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Cold War (1946 to 1992)


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Title: Cold War (1946 to 1992)

Cold War (1946 to 1992)
  • Focus 1953 to 1992
  • Already went over Truman!

Dwight Eisenhower (1953-1961)
  • Brinkmanship A foreign policy theory which
    supported using nuclear arms as a threat against
    communist nations that were seen to be
    challenging America or its influence.
  • Eisenhower Doctrine Announced by Eisenhower and
    approved by Congress in 1957, this doctrine
    stated that a nation could request economic or
    military assistance from the US if it was under
    attack or threatened by another state.

"Brinkmanship Timeline." Mount
Holyoke College, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014. "The
Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957."
U.S. Department of the State Office of the
Historian, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014.
US in Iran (1953)
  • Overview US involvement
  • In 1951 Mohammed Mossadegh (Irans PM)
    nationalized oil which led to boycott from other
    nations. As a result of Irans faltering economy,
    US (CIA), who feared that Iran will soon turn to
    USSR for economic assistance, supported a coup
    for the shah (monarch of Iran) to replace
    Mossadegh with Reza Pahlevi in 1953.
  • Significance
  • West secured Iranian oil prevented USSR from
    establishing close ties with Iran
  • Iranians resented the Shahs relationship with US
    and the US
  • Precursor to the Eisenhower doctrine (1957)
  • Kennedy, D., Cohen, L., Bailey, T. (2002). The
    american pageant. (12th ed., p. 901). New York,
    NY Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Pics
  • Picture of Mossadegh from http//funnycasino.b
  • British viewpoint of Iran nationalizing Oil from

Soviet Union explodes first Hydrogen Bomb (1953)
  • August 20th, 1953 USSR successfully detonates
    its H-Bomb in Kazakhstan (about 9 months after
    the development of the United States)
  • The bomb was 26 times as destructive as the
    American atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in
    1945!! (Now we are working with nuclear weapons)
  • The USSR was now back at the forefront of the
    Arms Race even though they were almost a year
    behind the US
  • Significance
  • Showed the Soviet Unions scientific power their
    atomic bomb was developed by obtaining
    information by espionage from the United
    Statesbut this was their original design
  • Eisenhower took away J. Robert Oppenheimers
    (lead developer of US atomic bomb) security
    clearances for fear that he had Soviet sympathies
  • The Nuclear Arms Program was very high in
    priority to Stalin, which scared the US for fear
    that they would use it against us
  • The continuation of scientific races between
    the Soviet Union and the US (ie. The Space Race)

Dr. Andrei Sakharov (left) with Dr. Igor
Kurchatov (right) the leading physicists of the
USSRs Hydrogen Bomb
Siegelbaum, Lewis. 1954 Hydrogen Bomb.
Seventeen Moments in Soviet History. 2014. Soviet
History. Long, Tony. Aug. 20, 1953 Soviets
Say, 'We've Got the H-Bomb, Too'. Wired. Aug. 20
US in Guatemala (1954)
  • Overview and US Involvement
  • The US first began the process of overthrowing
    the Guatemalan democratically elected president,
    Jacobo Guzman, in 1952 under Truman. The
    president of Nicaragua asked for such actions.
    This coup was revived under Eisenhower, who
    feared Guzman due to his communist sympathies.
    Opposition armies were trained by the CIA in
    neighboring Nicaragua, and by June 27th, 1954,
    Guzman fled to Mexico and the US backed Carlos
    Castillo Armas took control.
  • Significance
  • First US backed coup of the cold war era.
  • Enforced Eisenhowers foreign policy of actively
    fighting communism over Trumans containment
  • Set a trend for US interference in Latin American
    governments, later seen in Chile.
  • Major departure from FDRs Good Neighbor policy.

