (Yalta) corrupted
  • 1946-48 Communist dictators come to power in most
    Eastern Euro countries
  • USSR claimed need for buffer states
  • US/GB saw as violation of self-determination,
    free markets (especially Poland)
  • United Nations
  • Both granted permanent seats and veto power on UN
    Security Council participate in Nuremberg Trials
  • Both reject plans to regulate atomic energy
  • Soviets decline to participate in World Bank

Origins of the Cold War 2
  • Germany
  • Partition
  • Airlift

Containment in Europe
  • George Kennan
  • Truman Doctrine
  • 400 mil in military and economic aid to Greece
    and Turkey for resisting totalitarian regimes
  • Trend-setting

Containment in Europe
  • Marshall Plan
  • Post WWII economic problems encouraged growth of
    Communist parties in W. Euro
  • US pledged towards recovery
  • USSR refused aid b/c feared developing a
  • Successful policy for both W. Euro and US

Containment in Europe
  • NATO (1949) attack on one is an attack on all
  • US, Canada, Western Europe
  • Warsaw Pact (1955) Soviet counter to NATO

National Security Act (1947)
  • Centralized Dept of Defense to coordinate all
    wings of military (replaced War Dept)
  • Created National Security Council to coordinate
    foreign policy in Cold War
  • NSC recommends in 1950 (NSC-68)
  • Quadruple US defense spending to 20 of GNP
  • Alliances w/ non-Communist countries worldwide
  • Sell plan to American public
  • Created Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to
    gather info on foreign governments

Cold War in Asia
  • Japan
  • Dependent on US for protection post-WWII
  • Occupation ends in 1951
  • Philippines and Pacific
  • 1946 independence from US territory
  • US retained bases
  • China
  • US refuses to acknowledge Mao Zedongs Communist
    govt until 1979 (only recognizes Nationalist
    force in Taiwan)

Korean War
  • Invasion North invades South 6/50
  • Truman applies containment policy
  • UN Security Council authorizes sending a UN force
    to defend South (mostly US troops, MacArthur)

Korean War 2
  • Truman v. MacArthur MacArthur publicly called
    for more aggression ? recalled for
  • Armistice stalemated at 38th parallel peace
    talks for 2 years (1953)
  • Political consequences
  • Truman uses to expand military
  • Republicans use Korea and loss of China as
    campaign fuel (soft)

Second Red Scare (domestic)
  • 1951 Dennis et al. vs. US --Supreme Ct upheld
    the Smith Act which made it illegal to
    advocate/teach/belong to a group that had the
    object of overthrowing the govt
  • McCarran International Security Act (1950)
  • Anti-communist law
  • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

Espionage Cases
  • Alger Hiss, State Dept official
  • Rosenbergs executed for supposedly selling
    atomic technology to USSR
  • McCarthyism

  • Influenced by Dulles
  • Brinkmanship
  • Nuclear weapons over traditional weapons
  • More bang for your buck
  • Massive Retaliation
  • USSR develops own H-bomb and this looks foolish

Third World instability fears
  • 1954 Guatemala overthrew leftist govt that
    threatened US business interests (United Fruit

Third World instability fears
  • Indochina becomes Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
    (independence war from France drew both US and
    USSR aid)
  • Geneva Conference divides Vietnam until elections
    could be held
  • SEATO Southest Asia Treaty Organization
  • Korea remained divided (technically still at war)

Third World instability fears
  • Many newly independent nations after WWII
  • 1953 US helps orchestrate overthrow of elected
    Iranian govt that tried to nationalize foreign
    oil companies, replaces w/ monarch

Middle East
  • Suez Crisis
  • Eisenhower Doctrine (1957)
  • Growing USSR influence in Egypt and Syria
  • pledges economic and military support to any
    country threatened by Communism
  • OPEC formed in 1960

Direct US-Soviet Relations
  • Geneva Convention 1955
  • Both sides want to warm up relations
  • Ike proposes open skies Soviets/ Khrushchev
  • Hungarian Revolt (1956) US took no action to
  • Sputnik 1957 ? National Defense and Education
    Act to boost science education
  • U-2 spy plane incident

  • Alliance for Progress land reform and economic
    aid program for Latin America (Cold War agenda)
  • Bay of Pigs 1961 tried to use Cuban exiles to
    overthrown Castro (Kennedy refuses to save
    stranded Cubans big blunder)
  • Berlin Wall goes up 1963
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 US discovered Soviet
    missiles on Cuba (CLOSE to nuclear war)
  • New policy Flexible Response

  • Started by Kennedy, escalated by LBJ, ended by
  • Containment justification
  • Tonkin Gulf Resolution (1963)
  • Tet Offensive, My Lai massacre
  • Peak forces in 1969
  • Credibility Gap
  • Draft polarizes Americans at home (Hawks vs.
  • Cambodia bombings in early 70s ignite conflict
  • Vietnamization/Nixon Doctrine

Nixons Strength
  • Played China and USSR off of each other ? détente
  • 1972 Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT I)
  • Soviet consent to freeze number of ballistic
    missiles carrying nuclear warheads (did not end
    arms race, but good step)

