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The Cold War 1945-1960 Chapter 25

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Title: The Cold War 1945-1960 Chapter 25


1
The Cold War 1945-1960Chapter 25
  • What were the causes, main events, and effects of
    the early Cold War?

2
The Cold War BeginsSection 1
  • How did U.S. leaders respond to the threat of
    Soviet expansion in Europe?
  • Vocabulary
  • -satellite state containment
  • -Cold War Marshall Plan
  • -iron curtain Berlin airlift
  • -Truman Doctrine NATO
  • -George F. Kennan Warsaw Pact

3
Standards
  • SSUSH20
  • The student will analyze the domestic and
    international impact of the Cold War on the
    United States.
  • Element SSUSH20.a
  • Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S.
    commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine, and
    the origins and implications of the containment
    policy.
  • Element SSUSH20.b
  • Explain the impact of the new communist regime in
    China, the outbreak of the Korean War, and how
    these events contributed to the rise of Senator
    Joseph McCarthy.
  • Element SSUSH20.c
  • Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs
    and the Cuban missile crisis.
  • Element SSUSH20.d
  • Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive, and
    growing opposition to the war.

4
The Cold War Begins
Roots of the Cold War   Main Idea By the end of
World War II, the relationship between the United
States and the Soviet Union had fallen apart due
to the fear that the Soviet Union was attempting
world domination. Meeting the Soviet
Challenge Main Idea At President Trumans
urging, Congress aided Greece, Turkey, and other
countries struggling against communist movements.
Containing Soviet Expansion Main Idea George
F. Kennan presented a policy called containment,
with the goal of keeping communism within its
current borders. The Cold War Heats Up Main
Idea When the Soviets blockaded
Allied-controlled West Berlin, The United Sates
and Britain used a massive airlift to fly
supplies into the city, showing how far they
would go to fight communism.
5
American and Soviet Systems
  • American System
  • Capitalist democracy
  • Free elections
  • Economic and religious freedom
  • Private property
  • Respect for individual rights
  • Soviet System
  • Dictatorship
  • Communist Party made all economic, political and
    military decisions
  • No religious worship
  • No private property
  • No freedom of speech

6
Cold War
  • Name given to the competition between the U.S.
    and the Soviet Union
  • Political and economic conflict and military
    tensions
  • Lasted nearly 50 years, until the collapse of the
    Soviet Union in 1991

7
Reading Skill Contrast
NOTE TAKING
8
President Truman
  • April 12, 1945, Roosevelt dies
  • In the Congress for 10 years
  • Vice President for 83 days
  • Took a harder line toward Stalin than Roosevelt
    had

9
Yalta Conference
  • February, 1945
  • Poland Stalin agreed to let Poles choose own
    government
  • Creation of United Nations

10
Potsdam Conference
  • July, 1945
  • U.S.S.R. wanted 10 billion from Germany in
    reparations
  • Allies said No!
  • Agreed to divide Germany into four zones
  • U.S. pushed for Polish elections as well as
    Eastern Europe
  • Truman received word that the atom bomb had been
    tested

11
Reading Skill Recognize Sequence
NOTE TAKING
12
Iron Curtain
  • Stalin predicted the triumph of communism over
    capitalism
  • Cominform Soviet agency to direct Communist
    parties in the world
  • Winston Churchill an iron curtain has
    descended across the Continent.

13
Iron Curtain
  • From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the
    Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across
    the Continent. Behind that line lie all the
    capitals ofCentral and Eastern EuropeThe
    Communist parties, which were very small in all
    these Eastern States of Europe, have been raised
    to pre-eminence and power far beyond their
    numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain
    totalitarian control
  • --Iron Curtain speech
  • Winston Churchill, March 5, 1946

14
Satellite Nations
  • Soviets lost 20 million people during WWII
  • Soviets wanted to protect its interests, so
    Stalin established satellite nations (countries
    subject to Soviet domination)
  • Poland, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia,
    Hungary, Romania, and East Germany became
    satellite nations by 1948
  • Yugoslavia maintained a degree of independence
    from the U.S.S.R.
  • Tito (Josip Broz) was the communist dictator of
    Yugoslavia refused to take orders from Stalin

