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The Cold War Begins

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Title: The Cold War Begins


1

The Cold War Begins 1945- 1952 The United
States Stand at the Summit of the World Winston
Churchill, 1945
2
(No Transcript)
3
Post-War Economy
  • After WWII, many Americans worried that we might
    sink into the Depression again
  • 1946-1947 GNP dropped, inflation (33), epidemic
    strikes (4.6 million workers)
  • 1947- Republicans took control of Congress (1st
    time in 14 years!!)
  • Taft-Hartley Act (over Trumans veto)
  • outlawed closed shops
  • unions liable for damages from jurisdictional
    disputes
  • required union leaders to take non-communist
    oath.
  • Union membership organization would decline
    in years after WWII.

4
Union Membership Declines
  • Unions failed to unionize South West
  • 1948- CIOs Operation Dixie failed to unionize
    southern textile workers steel workers.
  • Service Sector grew middle-aged women hard to
    organize.

5
Government Actions to Prop up the Economy
  • Sold war factories to private businesses at low
    prices
  • 1946- Employment Act- became government policy to
    promote maximum employment, production,
    purchasing power.
  • Council of Economic Advisors- created to advise
    president on economic issues
  • 2. Servicemens Readjustment Act (1944)- The
    GI Bill - provided veterans with loans for
    college, homes, businesses (through the VA)
  • 8 million veterans received higher education
  • 14.5 Billion- (paid by taxpayers)
  • Economic property 1950-1970.

6
The Economic BOOM 1950-1970
  • National income doubled-1960s (1 trillion-1973)
  • Americans (6 worlds population) had (40
    wealth)
  • Paved the way for social mobility, civil rights
    movement, new entitlements Medicare, Medicaid,
    Cold War leadership.
  • Size of the Middle-Class doubled
  • 90 owned TV sets by end of the 1950s
  • 60 owned homes
  • Women reaped greatest rewards of prosperity
    offices shops more employment
  • 1995- women accounted for 50 workforce

7
Prosperity of the 1950s 1960s
  • a. Military Spending
  • 1950s economy fueled by Korean War
  • 1960s Cold War spending 10 of GNP defense
    spending
  • Defense Spending money for aerospace, plastics,
    electronics- research (Rand Corp)
  • b. Cheap Energy- US Britain controlled cheap
    oil from Middle East US builds highways,
    electricity generation (1945-1970)
  • c. Worker Productivity Increased- due to better
    education (1950-1960s- standard of living
    doubled)
  • d. Rise of large Agribusinesses- Americans left
    farming farms consolidated (giant machinery, new
    fertilizers )
  • 1990s 2 of US population farms produces
    most of the worlds food.

8
Social Themes of the Post-war
  • Migrations- 1945-1975- 30 million people moved
    every three years.
  • Families affected- distance divided parents from
    children
  • Dr. Spocks The Common Sense Book of Baby and
    Child Care gave child raising advice once given
    by parents grandparents.
  • Friendships hard to sustain

9
Social Themes
  • 2. Growth of the Sunbelt 15 states from
    Virginia to Florida California.
  • Better climate lower taxes lured many
  • Jobs- California electronics aerospace in
    Florida Texas
  • Federal dollars- increased job growth (125
    billion more than northeast)
  • Northeast Rustbelt
  • Every President since 1964 came from Sunbelt
    South West more political power

10
Social Themes
  • 3. The Baby Boom- birth explosion for decade and
    half after 1945.
  • 50 million children
  • Crested in 1957 then birth rates dropped
  • 1970- elementary school attendance 34 million
  • Canned baby food products

11
Social Themes
  • 4. The Rush to the Suburbs- Whites left the
    cities and moved to the suburbs. Why?
  • Government Policies government loans through
    FHA VA (Veterans Authority), tax incentives,
    built highways.
  • By 1960, 1 in 4 Americans live in suburbs.
  • Effects of Suburbanization
  • White Flight leaves cities brown, black, and
    broke.
  • Growth of the construction industry.
  • Revolutionized home building techniques.

12
Levittown
  • 1940s-- the Levitt Brothers built homes on Long
    Island, NY using revolutionary new methods of
    efficient and fast building.
  • Criticsthese mass produced homes were boring
    aesthetically

13
36.2 (Page 862-872) Presidency of Harry Truman
the Cold War
  • Assumes presidency (1945-48) when FDR dies
  • Serves a second term 1948-1952
  • former WWI officer US Senator from Missouri
  • Last President without a college degree
  • Famous quotes The Buck Stops Here If you
    cant stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.