Armass Forces http//
"Guatemala 1954." The Cold War
Museum, n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2014.
  • Formation of Warsaw (1955)
  • 8 communists states signed a mutual defense
    treaty and encouraged the cooperation between
    socialist states
  • It was formed to counter Nato which posed a
    threat to the Soviet Union
  • The Warsaw pact was created by the Soviet Unions
  • There was already a lot of cooperation between
    eastern socialist states the Warsaw pact was
    less about creating cooperation, but more about
    being a counter to Nato
  • Significance
  • Led to the first incidences of waged war during
    the Cold War (i.e. removing Hungarian government
    when they tried to leave the pact (1956) and
    invasion of Czechoslovakia (1968)
  • NATO feared the Warsaw Pact would realize their
    weaponry was more dated than theirs

Trueman, Chris. The Warsaw Pact. History
Learning Site. Curtis, Glenn E. "The Warsaw
Pact." Czechoslovakia A Country Study (1992) n.
pag. The Warsaw Pact. Web. 25 Mar. 2014.
Geneva Summit Conference (1955)
  • Overview
  • First and only peace meeting in Geneva,
    Switzerland between the leaders of the United
    States, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union in
    regards to the issues of the Cold War.The goal
    was to promote peaceful coexistence on a global
    scale. Some of the major topics that were
    discussed are East-West trade agreements,
    tariffs, the arms race, international security
    and disarmament policy. Eisenhower promoted his
    Open Skies plan, which called for an
    international aerial monitoring system which was
    intended to prevent nations from stockpiling
    dangerous weapons, and eventually lead to the
    disarmament of all weapons of mass
    destruction.The plan was never accepted, but it
    did lead to President Ronald Reagan's later
    policy of "trust, but verify" in relation to arms
    agreements with the Soviet Union.
  • Significance
  • first and only peace meeting between the Big
    Four in regards to the Cold War
  • Revealed a common goal for increase global
  • Mitigated some built up tensions and introduce
    nations to the benefits of global free trade

"H-Net Reviews." H-Net Reviews. N.p., n.d. Web.
20 Mar. 2014. lthttps//
US in Egypt Suez Canal Incident (1956)
  • Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser announced
    the nationalization of the Suez Canal, much to
    the dismay of British-French enterprise that
    owned it. Tensions rose, and the US feared
    conflict between an ally of NATO and an important
    Middle Eastern power. British and French troops
    (and secret forces in Israel) kept hinting at
    force to remove Nasser, and did in October of
    1956. The US publicly condemned the attacks and
    approved a UN peacekeeping force to cease fire.
  • Significance
  • Creation of the Eisenhower Doctrine which allowed
    the government to aid countries in the Middle
  • GB and France were kind of bitter that the US
    shut them down because we had previously been
    very close allies
  • Britain and Frances place as world powers
    weakened to some extent

The Suez Crisis, 1956. US Department of State
Office of the Historian. Suez Crisis. The
History Network. Cold War.
US response to Hungarian Uprising (1956)
  • Overview and US Involvement
  • In 1946, Hungary, one of the satellite states of
    the USSR, staged an armed revolt for
    independence. The US funded various radio
    stations that gave Hungarians the illusion that
    if they rose up against the USSR, the US/UN/NATO
    would, in time, send military assistance.
    Unfortunately for the Hungarians, such promises
    were false as the US wanted to avoid war at all
    costs. The revolution was crushed.
  • Significance
  • First major challenge to the Soviet Unions
    satellite state system.
  • Influenced later revolts in countries such as
    Romania in the 80s
  • Showed NATOs refusal to interfere with Warsaw
    Pact nations.

A toppled statue of Stalin in Hungary http//www.
"The Hungarian Uprising of 1956." History Learning Site,
n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2014.
Sputnik launched in Outer Space (1957)
  • The Soviet Union, since 1952 had worked on
    spacecraft, but Sputnik was the first ever
    successful artificial satellite in space, and it
    brought the first living being (Laika, a dog) to
    ever enter space. Sputnik was completely unknown
    until its launch, so Eisenhower declared there
    was a Sputnik crisis and spearheaded the
    foundation of NASA. A near mass hysteria broke
    out about if the Soviets would be the first
  • Significance
  • Marked the beginning of the space race
  • US and Soviet Union competition for scientific
    advances and discoveries
  • Gave Russians a head start

"Sputnik." Sputnik. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar.
2014. Garber, Steve. "Sputnik." Sputnik. NASA
History, 10 Oct. 2007. Web. 25 Mar. 2014.
US in Lebanon (1958)
  • At this point in time, Lebanon was governed by
    President Chamillle Chamoun. He was a strong ally
    of western powers but he was being challenged by
    muslim activists lead by the widely popular Gamal
    Abdel Nasser. Nasser was openly critical of
    Chamouns friendly relations with the west, and
    so the United States intervened at President
    Chamouns request. American troops landed in
    beirut in July of 1958, and were gone by October,
    the operation was codenamed Blue Bat.
  • Significance
  • clear continuation of American interventionism in
    this time period