15
Containment
  • Idea from George Kennan, an American diplomat
    stationed in Moscow West needed intelligent
    long-range policies
  • Policy recognized the possibility that Eastern
    Europe was lost to communism
  • U.S. to resist formation of Communist governments
    elsewhere in the world

16
Truman Doctrine
  • Great Britain gave world leadership to U.S.
  • 1947 declaration that the U.S. would support
    nations that were being threatened by communism
  • Americans provided aid to Greece and Turkey
    Congress provided 400 million, plus military
    bases

17
Marshall Plan
  • Marshall Plan called for the nations of Europe
    to draw up a program for economic recovery from
    the war. The U.S. would support them with
    financial aid of 13 billion
  • Hoped to create strong democracies and open new
    markets for American goods

18
Transparency The Cost of Containment
The Cost of Containment
TRANSPARENCY
19
Shipments Financed by the Marshall Plan
CHART
20
Berlin Airlift
  • West Berlin capitalist and democratic
  • East Berlin communist
  • Many fled to West Berlin
  • Stalin blockaded the city
  • Supplies brought in by plane
  • Stalin lifted the blockade in May 1949

21
Berlin Airlift
INFOGRAPHIC
22
NATO
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • association of democratic peace-loving states
    to defend Western Europe
  • Collective security mutual military assistance
    an armed attack against one or more of
    themshall be considered an attack against them
    all.

23
Warsaw Pact
  • 1955, Soviet Union formed a military alliance
    with its satellite nations in Eastern Europe
    except for Yugoslavia

24
Cold War Military Alliances
25
What Will Happen to Postwar Europe?
COMPARING VIEWPOINTS
26
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
27
The Korean WarSection 2
  • How did President Truman use the power of the
    presidency to limit the spread of communism in
    East Asia?
  • Vocabulary
  • -Jiang Jieshi Douglas MacArthur
  • -Mao Zedong limited war
  • -38th parallel SEATO

28
The Korean War
Communists Gain Control of China Main Idea
Americans were shocked when communists won the
Civil War in China and greatly expanded communist
control in the world. Americans Fight in
Korea Main Idea After communist-controlled
North Korea invaded South Korea, the United
States sent military aid to South Korea, which
ultimately resulted in a stalemate. The Korean
War Has Lasting Effects Main Idea President
Eisenhowers threat of nuclear weapons convinced
the communists to sign a cease-fire, but there
was no clear victory in the war.
29
Civil War in China
  • Jiang Jieshi leader of Nationalist government
  • Corruption diverted American aid
  • Generals would not fight
  • Mao Zedong Communist rebel
  • Promised to feed the people
  • Defeated Jiang in 1948, with Jiang fleeing to
    Taiwan
  • Established the Peoples Republic of China

30
Reading Skill Categorize
NOTE TAKING
31
Political Cartoons The Korean War
TRANSPARENCY
32
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
33
Americans Fight in Korea
  • Korea after WWII, Korea divided into two zones
    North and South Yalu River divided China and
    North Korea
  • South Korea was democratic (pro-American)
  • North Korea- communistic government
  • June, 1950, North Koreans invaded South Korea by
    crossing over the 38th parallel
  • USSR boycotted the Security Council
  • UN called on members to defend South Korea

34
Douglas MacArthur
  • Fought in WWI and WWII
  • Commander of Americans in Asia in WWII
  • Controlled Japan after war, establishing a
    democracy

35
War
  • North Koreans swept through S. Korea with only
    area near Pusan unconquered
  • Defended Pusan MacArthur invaded Inchon to cut
    North Koreas supply lines
  • N. Koreans retreated back across the 38th
    parallel
  • UN troops neared Chinese border
  • Home by Christmas offensive

36
Chinese Attack
  • Chinese pour over the border in November, 1950
  • Push UN forces back into S. Korea
  • Stalemate
  • Disagreed with Truman on limited war
  • Letter to Joseph Martin
  • Fired by Truman in 1951
  • War dragged on until 1953
  • 53,000 American dead

