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Chapter 31: The Cold War (1945-1990s)

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Title: Chapter 31: The Cold War (1945-1990s)


1
Chapter 31 The Cold War (1945-1990s)
2
The Cold War
  • Conflict between the USA and USSR between
    1945-1947 USSR occupied many eastern European
    countries.
  • The Eastern Bloc emerged Poland, Czechoslovakia,
    Bulgaria, Romania, East Germany, and Hungary.
  • By 1948, these were communist governments.
  • Iron Curtain division between free and
    Communist societies in Europe.
  • Marshall Plan (1947) program of loans that were
    designed to aid Western nations rebuilding from
    WWIIs devastation and help to prevent Communist
    expansion into those regions.
  • After WWII, Germany divided into 4 zones
    occupied by US, Britain, France and USSR.
  • 1946 Merging of US, British, and French zones
    built a unified West Germany (federal republic)

3
NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
  • 1947 USSR blockaded Western attempts to
    stabilize the German currency USSR tried to
    occupy Berlin.
  • For 11 months, US and Britain undergo massive
    airlifts to keep the city supplied.
  • 1949 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
    created as defense alliance against possible
    Soviet aggression.
  • 1955 USSR established the Warsaw Pact with its
    eastern European satellite countries and created
    a new communist empire.
  • Post-1949 USSR and US began stock-piling nuclear
    weapons.
  • USSR never engaged in direct warfare but
    maintained a high level of preparedness.

4
Soviet Union as Superpower
  • The Soviet Union was able to build its status as
    a world power from 1945-1970s by
  • Pushing westward and regaining much of its
    tsarist-era territory through the Eastern Bloc
  • Concentrating on heavy industry and weapons
    development (esp. for brinkmanship tensions)
  • Development of hydrogen and atomic bombs
  • Aiding other Communists
  • establishing a protectorate over communist North
    Korea
  • aiding the Communist party in China

5
Quick Review Question
  1. What does the term Iron Curtain indicate about
    US-USSR relations?
  2. What is the Marshall Plan?
  3. What is the USSR version of NATO?

6
Khrushchev (1956-1964)
  • 1953 After Stalins death, a ruling committee
    continued Stalins policies until Nikita
    Khrushchev rose to power in the USSR.
  • De-Stalinization easing up on Stalins policies
    and the creation of a more tolerant political
    climate in the USSR.
  • Little concrete institutional reform occurred,
    but regime becomes slightly less extreme and
    strict.
  • 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
  • USSR installed missiles in Cuba to taunt the
    United States.
  • Tension between US (Kennedy) and USSR
  • Brinkmanship being on the edge of war without
    engaging in battle to force opponent to back down
  • Space Race Sputnik, first space satellite, was
    sent into space in 1957 by USSR.
  • 1969 US lands astronauts on moon

7
The Soviet Empire in Eastern Europeand Korea
  • 1961 The Soviets built the Berlin Wall to halt
    the widespread exodus from East Berlin to West
    Berlin.
  • Nov. 9, 1989 Berlin Wall brought down
  • 1968 Prague Spring (Czechoslovakia stands up to
    USSR USSR invades)
  • Soviet control over Eastern Europe loosened over
    the years, but the USSR still maintained
    considerable influence over Europe.
  • Korean War (1950-1953)
  • North Koreans invade South Korea
  • North backed by USSR and Communist China
  • South backed by US and UN
  • War ends boundaries kept essentially along
    original line (38th parallel)

8
USSRs Policies and Culture
  • The USSR encouraged nationalism and communist
    loyalty against the evil and distorted US.
  • Remained isolated in terms of access to media,
    travel
  • USSR criticized religion and Russian Orthodox
    Church as mythical and preposterous.
  • Great emphasis on sciences Western art and
    literature criticized.
  • Consumerism was not seen in the USSR like it was
    in the West.
  • The USSR rebuilt following World War II and
    maintained strong government authority.
  • The bureaucracy expanded in terms of education,
    welfare and police operations.
  • The communist system did not resolve problems
    with agriculture.
  • Welfare services for sick and aged
  • Industrialization heavy factory goods gt consumer
    goods

9
Quick Review Question
  1. Describe De-Stalinization.
  2. How was the Korean War an extension of the Cold
    War?

10
Liberalism in the 1960s and 1970s
  • WWII showed failures of fascist movements ?
    increase in democratic interests and social
    reforms
  • Italy established a constitutional democracy.
  • Western Europe saw a movement toward welfare
    states by 1948 (incredibly expensive rely on
    taxes)
  • 1975 Helsinki Accords (attempt to improve
    relations between Eastern Bloc and the West)
  • U.S. civil rights movements in the 1960s.
  • Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Malcom X,
    Black Power
  • Green Movements (1970s) a rise in environmental
    issues and initiatives to lead to increased
    agricultural production.