"Moments in U.S. Diplomatic History." Association
for Diplomatic Studies and Training. Association
for Diplomatic Studies and Training, n.d. Web. 23
Mar. 2014.
US Places an Embargo on Cuban Sugar Exports (1959)
  • Fidel Castro took control of the Cuban government
    in 1959 and from that point on started making it
    more socialist and developing a relationship with
    the Soviet Union as US relations deteriorated.
    The next year, Eisenhower put embargos on Cuban
    sugar, oil, and guns. Castro responded by
    nationalizing oil refineries, to which Eisenhower
    reduced the Cuban sugar quota by 95
  • Significance
  • Led to Eisenhower breaking off ALL diplomatic
    relations with Cuba in 1961
  • US and USSR fighting for allies
  • US and Cuba still have strained relations today

Dulcinea Staff. On This Day Eisenhower Places
Embargo on Exports to Cuba. Finding Dulcinea.
Oct 19 2011.
VP Nixon Khrushchev meet in Soviet Union and
meet again in Camp David, US (1959)
  • America and the Soviet Union had agreed to hold
    conferences and exhibits in each others country
    as a friendly diplomatic gesture. In the Soviet
    Union, Several impromptu conferences were held
    with interpreters in a house built especially for
    the occasion by Americans looking to flaunt the
    success of capitalism. Both men bickered over who
    had better technology, and not much else came of
    the meeting. At Camp David, no specific treaties
    or compromises were made but both sides came to
    the agreement that general disarmament should be
    pursued. It did not prove to be very effective in
    that it was basically just an opportunity for
    Eisenhower and Khrushchev to size each other up.
    They did, however, discuss the Berlin situation
    but did not meet a consensus. Although they
    didnt agree on a political level, they did
    interact on a personal level (which was new).
  • Significance
  • Camp David was the first occurrence of a (albeit
    little) halt in the Cold War
  • Eisenhower believed that personal diplomacy might
    ease tensions

Gergen, David. "The Inner Demons That Drove
Nixon." CNN. Cable News Network, 01 Jan. 1970.
Web. 25 Mar. 2014.
"Eisenhower and Khrushchev Meet for Talks." AE Television Networks, n.d. Web.
25 Mar. 2014. Tucker, Spencer C., PhD, and
Priscilla Mary Roberts, PhD. "Camp David Meeting
(2526 September 1959)." History and the
Headlines. ABC-CLIO, 2011. Web. 25 Mar. 2014.
U-2 Incident (1960)
  • Overview
  • On May, 1st 1960 an American pilot, Francis Gary
    Powers, was shot down in a high altitude spy
    plane by Soviet Russia. The plane was suppose to
    take pictures of two major missile test sites in
    Soviet Union. The pilot was captured, and both
    sides used him for propaganda. The pilot was
    convicted for espionage, but was exchanged later
    for a Russian prisoner, Colonel Rudolph Ivanovich
    Abel, who was a spy for Russia.
  • Significance
  • The U-2 incident had convinced Khrushchev that he
    could no longer cooperate with Eisenhower
  • Raised tensions and led to the failure of the
    Paris Summit meeting, which was suppose to
    discuss disarmament of nuclear weapons
  • Eisenhower was pleased with the photographs,
    which showed U.S.S.Rs nuclear weapons as less
    advanced than U.S, proving that U.S still had the
  • "U-2 Spy Plane Incident." U-2 Spy Plane Incident.
    N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. lthttp//www.u-s-hist
  • "U-2 Spy Incident." AE Television
    Networks, n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2014.
  • Picture http//
  • http//

JFK (1961 to 1963)
  • Flexible Response Policy a defense strategy
    implemented to address the Kennedy
    administrations skepticism of Eisenhowers
    policies called for mutual deterrence at
    strategic, tactical, and conventional levels.
    Gave the US the capability to respond to
    aggression across the spectrum of warfare.
  • https//
  • "Key Issues Nuclear Weapons History Cold War
    Strategy Flexible Response." Key Issues Nuclear
    Weapons History Cold War Strategy Flexible
    Response. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2014.

Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961)
  • Overview
  • April 17th, 1961 1400 Cuban exiles (known as
    Brigade 2506) launched an invasion at the Bay of
    Pigs on the south coast of Cuba.
  • Armed with US weapons and backed by the US
  • Failed because Cuban planes strafed the invaders,
    sank two escort ships, and destroyed half of the
    exile's air support.
  • Fidel Castro was aware of Kennedys intent to
  • Significance
  • Showed US fear of communist expansion
  • Resulted in increased hostilities between the US
    and the Soviet Union
  • Embarrassment for the Kennedy administration
  • "The Bay of Pigs." - John F. Kennedy Presidential
    Library Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2014.

Berlin Wall is completed (1961)
  • Overview
  • On the night of August 12-13, 1961, East German
    soldiers laid down more than 30 miles of barbed
    wire barrier through Berlin.
  • The Berlin wall, once completed,was topped with
    barbed wire and guarded with watchtowers, machine
    gun emplacements, and mines
  • Extended 28 miles through Berlin and 75 miles
    around West Berlin, separating it from the rest
    of East Germany.
  • Tensions resulting in the building of the Berlin
    Wall were due to the US, Great Britain, and
    France joining their occupational zones into one
    autonomous entity.
  • Significance
  • Symbolized the division of the world
  • Many attempted to get over the wall or were
    separated from their families for years because
    of it
  • "Berlin Wall Built." AE Television
    Networks, n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2014.

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
  • Overview
  • American U-2 Plane spotted the Soviet Union
    building nuclear missile sites in Cuba with
    missiles placed in Cuba, the US would have less
    response time and preparation if a missile was in
    fact launched at the US
  • Kennedy decided to place a naval blockade around
    Cuba and demanded SU to remove the nuclear
  • Kennedy and Khrushchev both decided to dismantle
    the weapon sites in exchange for US pledge to not
    invade Cuba
  • US also promised to take their nuclear weapons
    outside of Turkey
  • Significance
  • Tensions lessened between US and Soviet Union
  • Nearly led to a nuclear war
  • US has not invaded Cuba since

"Cuban Missile Crisis." - John F. Kennedy
Presidential Library Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 20
Mar. 2014.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Hotline Agreement (1963)
  • Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
  • John F. Kennedy supports banning nuclear testing,
    thinking that it will prevent other countries
    from obtaining nuclear weapons.
  • The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was passed
    in 1963. The Treaty required signers to avoid
    testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere or over
    water, and stated that signers should work
    towards nuclear disarmament.
  • Hotline Agreement
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis occurs in 1962,
    Khrushchev and Kennedy realize how close the U.S.
    and the U.S.S.R. were to nuclear war
  • The Memorandum of Understanding between the
    United States of America and the Union of Soviet
    Socialist Republics Regarding the Establishment
    of a Direct Communications Link was passed in
    1963. It stated that each country was responsible
    for establishing and maintaining communication
    links throughout their own country, so as to
    prevent misunderstandings that could cause
    nuclear wars.
  • Overall Significance of the two events
  • Helped ease tensions over nuclear arms and
    started a trend of disarmament from both sides of
    the Cold War. It made the U.S. more powerful. The
    hotline agreement also may have prevented nuclear
    war between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
  • The two events established a slight American
    dominance as the U.S. was the power with the
    upper hand during both negotiations.
  • Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - John F. Kennedy
    Presidential Library Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 21
    Mar. 2014.
  • "Memorandum of Understanding Between The United
    States of America and The Union of Soviet
    Socialist Republics Regarding the Establishment
    of a Direct Communications Link." U.S. Department
    of State. U.S. Department of State, n.d. Web. 21
    Mar. 2014.

LBJ (1963 to 1969)
  • Eisenhowers Domino Theory Implemented Stated
    that a communist victory in one country would
    lead to a communist takeover in a neighboring
    country. US used this to justify the support of
    South Vietnam having a non-communist government,
    which brought the US into the Vietnam War.

Tonkin Gulf Incident and start of Vietnam War
  • On August 2,1964, a United States ship, the USS
    Maddox was assaulted by ships from North Vietnam
    in the Gulf of Tonkin.

