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The Cold War Begins 1945 - 1960


The Cold War Begins 1945 - 1960 Mao Zedong Formosa China in the United Nations Korea (SP) June 25, 1950 General MacArthur Quick Breakdown of Korean War (Wkst) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War Begins 1945 - 1960

The Cold War Begins1945 - 1960
  • Mao Zedong
  • Formosa
  • China in the United Nations
  • Korea (SP)
  • June 25, 1950
  • General MacArthur
  • Quick Breakdown of Korean War (Wkst)
  • Korean War Basics
  • Limited War
  • 1952 Election
  • Red Scare
  • Atlantic Charter
  • Arms Race
  • Loyalty Review Boards (sp)
  • House of Un-American Activities Committee
  • Hollywood 10
  • Alger Hiss
  • The Rosenbergs 1953
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy
  • Post WWII Information (SP)
  • Satellite Nations
  • The Cold War 1945 1991
  • Causes of the Cold War
  • Differences Democracy v. Communism (Wkst.)
  • Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
  • Stalin Violated Yalta
  • Containment
  • Division of Europe
  • Iron Curtain Speech
  • Truman Doctrine 1947
  • Marshall Plan 1947 (SP)
  • Germany Divided
  • Stalins Blockade of Berlin
  • Berlin Airlift 1948 - 1949
  • NATO
  • Warsaw Pact
  • Relations with Japan
  • Chinas Problems

  • Grab the usual
  • Were starting G11 today
  • Lots to do

The Cold War (11.01)
  • Happy Tuesday ignore the dates on the reading
    schedulepay attention to announcements
  • Rough drafts will be returned Thursday

(No Transcript)
Cold War 1945 - 1991
  • Conflict between the USA USSR without actual
  • The USA USSR never went to war with each other
    during this time
  • Conflict over the goals each country hoped to
    achieve in E. Europe
  • USA Spread Democracy (free trade)
  • USSR Spread Communism act as a buffer
  • Ends in 1991 with the fall of the Soviet Union

Differences Democracy v. Communism
  • Democracy (USA)
  • Self-Determination Want all nations to freely
    choose their type of government
  • Political, economical social freedom
  • Rebuild European governments like a Democracy
  • Get new markets raw materials
  • Rebuild Europe with American materials
  • Reunite Germany
  • Could help Europe become successful
  • Communism (USSR)
  • Spread Communism to continue the struggle between
    the rich poor
  • USSR sees USA as the rich
  • Control E. Europe to prevent American influence
  • USA ideals are bad
  • Rebuild Europe using Soviet materials equipment
  • Keep Germany divided weak
  • Might prevent another German attack

Stalin Violated Yalta
  • At Yalta, Stalin agreed to let countries in E.
    Europe hold free elections
  • This would allow these countries to choose
    their leaders on the road to Democracy
  • Stalin didnt stick to his word prevented
    free elections in Poland
  • He was very involved in the election process
    used scare tactics to vote how he wanted them to
  • After elections, he had great influence over
    what these countries did how they were governed
  • As a result, Poland became a Communist country
  • Other nations in E. Europe became Communist
  • Satellite Nations

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
  • In this agreement, Germany USSR wouldnt attack
    each other split Poland
  • Hitler violated this in 1941 when he attacked the
    Soviet Union
  • USA angry that Stalin had been an ally of Hitler
    during the early stages of the war
  • Each side began to suspect each other during the
  • USA thought USSR might be spying for Hitler
  • USSR angry the USA delayed its attack in Europe
  • Because of this pact, the USA never trusted the
    USSR Stalin

Satellite Nations
  • After WWII, tensions begin to escalate between
    the USA USSR
  • President Truman wanted to spread democracy to
    all European countries that were once under Nazi
  • USA in economic boom after WWII, we need Europe
    for raw materials trade ()
  • Stalin occupied Eastern Europe wanted to keep
    it to protect itself from future attacks
  • Not allowing Truman to spread Democracy
  • Satellite Nations Countries in E. Europe under
    Stalins control
  • They had Communist govts.
  • Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
    Romania, Yugoslavia Poland

Division of Europe
  • Europe was literally divided into East West
  • West Democratic under American influence
  • East Communist under Soviet influence
  • Iron Curtain Term used by Churchill to describe
    the division of Europe
  • Known as the Iron Curtain speech - Churchill was
    speaking in the USA on progress in Europe
  • Stalin was insulted by this comment said it was
    a call to war

