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Origins of the Cold War

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Origins of the Cold War The Cold War 1945-1960 Chapter 16, Section One Pages 484-490 * Bell Ringer What is a cold war ? Why is the Cold War considered a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Origins of the Cold War


1
Origins of the Cold War
  • The Cold War 1945-1960
  • Chapter 16, Section One
  • Pages 484-490

2
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3
Bell Ringer
  • What is a cold war?
  • Why is the Cold War considered a cold war and
    not hot?
  • What made it a war?

4
Satellite nation
  • Countries that were subject to Soviet domination.
    They are located on the WESTERN border of the
    Soviet Union.

5
Iron curtain
  • The term Winston Churchill (Prime Minister of
    Great Britain) used to describe the extension of
    Communist control over Eastern Europe.

6
Cold War
  • The state of hostility, without actual warfare,
    that existed between the United States and the
    Soviet Union after WWII until the collapse of the
    Soviet Union (in 1991).

7
containment
  • American policy of resisting further expansion of
    communism around the world.

8
Truman Doctrine
  • In 1947 President Truman declared that the United
    States would support nations that were being
    threatened by communism.

9
Main Idea
  • At the end of World War II, conflicting goals for
    Europe led to growing hostility between the
    United States and the Soviet Union.

10
1945 A Critical Year
  • The U.S. and Soviet Union cooperated during WWII
    but that was only a temporary arrangement.
  • Soviets allied with the U.S. and Great Britain
    during the war
  • Tensions continued to rise.

11
Differences at Yalta
  • February 1945 Roosevelt met with Stalin and
    Churchill at Yalta to discuss the future of
    Germany and Poland.

12
  • Agreed to divide Germany into zones
  • ZONES
  • American
  • British
  • French
  • formed West Germany
  • Soviet zone formed East Germany

13
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14
  • Roosevelt and Churchill denied Stalins demand
    for 10 billion from Germany in damages
  • Roosevelt pressed Stalin to declare war on Japan
  • Stalin refused the return to Polands prewar
    government

15
The United Nations
  • Created at Yalta
  • A new international peacekeeping organization.
  • (League of Nations after WWI had failed)
  • April 1945 50 nations met and vowed they would
    settle problems peacefully

16
Truman takes Command
  • FDR died 4/12/45
  • Vice President Truman became President

17
The Potsdam Conference
  • Trumans first meeting with Stalin (July 1945) in
    Berlin
  • Continued to debate the future of Germany and
    Poland
  • Truman told Stalin that the U.S. had an atomic
    bomb.

18
Conflicting Postwar Goals
  • The American View
  • Fought for democracy and economic opportunity to
    conquered European nations
  • This served American interests in the postwar
    world

19
The Soviet View
  • Lost 20 million people during WWII and suffered
    widespread destruction
  • Determined to rebuild to protect their interests
  • Wanted to establish satellite nations(countries
    subject to Soviet domination) on the western
    borders of the Soviet Union.
  • Friendly to Communist goals

20
Soviets Tighten Their Hold
  • Albania and Bulgaria
  • Anti-Communist leaders silenced in 1945 in
    Albania.
  • Soviets took control of Bulgaria by 1948.

21
Czechoslovakia
  • Tried to hold onto democratic system
  • All non-Communist police officers replaced with
    party members
  • Czechoslovakia was a Soviet satellite nation by
    1948.

22
Hungary and Romania
  • Soviets demanded control of the police
  • Anti-Communist leaders arrested
  • Red Army (Soviets) stayed in Romania

23
East Germany
  • Stalin established control of all East German
    resources
  • Installed a brutal totalitarian government
  • 1949 became known as the German Democratic
    Republic

24
Finland and Yugoslavia
  • Finland signed a treaty of cooperation with
    Soviets in 1948.
  • Communists gained control in Yugoslavia in 1945
  • Tito (Josip Broz) fierce dictator
  • Tito refused to take orders from Stalin

25
The Iron Curtain
  • February 1946 Stalin predicted the triumph of
    communism over capitalism
  • Established Cominform, a Soviet agency to direct
    the activities of worldwide Communist parties

26
  • Churchill responded to Stalin with his Iron
    Curtain Speech 3/5/1946
  • Called on Americans to help keep Stalin from
    closing the iron curtain of Communist domination
    and oppression.

27
  • Tone was set for the Cold War
  • Competition that developed between the U.S. and
    the Soviet Union for power and influence in the
    world.
  • Lasted for almost 50 years until the collapse of
    the Soviet Union in 1991

28
  • A cold war was characterized by political and
    economic conflict and military tensions
  • A hot war would have meant direct military
    engagement.

29
Containment
  • George Kennan (top American diplomat in Moscow)
    stated that Soviet policies show no real faith
    in the possibility of a permanently happy
    coexistence of the Socialist and capitalist
    worlds.
  • The triumph of communism was inevitable

30
  • Policy of containment called for the United
    States to resist Soviet attempts to form
    Communist governments in other parts of the world
  • Policy was controversial by became the
    cornerstone of Americas cold war foreign policy.

31
The Truman Doctrine
  • State department officials developed a plan to
    provide American aid to Greece and Turkey after
    the British could no longer help keep Soviets out
  • March 1947, Truman called on the U.S. to take a
    leadership role in a statement of principles
    known as the Truman Doctrine.
  • Congress approved 400 million in aid for Greece
    and Turkey
  • U.S. established military bases in both countries

32
  •  
  • 1. How did American and Soviet goals for postwar
    Europe differ?
  • __________________________________________________
    _____________________________________________
  • 2. How does the map on p. 487 illustrate the
    policy pursued by the Soviet Union to protect
    itself from its non-Communist rivals in Europe?
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ____________________________
  •  
  • 2. What effect did the Cold War have on United
    States foreign policy?
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ____________________________
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