The United States responded by issuing the Gulf
of Tonkin Resolution. The Gulf of Tonkin
Resolution allowed the president the power to
intervene with military force in southeast asia
without a formal declaration of war. This
ultimately led to the start of the Vietnam war.
The Tonkin Gulf Incident ultimately led to the
Vietnam War which was a war to stop the spread of
communism in southeast asia. The Soviet Union
resented this because it wanted to promote
communism. http//
ry/tonkin-g.asp http//
US forces in Dominican Republic (1965)
  • Turmoil in the Dominican Republic
  • Anti-Communist Dominican Dictator Robert Trujillo
    is assassinated in 1961
  • Juan Bosch, a liberal, becomes the leader of the
    Dominican Republic, but is overthrown due to
    being despised by the Dominican Military
  • The Country is thrown into political chaos after
    Bosch is overthrown
  • Fidel Castro is suspected of being involved in
    the countrys affairs
  • U.S. Response
  • In order to prevent the spread of communism
    throughout Latin America, Lyndon B. Johnson sent
    over 22,000 U.S. troops to restore order in the
    Dominican Republic
  • Overall Significance
  • Didnt impact relations between the U.S. and the
    U.S.S.R. that much
  • Paved the way for future American involvement in
    Latin American countries, like in Nicaragua and
    El Salvador
  • May have caused resentment towards the U.S. from
    Latin American countries
  • Source
  • "U.S. Troops Land in the Dominican Republic." AE Television Networks, n.d. Web.
    20 Mar. 2014.

Outer Space Treaty (1967)
  • Overview
  • Treaty made by United States, United Kingdom, and
    Soviet Union
  • Second of the non-armament treaties
  • Banned the stationing of weapons of mass
    destruction in outer space, prohibited military
    activities on celestial bodies, and called for
    peaceful exploration and use of outer space
  • Significance
  • After passed, the US and Soviet Union worked
    together regarding planning and manning space

"Outer Space Treaty (1967)."
Exploring the History, Science, and Consequences
of the Atomic Bomb. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (1968)
  • agreement between the United States and Soviet
    Union intending to slow nuclear arms race
  • ban on nuclear technology first proposed at the
    UN in Ireland (1961)
  • growing amount of nuclear weapons rose incentive
    to prevent a nuclear war
  • France, Peoples Republic of China, and a number
    of non-nuclear states did not sign
  • Provisions
  • Signers with nuclear powers would not give
    technology to non-nuclear nations
  • Non-nuclear nations would not try to construct or
    obtain nuclear weapons
  • Abide safeguards from the International Atomic
    Energy Agency (IAEA)
  • Reviewed every 5 years

"The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), 1968
- 19611968 - Milestones - Office of the
Historian." US Department of State. Office of the
Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, n.d. Web. 20
Mar. 2014.
Nixon (1969-1974) Ford (1974-1977)
  • Nixon Doctrine
  • The Nixon Doctrine, created in 1969, was
    introduced to help allies control and defend
    their countries. The Nixon Doctrine forced their
    allies to provide their own military military
    defense, but the United States would offer
    support if needed. The US was now acting as
    acting as a nuclear umbrella when requested.
    This doctrine was used when the Persian gulf
    requested military aid, and the US complied.
  • Realpolitik
  • Realpolitik is a political practice which focuses
    more on what is practical and needs to be done
    than on right or wrong views or previous
    doctrines. It does what is best for the country
    at hand. It is a basis for American future
    foreign policy. This was used in Nixons
    Administration when diplomatic relations were
    created with the Peoples Republic of China
    despite their communist ways and previously
    instituted doctrines.

picture from http//
"Realpolitik." Princeton University. N.p., n.d.
Web. 21 Mar. 2014. "The Nixon Doctrine Is
Announced." AE Television Networks,
n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2014
Apollo Missions (1969)
  • Overview US Involvement
  • The apollo missions, consisting of 12 manned
    missions was created to have Americans be the
    first to land on lunar surface and return to
    earth safely. The first one that landed on the
    moon, apollo 11 left earth July 16, 1969 and
    landed on the moon July 20, 1969 when Neil
    Armstrong spoke his famous words Thats one
    small step for a man. One giant leap for
    mankind. Once landed, many lunar tests took
    place such as soil mechanics, meteoroids,
    seismic, heat flow, lunar ranging, magnetic
    fields and solar wind experiments to learn more
    about conditions in space. These missions were
    put into order after the creation of the National
    Aueronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and
    John F Kennedys challenege in 1961 to get a man
    on the moon by the end of the decade.
  • Overall Historical Significance
  • First event where Americans visited another world
  • Established American technological preeminence in
    the world
  • Beat the Soviet Union in the space race
  • more knowledge of outer space
  • Americas democratic technological ways outshone
    the totalitarianism ways of the USSR
  • Brandon. "The Importance of Apollo 11." BMSeifert
    RSS. Wordpress, 20 May 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
  • Dunbar, Brian. "What Was the Apollo Program?"
    NASA. NASA, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
  • "The Apollo Program." Human Space Flight (HSF) -
    Apollo History. NASA, 7 Feb. 2009. Web. 20 Mar.