14
Europe after WWII
15
Origins of the Cold War
  • A. Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945)- major issues
    regarding post war Europe were discussed.
  • Poland- Churchill FDR agreed to recognize
    Polish government set up by Soviets
  • Stalin agreed to include members of pre-war
    Polish government (non-communists) allow free
    elections as soon as possible.
  • Declaration of Liberated Europe- the right to
    people to choose their own government
    democratic governments!
  • Divide Germany into 4 zones (US, Britain, France,
    USSR)- also divide Berlin into 4 zones.
  • Stalin wanted Germany to pay heavy reparations
    to USSR FDR urged him to accept equipment from
    US, French, British zones.
  • Stalins goal- keep Germany weak economically
    set up friendly governments as a buffer.
  • A FEW WEEKS AFTER THE CONFERENCE- USSR DID NOT
    ALLOW FREE ELCETIONS IN POLAND.

16
Germany, 1947- Allied Zones
17
Origins of the Cold War
  • B. Mutual Suspicions (US terminated lend-lease
    aid 1945) Differing Goals- over German recovery
    (US wants rapid recovery Soviets want Germany
    weak).
  • C. Communism vs. Capitalism- diametrically
    opposed ideas
  • D. US did not include USSR in atomic bomb
    development
  • The Cold War- era of conflict between the US
    USSR for domination of the world (lasted 45
    years)
  • Containment- (1947-1989)US strategy during the
    Cold War.
  • Developed by George Kennan (Russian expert)
  • Wrote thelong telegram (8,000 plus words)
    that was the origin of containment

18
US Efforts to Rebuild the World Keep it Safe
  • The Breton Woods Conference (1944) New
    Hampshire Allies create IMF World Bank.
  • International Monetary Fund- encourage world
    trade by regulating currency exchange.
  • World Bank- to promote growth of underdeveloped
    countries (war ravaged)
  • USSR did not participate
  • 2. The United Nations (1945) 50 nations met
    in San Francisco drew up UN Charter.
  • Security Council dominated by the Big Five-
    US, Britain, USSR, France, China (all have veto
    power)- diff. from League of Nations
  • General Assembly- all nations are members
  • Approved by US Senate (89-2)
  • Permanent home NYC

19
United Nations
  • Successes- preserve peace in Iran, Kashmir
    (Pakistan), Israel
  • Greatest Achievements- WHO (Health), FAO
    (Hunger), UNESCO (Education)
  • The UN the Atomic Question
  • 1946- US delegate to the UN (Bernard Baruch)
    wanted the UN free from great power veto with
    world wide authority over atomic energy weapons
    research.
  • Soviets proposed atomic weapons by all nations be
    outlawed- Truman refused the Soviets shot down
    Baruchs proposal.

20
The Iron Curtain Descends
  • March 1946- Winston Churchill gives a speech in
    the US an iron curtain has descended across
    the continent.
  • The Nuremburg Trials (1945-1946)
  • Allied trials of German war criminals (officers)
  • Highest ranking officer on trial (Herman Goering)
  • 12 Nazis hanged, 7 sentenced to prison

21
The Iran Crisis
  • At the end of WWII US Soviet troops occupied
    Iran.
  • 1946- Stalin refused to remove his troops from
    Iran threatened oil supplies
  • Truman sent the USS Missouri to eastern
    Mediterranean sent a strong message.
  • The Soviets withdrew

22
The Truman Doctrine
  • 1947- Containment developed as US policy
  • Greece 1947
  • Britain can no longer afford to fight support
    efforts against anti-Communist groups in Greece
  • If Greece fell- Turkey might fall to the
    Soviets
  • Truman asks Congress for money to support groups
    fighting against communists in Greece
  • 400 million sent to Greece Turkey Truman
    Doctrine
  • it must be the policy of the US to support the
    free peoples who are resisting attempted
    subjugation

23
The Marshall Plan
  • 1947- France, Italy, Germany threatened with
    chaos hunger due to the war communist parties
    in these countries appealed to many.
  • June 1947- Sec. of State George C. Marshall
    invited Europeans to work out a joint plan of
    economic recovery the US would fund it.
  • Democratic nations developed a plan (Paris)
  • Marshall offered Soviets the same Soviets
    refused
  • Plan provided aid mainly to Europe but also to
    Asia
  • Approximately 50 billion total
  • Effects
  • Prevented Italy France from turning Communist
  • Created a plan for European Union
  • Beginnings of globalization

24
Devastation of Europe
American Aid Marshall Plan
Aid Logo
25
Recognition of Israel
  • After WWII- a state for Jewish people was carved
    from Palestine (Arab claimed land) with approval
    of the United Nations.
  • May 1946- President Truman officially recognized
    Israel.
  • Effects complicates US /Arab relations, US
    dependence on oil will be used against us