37
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38
Should the United States Invade China?
DECISION POINT
39
Dwight Eisenhower
  • Elected 1952 promising to end the Korean War
  • Careful not to start a war with USSR over Eastern
    Europe
  • Continued policy of containment
  • Ended the Korean War with a cease-fire in 1953

40
Results of the Korean War
  • Two Koreas remain divided at about the 38th
    parallel North Korea is communist and South
    Korea is a democracy
  • Set a precedent of Presidents committing U.S.
    troops to battle without a declaration of war
  • Increased military spending
  • Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)

41
Domestic Politics and PoliciesPresidents Truman
and Eisenhower pursued different styles to meet
the challenges of the postwar period.
42
Quick Study Korean Wars Impact on America
Korean War's Impact on America
QUICK STUDY
43
The Cold War ExpandsSection 3
  • What methods did the U.S. use in its global
    struggle against the Soviet Union?
  • Vocabulary
  • -arms race Nikita Khrushchev
  • -John Foster Douglas nationalize
  • -Eisenhower Doctrine Suez crisis
  • -massive retaliation Eisenhower Doctrine
  • -brinkmanship CIA
  • -mutually assured NASA
  • destruction

44
The Cold War Expands
The Arms Race Heightens Tensions   Main Idea
When the United States discovered that the Soviet
Union had set off an atomic bomb, an arms race
between the two nations started as each developed
increasingly powerful nuclear weapons.
Eisenhower Introduces New Policies Main Idea
Eisenhower favored a defense policy of
stockpiling nuclear weapons so that the United
States could threaten enemies with the use of
overwhelming force. The Cold War Goes
Global Main Idea Tensions between the United
States and the Soviet Union led to conflicts in
countries throughout the world.
Continued
45
Communist Advances
  • Soviets test an atomic bomb
  • U.S. develops hydrogen bomb
  • China is taken over by Mao Zedong after he
    defeats Jiang Jieshi in a civil war Beijing
    falls to the Communists in 1949

46
Hydrogen Bomb
  • Truman ordered the production of a hydrogen bomb
  • Tested in 1952
  • Oppenheimer and Einstein were opposed
  • Knew that Soviets would develop it arms race

47
Arms Race
  • Struggle to gain weapons superiority over the
    USSR
  • Tested the hydrogen bomb at Bikini Island
  • Nuclear Arsenals
  • Brinkmanship
  • ICBMs

48
The Arms Race
CHART
49
Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
NOTE TAKING
50
Domestic Uses of Cold War Technology
INFOGRAPHIC
51
Eisenhowers New Policies
  • John Foster Dulles Secretary of State
  • Policy of massive retaliation
  • Brinkmanship - You have to take some chances for
    peace, just as you take chances in war.
  • Policy saved money by focusing on nuclear power,
    not conventional forces

52
Stalins Death
  • Stalin died March 5, 1953
  • Nikita Khrushchev became new leader
  • Death of Stalin eased tensions between the U.S.
    and the U.S.S.R.

53
Iron Curtain Uprisings
  • Poland workers rioted and won greater control
    of government
  • Hungary Huge demonstrations crushed by Soviet
    troops many executed

54
Suez Crisis 1956
  • Nasser of Egypt seized the British-owned Suez
    Canal.
  • British and French attacked Egypt to regain the
    canal.
  • Eisenhower got them to withdraw, leaving Egypt
    with the canal

55
Eisenhower Doctrine
  • Stated that the U.S. would aid any country in the
    Middle East requesting aid against Aggression
    (Communist-inspired)
  • Sent troops to Lebanon to put down a revolt

56
Middle East
  • Palestine many Jews fled there
  • I948 Jews proclaimed nation of Israel
  • War between Israel and Arabs
  • U.S. backed Israel USSR backed Arabs

57
Iran
  • 1952 pro-communist leader controlled Iran
  • 1953 U.S. organized his overthrow by the CIA and
    restored the Shah of Iran
  • Created long-term resentment against the U.S.