pictures from http//
es/theapolloyears/theapolloyears.html www.softpedi

Nixon visit to China (1972)- The week that
changed the world
  • Historical Overview
  • Nixon was the first U.S. president to visit the
    People's Republic of China since it was
    established in 1949. The topics of the talks were
    mainly centered around Taiwan and the
    normalization of diplomatic relations. With
    Nixons meeting, the two countries agreed to
    expand cultural contacts and made plans to
    establish a permanent US trade mission in China.
    There were 3 main objectives embrace People's
    Republic of China for peaceful settlement of
    Taiwan, peaceful settlement of the Vietnam War
    and deter Soviet Union's sphere of Communist
    influence after the Sino-Soviet Split.
  • US Response
  • The trip was planned to have extensive positive
    media influence on the US. Later interviews with
    correspondents who traveled with the President
    show how eager they were to be on the trip, which
    some labeled the most important summit meeting
  • Overall Historical Significance
  • This ended a 25 year period of silence between
    the two foes. The Cold War experienced
    significant change as it saw a change in the PRC
    perspective allowing them to join us and rally
    against the Soviet Union. Today, we have a
    prevalent trade relationship with China which was
    established by our policy of open trade during
    this time

This was the week that changed the world, as
what we have said in that Communique is not
nearly as important as what we will do in the
years ahead to build a bridge across 16,000 miles
and 22 years of hostilities which have divided us
in the past. And what we have said today is that
we shall build that bridge." -President Nixon
Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 20
Mar. 2014.
Moscow Summit SALT I ABM Treaty (1972)
  • Historical Overview
  • The ABM Treaty was created as a result of the
    SALT. SALT created a temporary solution to the
    impending arms race and created the Interim
    Agreement which limited strategic offensive
    missiles. This made room for the ABM which was a
    more permanent and reasonable solution. Under its
    terms, the United States and the Soviet Union
    limited the development and deployment of
    ballistic missile defenses in order to calm the
    arms race and ease international tensions.
  • US Response
  • Positive/neutral! Americans were willing to do
    anything to refrain from further global
  • Overall Historical Significance
  • ABM Treaty didnt do a perfect job at slowing the
    arms race but for nearly two decades of the Cold
    War, it held its own and no nuclear powers
    surfaced. Its greatest contribution is the fact
    that is successfully negotiated between two
    nations the positive effects of withholding
    nuclear power despite the fact that both nations
    were willing and able to utilize it to their
  • "Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty." Answers. Answers
    Corporation, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.

US involvement in the Yom Kippur War (1973)
  • Overview and US Involvement
  • The war fought by Arab states, mainly Egypt and
    Syria, against Israel, was quickly supported on
    each side by the US and SU (with the US
    supporting Israel). It became another battle
    between the two countries, leading to almost war
    between them. Nixon was credited with essentially
    saving Israel from total-destruction. Eventually
    an armistice was established by the United
  • Significance
  • Nixon is still highly regarded in Israel today
  • Quickly fight off Soviet threat in Middle East
  • Preserve United Nations declared region of
    Israel as a home for Jews
  • Egypt eventually rejected Soviet influence
  • "How Richard Nixon Saved Israel." The New Nixon.
    The Nixon Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
  • War Photo http//

US involvement in Chile (1973)
  • Overview and US Involvement
  • Chile socialist President Salvador Allende was
    overthrown by the people the national police. The
    CIA helped the people with air raids and other
    attacks for the coup, and Allende suicided
    eventually.Once the new government was in power
    with the military in control, the US immediately
    recognized it.
  • Significance
  • Fight against socialism, victory for capitalism
  • Provide for a better world
  • Showed US would continue to help its Latin
    American neighbors
  • Kornbluh, Peter. "Chile and the United States
    Declassified Documents Relating to the Military
    Coup, September 11, 1973." Chile and the United
    States Declassified Documents Relating to the
    Military Coup, September 11, 1973. National
    Security Archive, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
  • Allende Picture http//