1973 Developments
  • War Powers Act response to secret Cambodia
  • OPEC Oil Embargo
  • Result of USs military support for Israel in
    1973 war
  • gtgtrunaway inflation, job loss, issues for
    American car industry
  • 55 mph speed limit, Alaska pipeline
  • Inflation continues until end of decade

Ford (1974-1977)
  • Fall of Saigon (1975)
  • US Congress refuses additional support of South
  • Mass evacuation of South Vietnamese who had
    supported US (150,000)
  • Cambodian Genocide (begins 1975)
  • US supported government falls to Khmer Rouge
    (communist radicals)
  • Khmer Rouge carried out genocide against own
    people (1 million)

  • HUMAN RIGHTS emphasis on foreign policy (clean up
    our act a little)
  • New Panama Canal treaty for eventual turnover of
    control to Panama
  • Camp David Accords (1978)
  • Peace settlement between Egypt (Sadat) and Israel
  • 1979 Egypt is first Arab nation to recognize
  • Israel withdraws from Sinai territoriy

Carter Cold War
  • Carter attempted to continue détente
  • 1979 US recognizes govt in mainland China
  • SALT II w/ USSR limiting size of each
    superpowers nuclear delivery systems
  • 1979 Soviets invade Afghanistan (US Senate never
    ratifies SALT II as a result)
  • US feared for oil
  • Carter has to switch to arms build-up
  • Embargos grain exports to USSR
  • 1980 Olympics boycott

Carter Iran
  • Iran Hostage Crisis ? huge stain on Carter
  • Shah disliked but supplied oil
  • Ayatollah Khomeni and Islamic fundamentalists
    overthrown shahgtgtoil shortage
  • 1979 Iranian militants seize US embassy take 50
  • Carter unable to resolve.

  • New arms buildup

  • Military buildup
  • SDI/Starwars
  • Defense budget
  • 1981 171 billion
  • 1985 300 billion

Reagan Central America
  • Nicaragua (1979)
  • Sandanistas (leftwing) assume power
  • Contras emerge as anti-leftist force (US
  • Iran-Contra profits from arms deals to Iran used
    to fund Contras in Nicaragua
  • El Salvador support for brutal anti-left
  • Grenada (1983)
  • Marines to combat pro-Cuban coup

  • 1985 Gorbachev emerges
  • Glasnost openness, end to political repression,
    greater political freedom
  • Perestroika restructuring of the Soviet economy
    w/ some free market practices
  • To achieve reforms Gorb must end costly arms race
    and deal w/ economic problems

  • 1987 Gorb and Reagan agreed to remove and destroy
    all intermediate range missiles (INF agreement)
  • 1988 Gorb pulls troops from Afghan.
  • Gorb pressures Iran and Iraq to end their war
    (Ayatollah Komeini vs. Saddam Hussein)

  • 1989 Berlin Wall comes down

Johnson Tonkin Gulf Resolution
  • Johnson becomes president as Vietnam situation
    deteriorates (7 different govt in 1964)
  • What happened
  • NV fired on US ships in Tonkin Gulf
  • Later disputed
  • Resulting Tonkin Gulf Resolution
  • LBJ convinces Congress that Tonkin Gulf incident
    merited a US military response
  • Gave president a blank check to take all
    necessary measures to protect US interests in
  • Criticism War not declared by Congress (thus

Johnson - Escalation
  • Most advisors recommend expansion in 1965
  • Operation Rolling Thunder prolonged air attack
    on NV
  • 1965 over 180,000 troops
  • 1967 over 485,000 troops
  • 1969 peaked at 540,000
  • War of attrition/search and destroy ? alienation
    of peasants

Johnson - Credibility Gap
  • Misinformation from govt officials
  • LBJ is reluctant to speak on scope and costs of
  • Credibility Gap
  • Inner circles of govt themselves misunderstood
    Vietcong and the type of war

Hawks vs. Doves
  • Hawks
  • Believed that war was USSR-backed Communist
    expansion (domino)
  • Doves
  • Saw war as a civil war in which US had no role
  • Greatest dove faction was college students
  • Eugene McCarthy (MN) 1968 challenges LBJ for
    Democratic nomination anti-war

Johnson -Tet Offensive, Jan 1968
  • Vietcong launches all-out offensive on southern
  • US counter-attacked (heavier losses for Vietcong)
  • Homefront
  • Tet is watched on TV
  • Looks like massive loss for US demoralized

LBJ withdraws
  • Response to Tet
  • More troops requested (250,000 more)
  • Other advisors encourage LBJ to decrease
  • 1968 marks decrease in troop levels
  • March 31, 1968
  • LBJ tells America that he was going to limit
    bombing and negotiate peace
  • Not running for re-election
  • May 1968 Peace Talks in Paris
  • Deadlocked over minor issues

  • 1969 over ½ million troops in Vietnam
  • Looking for peace with honor
  • Vietnamization of war effort
  • Gradual withdrawal of troops
  • , weapons, training would remain
  • 540,000 in 69 ? 30,000 in 72
  • Nixon Doctrine Asian allies would receive US
    support without the ground forces