58
Cold War Initiatives
TRANSPARENCY
59
Sputnik
  • First artificial satellite to orbit Earth
  • U.S. first satellite crashed
  • Soviets shot down U-2 plane
  • Military-industrial complex

60
The Cold War Space Race
61
First Satellite
  • Soviets launched Sputnik October 1957
  • Housed a 1-watt radio transmitter
  • Powered by three silver-zinc batteries
  • Transformed the world

62
From Sputnik to the International Space Station
  • Sputnik
  • The International Space Station

63
First Man in Space
  • Yuri Gagarin in Vostok 1
  • April 12, 1961
  • First to orbit the Earth
  • Parachuted to Earth

64
First American in Space
  • John Glenn
  • Three orbits
  • February 20, 1962

65
Apollo Program
  • Moon program
  • Apollo 11 July 20, 1969
  • Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walk on the Moon

66
Space Shuttle
  • Program began in 1972
  • Reusable space craft
  • Two have been lost

67
Space Station
  • Joint program between the United States and
    Russia
  • Weight 404,069 pounds
  • Dimensions 240 feet by 90 feet

68
Future of Space Travel
  • Since 1961, more than 400 humans in space
  • Working to improve life on Earth
  • Future extend life beyond Earth

69
Domino Theory
  • Belief that if one country fell to the
    Communists, its neighbors would follow
  • Vietnam, a French colony French fought Ho Chi
    Minh, Vietnamese communist ruler
  • U.S. provided military aid to France
  • French lost in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu
  • Vietnam divided into Communist North and
    anti-Communist South
  • U.S. provided aid to South

70
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71
Latin America
  • Rio Pact regional defense alliance with 18 other
    nations
  • Organization of American States (OAS) formed to
    increase cooperation

72
Cuba
  • 1959 Fidel Castro overthrow Batista, a corrupt
    dictator
  • He established a Communist government
  • Castro seized American property
  • Exports to Cuba halted and diplomatic ties ended

73
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
74
Cold War at HomeSection 4
  • How did fear of domestic communism affect
    American society during the Cold War?
  • Vocabulary
  • -Red Scare Alger Hiss
  • -Smith Act Joseph R. McCarthy
  • -McCarthyism HUAC
  • -Hollywood Ten blacklist
  • -Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

75
The Cold War at Home
Worrying About Communists at Home Main Idea
Americans began to fear that communists in the
United States were working for the Soviet Union,
and Congress started investigations of potential
communists. Spy Cases Worry Americans Main
Idea Spy trials attracted public attention and
drew awareness to the threat of communist agents
working against the United States. Alger Hisss
case and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg trial were
two controversial cases that received national
interest McCarthy Uses Ruthless Tactics Main
Idea Senator McCarthy became chairman of an
investigations committee against potential
communists, were he spent years making reckless
accusations that often discredited
people.

76
Political Cartoons Red Scare or Red Smear
ANALYZE
77
RED SCARE pt. Deaux
78
HUAC Second Red Scare
  • Smith Act unlawful to overthrow the government
  • House Un-American Activities Committee
  • Charged Hollywood personalities with being
    members of the Communist party
  • Hollywood Ten Cited for contempt of Congress
    and served jail terms ranging from six months to
    a year
  • Blacklist list of people whom employers agreed
    not to hire

79
Reading Skill Identify Causes and Effects
NOTE TAKING
80
McCarran-Walter Act
  • Set a quota system for countries this system
    discriminated against immigrants from Asia and
    Southern and Central Europe to keep communists
    out of the U.S.
  • Vetoed by Truman, but Congress passed it over the
    Presidents veto

81
Spy Cases
  • Alger Hiss convicted of lying in a slander case
    against Whittaker Chambers
  • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg accused of passing
    atomic secrets to the Soviets executed in 1953

82
Reading Skill Compare and Contrast
NOTE TAKING
83
The Red Scare
TRANSPARENCY
84
McCarthy Era
  • Joseph McCarthy-Republican Senator
  • Indicated that State Dept was full of communists
  • Accused Sec. of State George Marshall
  • Said Army full of commies in 1954
  • Hearings were televised and Americans saw him as
    a bully

85
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
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