US funding for Angola (1974)
  • Overview and US Involvement of the Angola Crisis
  • The independence of Angola, a previous Portuguese
    colony, was in the hands of three military
    movements that had been fighting for the colonys
    independence since the 1960s. The three main
    movements were the Popular Movement for
    Liberation of Angola (MPLA), National Front of
    Liberation of Angola (FNLA), and, finally, the
    largest and most supported, The National Union
    for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).
    The three had planned to work towards
    independence together, however, with the
    radically different political ideologies, civil
    war was bound to come. This is where the United
    States got involved.The civil war in Angola
    became a Cold War Battleground for the United
    States and the Soviet Union. Both nations were
    delivering military assistance to their favored
    unions ( of similar govt. policy). The US sent
    resources to the FNLA and the UNITA, not the MPLA
    because of its Marxist affiliation. Thus, the
    Soviet Union aided the MPLA. However, during the
    period of the Angola crisis, the two nations were
    in an era referred to as the detente in which the
    two had reached a series of agreements that aimed
    to reduce tensions. However in the eyes of the
    US, the Soviet Union interacting with the Third
    World countries was breaking these series of
    agreements. Thus, Angola increased tensions
    between the powerhouses. In the end, the US
    Congress did not support the war efforts in
    Angola or the relation with the South African
    Apartheid, thus the Soviet Union gained.
  • Overall Historical Significance
  • The Angola crisis led to increased tensions
    between the Soviet Union and the United States.
  • The United States failure in Angola intensified
    the competition in the Third World.
  • Contributed to the failure of the detente
  • Ended period of temporary peace between the US
    and Cuba

Cuban and Angolan soldiers
"The Angola Crisis 197475 - 19691976 -
Milestones - Office of the Historian." The Angola
Crisis 197475 - 19691976 - Milestones - Office
of the Historian. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
Mayaguez Incident (1975)
  • Overview
  • The Cambodian army (Khmer Rouge) captured the
    container ship S.S Mayaguez along with its 39
    crew members in international waters. When they
    werent released per Fords request, Ford decided
    to act quickly to rescue the crew, hoping to
    avoid a long drawn out incident. He sent 131
    Marines with the Air Force to rescue the crew,
    however the Cambodians put up a significant
    fight, killing a total of 14 Americans. After
    sending another 100 Marines to reinforce the
    first group, the crew was rescued unharmed, with
    the total casualties for America at 18 dead and
    50 wounded.
  • U.S. Response
  • The U.S. Marines and other fighting forces
    directed by Ford acted quickly and prevented the
    escalation of the incident into something much
  • Overall Significance
  • This incident came just after the U.S. had
    withdrawn from Vietnam. The fight in Koh Tang was
    the last fight in Southeast Asia for the U.S.
    military forces.The Mayaguez incident was Fords
    first test to see how well he functioned as
    Commander in Chief.
  • "Factsheets Final Combat The Mayaguez Incident
    at Koh Tang." Factsheets Final Combat The
    Mayaguez Incident at Koh Tang. N.p., n.d. Web. 20
    Mar. 2014.
  • http//
  • "The Mayaguez Incident Testing America's Resolve
    in the Post-Vietnam Era." The Mayaguez Incident
    Testing Americas Resolve in the PostVietnam Era.
    N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
  • http//

Fall of Saigon (1975)
  • Overview and US Involvement
  • During 1973 and 1974, Nixon and the leaders of
    Northern Vietnam tried to negotiate peace.
    However, things did not work out. Forces
    continued to pound down on South Vietnam. Towards
    the end of the Vietnam war, as the forces from
    the North approached Saigon, it seemed apparent
    that the United States and South Vietnam stood no
    chance. In 1975, the United States pulled out of
    Saigon, the capital of Vietnam, causing the area
    to fall to North Vietnamese forces.
  • US Response
  • The United States was expecting the fall to occur
    eventually, so troops were pulled out at the last
    minute. This shows the lack of confidence had by
    US and SV troops.
  • Overall Historical Significance
  • The fall of Saigon represented the end of the
    Vietnam War for the United States, and it
    symbolized the transition of Vietnam into a
    Socialist Republic governed by communists. It
    also led to a decrease in support for US
    involvement in foreign affairs.