11
The U.S. Century
  • The US became the worlds leading defender of
    democratic and capitalistic values.
  • Red Scare period of intense concern for
    communist conspiracies.
  • Truman Doctrine (1947) provide military and
    financial aid to Greece and Turkey to prevent
    them from falling into Soviet Sphere
  • Domino Theory if one country becomes communist,
    others will follow
  • Policy of containment
  • 1) arrange alliances with countries that
    surrounded the USSR to prevent the spread of
    Communism
  • 2) Stage military overthrows/coups
  • US military spending increased dramatically.
  • Vietnam War (1956-1975)
  • US began bombing communist North Vietnam.
  • Domestic pressure mounted esp. on college
    campuses
  • US withdrew in 1975 and all of Vietnam was
    communist.

12
Second-Wave Feminism (1960s-1980s)
  • 1950s number of working women increased
  • Family rights increased (access to divorce,
    abortion laws, birth control, day care).
  • Birth rates declined steadily after the 1960s
    with accessible birth control.
  • 1966 National Organization for Women (NOW)
    introduced to advocate for womens rights
  • 1970s women had 44 of total jobs in Western
    countries divorce increases as family roles
    adjusted to women working
  • 1970s Second-wave feminism emerged emphasized
    equality between men and women downplayed
    domestic roles advocated for womens
    sexual/reproductive rights (Roe v. Wade, protects
    abortion rights)

13
Western Pop Culture
  • Abstract Expressionism spontaneous, subconscious
    art-making
  • Pop artists bridged the gap between art and
    mass culture (Andy Warhol).
  • Early 1950s Crooners (Frank Sinatra, Nat King
    Cole, Judy Garland)
  • Mid-1950s Rock-n-Roll (Elvis Presley)
  • 1960s Folk music Woodstock Festival hippies
  • In Europe, Coca-Cola-nization was seen
    (interest in American pop culture)
  • US soft drinks, blue jeans, chewing gum, TV, and
    Hollywood film became increasingly common.
  • European pop culture had its own power in the US
    the most celebrated figures of the 1960s were
    The Beatles.

14
Quick Review Question
  1. What did the Truman Doctrine promise to do for
    the European community?
  2. What was the relationship between the Domino
    Theory and the policy of containment?
  3. Describe the goals of second-wave feminism.

15
Reagan and Conservative Politics
  • Western nations saw economic recessions in the
    1970s, causing interest in conservative parties
    and leaders in the 1980s (Ronald Reagan and
    Margaret Thatcher).
  • 1981-1989 Reagan, US President, sponsored a
    number of expansive weapons systems and bolstered
    military spending.
  • Criticized welfare programs
  • Economic growth increased
  • The economy of the USSR, attempting to keep pace
    with the weapons-production of the US, almost
    collapsed.
  • By the early 1990s, the Cold War was virtually
    over and the US was the worlds only superpower.

16
European Union (1993 present)
  • 1958 West Ger, Fr, It, Bel, Lux, and Neth)
    formed European Economic Community (EEC)
  • 1993 called European Union (28 member states).
  • 1) foster economic cooperation
  • 2001 the Euro, a single currency for all EU
    members, was established (not all use).
  • 2) end frequent and bloody wars between neighbors
  • 3) Abolition of border controls between EU
    countries
  • 4) promote human rights both internally and
    around the world.
  • Attempt to unify Europe (keep own sovereignty,
    but provides political and economic unity)

17
Western Economic and Technological Expansion
  • Economies in Western Europe expanded in the
    1950s.
  • Europe saw an influx in immigrant labor from
    Africa, the Middle East and Asia.
  • Ownership of standard consumer goods, like
    televisions, refrigerators, and cars, expanded
    widely.
  • New seeds increased agricultural yields
  • 1950s Discovery of DNA by British scientists
    Francis Crick and James Watson ? interest in
    genetics x-rays, ultrasound, immunizations
  • Economic inequality was seen in the 1990s as
    many immigrants experienced discrimination and
    low wage employment.

18
Quick Review Question
  1. After the wave of 1970s liberalism, the United
    States and Great Britain shifted to what kind of
    political period?
  2. What were the goals of the European Union?
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