Everything East of the red line is under Soviet
  • Trumans foreign policy after WWII
  • Originally focused on Europe, but later spilled
    to a global effort (ie Vietnam)
  • Prevent the spread of Communism
  • Truman wanted to stop babying the Soviets

Truman Doctrine 1947
  • Gave military aid to any country in Europe
    fighting Communism
  • Turkey Greece 1st to get help
  • Given 400 million to ensure Communism would not
    take over those countries
  • Supports containment
  • Economic military aid
  • Very Controversial Some did not like the US
    getting more involved in European affairs
  • Worried this might lead to another European war

Marshall Plan 1947
  • Condition in Europe worse than during war harsh
    winter, rationing electricity
  • Proposed by Sec. of State George Marshall
  • Gave economic aid to European countries who
    agreed to trade with each other
  • Economic rebuilding of Europe
  • Communist countries did not participate (not
    trading with Democratic nations)
  • Why are we doing this?
  • Communism less appealing after the plans success

Eisenhower Doctrine
  • The US would defend any country in the Middle
    East from Communist attacks
  • Just like the Truman Doc., but in the Middle

Deficit Spending
  • Policy of spending more money than the government
  • Used by John F. Kennedy to build up
    strengthened the military
  • Military needed to support containment efforts

  • Believed the Cold War was a moral crusade against
  • The US could improve containment if it threatened
    full military force
  • Ex nuclear weapons against Communist countries
  • Massive Retaliation
  • The USSR responded in kind to this policy
  • US Military under Brinkmanship Eisenhower
    trimmed the Army Navy, but beefed up the Air
  • Air Force could drop bombs

A Germany Divided
  • As per Yalta, Germany was divided into 4 zones
    US, USSR, Britain France
  • US, France Britain unified W. Germany making
    Stalin nervous
  • How did Stalin feel about the unification of
  • Soviets controlled E. Germany
  • Berlin is capital of Germany also divided into
    4 zones
  • Berlin was in E. Germany
  • After W. Germany was unified, Stalin was not
    obligated to allow the USA, French or English to
    send supplies to their citizens/troops in W.

Stalins Blockade of W. Berlin 1948
  • Stalin closed the road to Berlin to prevent the
    Allies from getting supplies to W. Berlin
  • No food, medicine, fuel, etc.
  • Residents of W. Berlin had only enough supplies
    to last 5 weeks
  • Stalin wanted total control of Berlin

Berlin Airlift 1948-1949
  • Result of Soviet blockade
  • US Planes dropped supplies into W. Berlin for
    327 days to break the Soviet blockade
  • Only reason W. Berlin survived
  • Made USA look good USSR look bad
  • W. Germany unified declared a new country
  • Stalin lifted blockade in 1949, but kept
    control of W. Berlin
  • Increased European fear of Soviet aggression

The Airlift
Relations with Japan
  • US needs a good relationship with Japan for 2
  • Trade
  • Containment

Chinas Problems
  • China was involved in a civil war when Japan
    invaded in 1937
  • Nationalists Communist united to fight
    against Japanese
  • After the war, the civil war in China resumed
  • Chiang Kai-Shek Leader of the Chinese
    Nationalists (non-Communist)
  • Supported by US in WWII
  • Struggled with inflation weak economy
  • Very mean to his people after the war

Mao Zedong
  • Leader of Communist revolution in China
  • Opponent of Chiang Kai-Shek
  • China became a Communist country after the civil
  • Truman is blamed for losing China to Communism
    looks bad
  • Some even thought it was because the US govt.
    was riddled with Communists
  • Mao forced the Nationalists to move to the island
    of Formosa (modern day Taiwan)
  • Getting rid of political opposition

Korean War 1950 - 1953
  • Korea divided after WWII at the 38th Parallel
  • North Communist
  • South Democratic
  • N. Korea invades S. Korea
  • The US supports S. Korea because they are
  • Douglas MacArthur leads the UN forces in Korea
  • Korea is a UN police action
  • Armistice Fighting stops on July 27, 1953
  • Korea is a limited war because no nuclear weapons
    were used

Korean War Basics
  • The Korean War is considered an UN Police action,
    not an American war
  • No official declaration of war
  • Most UN soldiers were American
  • 54,000 Americans died cost 67 billion
  • USA was so involved in this war because of
  • Often called Americas Forgotten War
  • Veterans didnt get a memorial until 1995
  • Korea was a limited war
  • No use of nuclear weapons

The Middle East
  • The Suez Crisis The USA USSR are trying to
    build the Suez Canal
  • Trying to improve relations with countries in the
    Middle East (oil shipping)
  • Gamal Abdel-Nasser, the head of Egypts govt.,
    was making deals with both the USA USSR
  • To USSR US gave us 50 million, what will you
    give us etc.
  • Dulles finds out about deals pulls the US deal
    off the table angering Nasser
  • Nasser closed the Suez Canal to Western shipping,
    which also affected Israel
  • This was owned by France England!!!
  • Israel, France England sent troops occupied
    the Mediterranean side of the Suez Canal
  • The UN stepped in talked both sides down
  • The USA USSR almost went to war over Egypt!!!