26
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27
The US Military Industrial Complex Grows
  • 1947- National Security Act
  • Department of Defense Sec. of Defense created
    (located in Pentagon- leads military)
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff- top commanders of all
    service branches advise future presidents on
    military matters.
  • CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)- coordinates US
    government spy service info gathering.
  • National Security Council advises the president
    on foreign issues
  • 1948-1971- Conscription of 19-25 year olds

28
The German Crisis
  • Germany had been divided into 4 zones (controlled
    by the Big Five)
  • Berlin (capital city) divided into 4 zones
  • Western Allies (US, Britain, France) refused to
    allow USSR to have reparations from their zones
    (Stalin believed this was a promise made at
    Yalta)
  • Western Allies advocated for the reunification
    of Germany- angered the Soviets.
  • East Germany, Poland, Hungary satellite
    nations bound to the USSR
  • West Germany linked to the West (US)

29
The Berlin Airlift-1948
  • Berlin was located deep in the USSR zone- but
    divided into sectors occupied by all allies.
  • 1948- USSR cut off all rail road traffic to
    Berlin
  • Berliners not yet recovered from the war might
    starve
  • President Truman- authorized US planes to airlift
    supplies into Berlin (1000s of tons a day- for a
    year).
  • May 1949- USSR removed the blockade two
    separate German governments resulted

30
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31
NATO v. the Warsaw Pact
  • April 1949- NATO est. (North Atlantic Treaty
    Organization)- Western European democracies US
    form alliance.
  • HUGE CHANGE IN US FOREIGN POLICY
  • 1ST Foreign treaty since Franco-American treaty
    1788 that commits troops to battle overseas
  • an attack on one is an attack on all
  • Senate approves -82-13 Treaty
  • 15 countries participate
  • The Warsaw Pact
  • Defensive alliance for Soviets Eastern European
    allies iron curtain commies

32
NATO Versus the Warsaw Pact
33
Reconstruction of Japan
  • Reconstruction in Japan commanded by Gen. Douglas
    MacArthur goal Democratization
  • 1946-1948- War Crimes Trials of Japanese
    officials 18 served prison terms 7 hanged
  • Japanese cooperation helped speed the process
    up
  • 1946- Japan adopted a constitution (drawn up by
    MacArthur)
  • Renounced militarism
  • Provided for female equality
  • Western style democracy
  • Within 20 years Japan became an industrial
    power

34
China Turns Red
  • A bloody civil war between Nationalists (Jiang
    Jieshi)) Communists led by Mao Zedong.
  • US supported the government led by Nationalist
  • 1949- Jiang Jieshi fled to Formosa (Tiawan)
    China fell to the communist (500 million people)
  • US lost a major ally in Asia
  • Republicans blamed President Truman for
    allowing China to fall to the Communists.

35
The Arms Race Begins
  • September 1949- Soviet Union detonated their 1st
    atomic bomb
  • Truman ordered the US to develop the H-Bomb
    (1000 times more powerful) than the atom bomb.
  • Scientists like J. Robert Oppenheimer warned the
    president against development of this bomb
    (genocide)
  • 1952- US detonated the 1st H-Bomb
  • 1953- Soviets detonated their 1st H-Bomb
  • Mutual Assured Destruction- peace through
    mutual terror prevented a nuclear exchange.

36
The Red Scare at Home
  • 1947- Igor Gouzenko (Soviet) in Canada defected
    to the US carrying papers that proved Soviets
    spies were trying to infiltrate US Canadian
    governments.
  • A. The Loyalty Review Program (1947) US
    attorney general drew up a list of 90 disloyal
    organizations.
  • Investigated more than 3 million federal
    employees (3,000 resigned or were fired).
  • B. States required oaths of loyalty from
    state workers.
  • Could we retain our freedoms during the Cold
    War?

37
HUAC Alger Hiss
  • 1938 Congress createdHouse Un-American
    Activities Committee (HUAC)- to investigate
    subversion.
  • 1948- HUAC member Congressman Richard Nixon led
    investigation of Alger Hiss.
  • Hiss was accused of being a communist agent in
    the 1930s (former New Dealer- work in FDR
    administration)
  • Hiss denied everything under oath
  • The Pumpkin Papers- a key witness against Hiss
    testified produced evidence said to have been
    left for him by Hiss in a hollowed out pumpkin.
  • 1950 - Hiss was convicted of perjury 5 years in
    prison.

