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Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts [1945-1991]

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Chapter 18: Cold War ... (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners ... Slide 2 Section 1 Origins of the Cold War Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts [1945-1991]


1
Chapter 18 Cold War Conflicts 1945-1991
2
We Didnt Start the Fire
3
Section 1Origins of the Cold War
  • Why did it happen?

4
1. The Ideological Struggle
Soviet Eastern Bloc NationsIron Curtain
US the Western Democracies
GOAL ? spread world-wide Communism
GOAL ? Containment of Communism the eventual
collapse of the Communist world.George Kennan
  • METHODOLOGIES/How
  • Espionage KGB vs. CIA
  • Arms Race nuclear escalation
  • Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts
    of Third World peoples Communist govt. command
    economy vs. democratic govt. capitalist
    economy ? proxy wars
  • Bi-Polarization of Europe NATO vs. Warsaw Pact

5
Espionage
Video
6
The Arms RaceA Missile Gap?
  • The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in
    1949.
  • Now there were two nuclear superpowers!

7
Battle for the Hearts and Minds
8
Bipolarization of Europe
9
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
  • United States
  • Belgium
  • Britain
  • Canada
  • Denmark
  • France
  • Iceland
  • Italy
  • Luxemburg
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • 1952 Greece Turkey
  • 1955 West Germany
  • 1983 Spain

10
Warsaw Pact (1955)
  • U. S. S. R.
  • Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Czechoslovakia
  • East Germany
  • Hungary
  • Poland
  • Rumania

11
2. US/Soviet Rivalry (distrust went back into
the early days of WWII) Why?
a. Soviet/Germen Non-Aggression Pact
b. Allied delay in invading France
c. Manhattan Project
12
Formation of the United Nations
  • Created on April 25, 1945. In San Francisco.
  • Why?
  • To promote world peace.
  • But, became a battle ground for the SU and US.

13
Adlai E. Stevenson and Soviet representative
Valerian A. ZorinOctober 23, 1962
14
3. Personality Conflicts
Joseph Stalin
Harry S. Truman
  • Became president when FDR died on April 12, 1945.
  • Not prepared to be president.
  • Why?
  • FDR kept him in the dark.
  • Did not know much, including about the A-bomb.
  • Had excellent leadership qualities
  • Became leader of the USSR when Lenin died
  • Strong supporter of communism
  • Modernized the USSR
  • Totalitarian ruler
  • Ruled with an iron fist

15
Potsdam Conference
16
  • US/Soviet Tensions Rise
  • Why?

17
1. Who was going to control Eastern Europe?
  • Stalin installed communist governments throughout
    E. Europe.
  • Known as satellite nations/states.

18
2. US/British Response Containment
  • New US/British policy designed to actively
    prevent the spread of communism.
  • Winston Churchill said that an, iron curtain
    now divided Europe.
  • When Stalin learned of it, he called Churchill "a
    warmonger, and associated him with Hitler.

19
The Iron Curtain
From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across
the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient
capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.
-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
20
  • Containment in Action
  • Europe

21
Truman Doctrine 1947
  1. Civil War in Greece.
  2. Turkey under pressure from the USSR for
    concessions in the Dardanelles.
  3. The U. S. should support free peoples throughout
    the world who were resisting takeovers by armed
    minorities or outside pressuresWe must assist
    free peoples to work out their own destinies in
    their own way.
  4. The U.S. gave Greece Turkey 400 million in aid.

22
Marshall Plan 1948
  1. European Recovery Program.
  2. Secretary of State, George Marshall
  3. The U. S. should provide aid to all European
    nations that need it. This move is not against
    any country or doctrine, but against hunger,
    poverty, desperation, and chaos.
  4. 12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe
    extended to Eastern Europe USSR, but this was
    rejected.

23
  • Cold War Conflicts
  • Europe

24
Germany
  • How would the Allies handle the occupation of
    Germany?

1. Germany was divided in 4 Zones
US/GB/SU/French.
2. Stalin blocked access to Berlin.
25
Post-War Germany
26
Berlin Blockade Airlift (1948-49)
27
Germany and the Berlin Airlift
  • 1. US and GB tried to break the blockade by
    flying
  • supplies into Berlin.

2. The airlift lasted for almost a year.
3. SU backed down
4. Germany was not reunified. Remained divided
into two nations W. Germany and E. Germany.
28
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
CheckpointCharlie
29
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963)
President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West
is with them!
30
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
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