The Middle East (Contd)
  • Significance of the Middle East
  • Religion
  • Natural Resources oil
  • Sphere of Influence
  • The USSR looked good to people in the Middle East
    because it supported Egypt in the Suez Crisis
  • The Middle East was in the Soviet sphere of
    influence this scared the US!!!!

  • Fidel Castro led a rebellion in Cuba took
    control in 1959
  • New Communist leader of Cuba friend with the
  • Ike was still President was planning a coup in
    Cuba to get Castro out he was out of office
    before he had the change to apply it
  • JFK was advised of the plan used it
  • Castro had taken over US holdings in Cuba land,
    oil refineries, sugar companies etc.

April 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • Failed attempt to overthrow Castro in Cuba, led
    by the US
  • The US aided 1400 Cuban exiles for an invasion of
    Cuba, nothing went right
  • The US led air strike failed to knock out all the
    air force, advance groups sent to distract Castro
    never showed, CIA intelligence was wrong, the
    exiles were poorly trained ..
  • Over 90 people were killed others taken
    prisoner some were US citizens
  • This failure embarrassed the US JFK
  • JFK had to negotiate the release of some of the
    prisoners paid 53 million dollars in food
    supplies as ransom

1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
  • A year later, another crisis emerged in Cuba
  • U-2 spy plane found missile bases in Cuba ready
    to launch missiles that could hit any city in the
  • The USSR supported Cuba were sending missiles
    to them
  • Lasted about a week war seemed likely between
    the US USSR
  • This was the most dangerous part of JFKs foreign
    policy actions
  • JFK set up blockade aroudn Cuba threatened to
    bomb USSR if they didnt pull back - The Soviets
    backed down

(No Transcript)
Berlin (Again!!) 1961
  • West Berlin was prosperous the East was not
  • West democratic, free trade, participates in
    Marshall Plan etc.
  • East Communist, no free trade, no Marshall plan
  • People were fleeing E. Berlin to W. Berlin the
    Soviets didnt like that it showed Communism
    wasnt as good as they said
  • 3 million people had fled to the west in 3 years
  • The Soviets tried to intimidate JFK esp. after
    the Bay of Pigs

Berlin WallRemember, Remember the 9th of November
  • August 1961 Soviets move troops along border of
  • Within days, a wall begins to be constructed to
    divide Berlin (east from west)
  • Berlin Wall Separated E. W. Berlin
  • Lasted until Nov. 9, 1989

NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Created in 1949 in response to the Berlin
  • Fear of Communist aggression
  • Defensive military alliance against Communism
    an attack on one is an attack on all
  • 12 members USA, Canada, most of W. Europe
  • If USSR attacked a member nation, the other
    members would come to its aid
  • Some feared this would lead to an arms race
    between the USA USSR, a massive military
    build up in Europe
  • By 1955, NATO had over 500,000 troops tons of

  • USSR Eastern European alliance against
  • Similar to NATO
  • Created in response to NATO
  • When Hungary attempted to back out, Stalin
    invaded with tanks, killing over 30,000 people

China in the United Nations
  • The UN recognized Formosa as China because it
    wasnt Communist

Election of 1952
  • US has an election year in the midst of the
    Korean conflict internal problems
  • Republican Eisenhower
  • Democrat Stevenson
  • Eisenhower (R) wins in a landslide
  • Nixon VP
  • Main Issue Fighting containing Communism
  • Democrats seen as soft of Communism
  • Truman lost China
  • The people who know war, those who have
    experienced, I believe are the most earnest
    advocates of peace in the world.
  • Eisenhower did support the war in Korea

Red Scare
  • Fear of Communism Communists after WWII
  • Similar to the one experienced after WWI
  • Created hysteria
  • Causes
  • USSR exploded its 1st A-Bomb in 1949
  • Differences in Democracy Communism