38
The 1948 Election
  • 1946- Republicans had taken control of Congress
  • Republicans nominated Thomas Dewey
  • Democratic Party divided not enthusiastic about
    Truman- wanted to nominate Dwight Eisenhower but
    he declined.
  • Trumans nomination opposed by Southern Democrats
    (13 STATES) because of Trumans stance on civil
    rights (he integrated the US Armed Forces 1948)
  • Democrats nominated Truman
  • Southern Democrats formed the Dixiecrats
    nominated Strom Thurmond of SC STATES RIGHTS
    PLATFORM
  • Progressive Party- nominated former Dem. Henry
    Wallace (supported by New Dealers, pacifists,
    communists)
  • Dewey seemed the front runner
  • Election night- some Newspapers printed copies
    saying Dewey Wins
  • Truman won with help of farmers, workers, blacks

39
(No Transcript)
40
DEWEY WINS??????
41
Trumans- Point Four Fair Deal
  • Inaugural address outline Point Four- lend US
    money technical support to undeveloped nations
    prevent spread of communism (US helped in Latin
    America, Africa, Near East, Far East.
  • The Fair Deal- at home promised
  • Improved housing
  • Full employment
  • New TVAs
  • Extension of Social Security
  • New min. wage
  • Southern Democrats Republicans blocked most
    of the Fair Deal
  • Passed public housing (Housing Act), extended
    SS, raising min. wage

42
The Rosenberg's
  • Many experts believed that the Soviets had help
    in attaining the atomic bomb
  • 1950- US investigated a British scientist who
    admitted giving secrets to the Soviets
    implicated a couple from NY Julius Ethel
    Rosenberg .
  • The Rosenberg's were admittedly Communists but
    denied giving secrets to Soviets.
  • Both were executed 1953 (left two orphaned
    children)

43
Senator Joseph McCarthy
  • Feb. 1950- Sen. McCarthy announced that he had
    evidence (list of 205 State Department workers)
    who were communists.
  • 1946 McCarthy defeated Robert La Follette by
    calling him a communist
  • 1952- Republicans took control of Congress
    McCarthy placed head of Senate Committee on
    Investigations forced people to testify.
  • McCarthy used flimsy evidence to destroy lives
    careers
  • 1954- Army-McCarthy Hearings- McCarthy accused
    members of the armed forces of being communists
    (including George Marshall).
  • McCarthy was formally censured by the Senate
    died in 1957
  • Red Scare of the 1950s McCarthyism

44
The McCarran Act
  • President Truman others felt the red scare was
    turning into a witch hunt
  • 1950 McCarran Internal Security Act- authorized
    the president to arrest detain suspicious
    people during an internal security emergency
  • Truman vetoed the bill
  • Congress passed it over his veto

45
The Korean Conflict
  • US Soviet troops had occupied Korea during WWII
    (A Japanese colony since 1910).
  • Japanese troops surrendered there to Soviet US
    forces after the war
  • US forces est. a regime in South Korea
  • Soviets est. a regime in North Korea
  • 1949- US Soviet forces withdrew forces from
    Korea two hostile armed regimes left behind.
  • June 25, 1950- North Korean troops crossed the
    38th parallel pushed South Korean forces to
    Pusan perimeter.

46
North Korean Invasion June 1950
47
Trumans Response
  • June 1950- Truman obtained unanimous condemnation
    of invasion by UN (USSR WAS ABSENT)
  • Truman orders US air naval support for S. Korea
    (WITHOUT APPROVAL OF Congress)
  • UN Sec. Council called on all members to give
    assistance multinational police action led by
    the US directed by Gen. MacArthur.
  • Sept. 1950- McArthur led invasion at Inchon
    behind enemy lines pushed the enemy all the
    way to the Yalu River (border with China).
  • Nov. 1950- 1000s of Chinese soldiers crossed the
    border pushed UN troops back to 38th parallel .

48
INCHON INVASION
Stalemate 1951-1953
49
Limited War
  • Limited war- a war fought to achieve limited
    objectives.
  • McArthur wanted to blockade China even proposed
    to Truman that we drop the bomb on them.- there
    is no substitute for victory
  • Truman resisted Truman pushed for a limited
    war to contain communism
  • April 11, 1951 Truman removes McArthur from
    command
  • July 1951- truce talks begin goes on for nearly
    two years

50
National Security Council Memorandum 68
  • North Korean invasion 1950- provided for an
    excuse to expand militarily
  • NSC-68
  • US should quadruple its military spending
  • US spent 50 billion per year (13 GNP) HAD 3.5
    million men in services
  • Significance- major increase in militarization
    of US foreign policy
  • Assumed US economy could absorb costs
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