The Rosenbergs 1953
  • Many scientists thought it would take the USSR 5
    years to explode a nuclear weapon
  • It happened in 1949 we feared spies!!
  • British physicists Klaus Fuchs admitted giving
    secrets to the Rosenbergs
  • Fuchs spent 14 years in jail
  • The Rosenbergs were accused of giving atomic bomb
    secrets to the Soviets
  • Found guilty sentenced to death (1953)
  • 1st civilians to be executed for espionage
  • Julius later proven guilty, wife was not involved

US USSR race to build the most powerful
bombs/weapons Both countries will build a massive
stockpile of weapons, including nuclear
weapons!! Scares the bajeebes out of everyone
Whos going to bomb who first?
Loyalty Review Boards
  • Created by Truman in 1947
  • Investigated federal employees got rid of those
    found disloyal to the American govt.
  • Looking to see if you belonged to the Communist
    Party or any other organization that seemed
  • Endless questioning.
  • During the Depression, people looked for
    alternatives because Democracy seemed to be
  • Violated Civil Rights by not allowing the accused
    to see the evidence against them
  • 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th Amendments

House Un-American Activities Committee
  • Created on a temp. basis to monitor foreign
    delegates full time in 1945
  • Investigated Soviet influence on American popular
  • Movies, music, literature, art etc.
  • Attacked the movie industry accused them of
    sneaking Soviet propaganda into films
  • Duh, the Soviets were our allies in WWII, of
    course the movies made at the time showed the in
    a positive way!
  • Began questioning movie stars, producers,
    directors etc.
  • Some were cooperative others were not
  • To get off the hook, all you had to do was give
    them a name, it didnt matter whose name, just a

Hollywood Ten
  • Those involved with the propaganda movies were
    seen as traitors questioned
  • Movie stars accused of being Communists refused
    to help the HUACs investigation
  • Thought the investigation hearings were
  • The ten were convicted served at least one year
    in prison
  • Most were blacklisted never worked in Hollywood

Spies Like Us
  • 2 major spies cases fueled the hysteria
  • Alger Hiss State Dept. official accused of
    spying for the Soviets
  • Richard Nixon helped lead attack on Hiss, who
    maintained his innocence until his death
  • Too many years passed since the incident, so he
    was only charged with perjury served a few
    years in jail
  • In early 1990s, Soviets released papers proving
    Hiss guilt

Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of
the Communist Party?-Wisconsin Senator Joe
McCarthy chairing the HUAC
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy amplified the Red Scare
    in the 1950s
  • Began accusing various people of Communist
  • I have in my hand a list of 50 Communists who
    work for the State Dept.
  • Unsupported accusations, but won national
  • Censored in Dec. 1954 after accusing Army
    officials - Ike doesnt like
  • Career fails

  • Named after Senator Joseph McCarthy
  • Nickname for the tactics used by McCarthy
  • Unsupported accusation of being a Communist
  • Accusing people of disloyalty without proof
  • Dragging their name through the mud, ruining
    lives reputations etc.
  • McCarthy probably would have accused his own
    mother if it would have helped his career
  • He was hoping to run for President

11/1/52 Operation Ivy
  • US USSR still racing to produce more
    destructive weapons
  • 1952 US exploded 1st hydrogen (thermonuclear)
    bomb 67 times more powerful than A-bombs
  • US had weapons superiority over USSR until 1953
    when the Soviets exploded their own H-Bomb

CIA Central Intelligence Agency
  • After WWII, the US needed to know what was going
    on in Europe
  • Justification for creating CIA in 1947 by Truman
  • Intelligence agency that used spies to find out
    what was going on in other countries, especially
    Communist countries or those thought sympathetic
    to Communism
  • Used secret operations to weaken other countries
  • Ie Iran US gave money to supporters of the
    Shah to get him into power so he would allow
    Western countries control of Irans oil fields
    (More problems will arise from this action in the

Space Race
  • Race between the USA USSR to get to the moon
  • Sputnik First artificial satellite in space
    launched by the USSR in 1957
  • US feels inferior to Soviets fall behind in
    science technology
  • American Education Changed to focus more on
    math, sciences foreign languages
  • Response to the Space Race

  • U-2 Incident (1960)
  • US spy plane shot down over Soviet territory
  • Ike wanted to stop mission as Cold War seemed to
    be tapering off, encouraged to do 1 more
  • Gary Powers shot down by Soviets 5/1/60 (May Day)
  • Ike admitted to spying
  • Powers convicted served 2 years, released in
    spy exchange
  • Heated tension between US USSR

What Else is Happening?
  • Alaska Hawaii become states in 1959
  • NASA established under Ike
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