US troops are being evacuated from stations in
Coppola, Kaitlin. "The Cold War Museum." The Fall
of Saigon., n.d. Web. 20 Mar.
Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)
  • Human Rights Policy
  • When Jimmy Carter was elected to presidency, he
    implemented a new foreign policy. This policy
    focused on supporting human rights in foreign
    nations. Carter held that we, the United States,
    should stay true to our morals when dealing with
    foreign nations. Carter sought after giving
    foreign peoples the privileges (freedoms) which
    the US people were accustomed to. Jimmy Carter
    believed that the individual should be protected
    from the power of the state. The Carter
    administration held foreign nations in the
    incompetence in their people with human rights.
    The actions taken by the United States to push
    for human rights range from criticizing a
    nations practices to suspending
    economic/military aid.

"Carter's Foreign Policy - Short History -
Department History - Office of the Historian."
Office of the Historian . U.S. Department of
State, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
"Miller Center." American President Jimmy
Carter Foreign Affairs. University of Virginia ,
Web. 19 Mar. 2014.
Panama Canal Treaties (1978)
  • Overview
  • The panama canal treaties, also known as
    Torrijos-Carter treaties, repealed the
    Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty of 1903, giving Panama
    the control of Panama Canal after 1999.
  • Prior to the treaty, there was a lot of tension
    between US and Panama over the control of the
    canal, but Panama was willing to reach an
    agreement with US.
  • Significance
  • The canal ownership was transferred in 1999 and
    the canals neutrality was guaranteed. Also the
    relationship between US and Panama got better,
    since they had tensions over the control of the
    canal before the treaty.

http// "The Panama
Canal and the Torrijos-Carter Treaties -
19771980 - Milestones - Office of the
Historian." Https// Office of
the Historians, 31 Oct. 2013. Web. 24 Mar. 2014.
Camp David Accords (1978)
  • Overview
  • It was a series of agreements at Camp David which
    lasted 13 days while Jimmy Carter witnessed it.
  • Fell apart in 1981 following Sadat's
  • Significance
  • It brought peace between Israel and its neighbor
    Arab countries, especially with Egypt.

http// "
Camp David Accords." Wikipedia. Wikimedia
Foundation, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 24 Mar. 2014.
US against apartheid in Africa (1978)
  • Overview
  • Beginning in 1948 the Nationalist party
    implemented intense segregation laws in South
    Africa. (Apartheid)
  • The US was anti apartheid. Both US and GB stopped
    trade temporarily with South Africa.
  • UN passed resolution 1761, which established the
    United Nations Special Committee against
    apartheid and called for imposing economic and
    other sanctions on South Africa.
  • Significance
  • This helped to end the apartheid. South Africa
    knew they couldnt survive as a completely
    independent nation.

http// "Apartheid.
" Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Mar. 2014.
Web. 23 Mar. 2014.
Soviet Union invades Afghanistan (1979)
  • Historical Overview
  • Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in late
    December of 1979. The Soviets invaded Afghanistan
    to support Afghanistans communist party. The
    USSR wanted to extend its power through
    converting/keeping other nations communist. The
    marxist government in Afghanistan held close ties
    with the Soviets, so when rebellion arose the
    USSR sent in troops to attain influence in the
  • U.S. Response
  • The United States continued to supply the
    rebellion with munitions.
  • Overall Historical Significance
  • This is significant because the United States
    supported the rebellion, so this was a case of
    the Soviets and Americans fighting through
    Afghanistan. The United states supplied the
    rebellion with supplies to fight the Soviets
    with. The Afghan War ended in a stalemate.

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Soviet
invasion of Afghanistan (1979)." Encyclopedia
Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d.
Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
US boycotts Moscow Olympics (1980)
  • In December 1979, the Soviet Union intervened in
    Afghanistan, a struggling country with a
    pro-Soviet government, while the US was in the
    midst of arms negotiations with the USSR. The US
    was furious and threatened to boycott the Moscow
    Olympics if the Soviet troops were not removed.
    The USSR refused to leave Afghanistan, so the
    boycott occurred. The boycott had no impact on
    Soviet policy, and the USSR remained in
    Afghanistan for nearly ten years. Tensions
    increased between the US and the USSR, as the
    boycott was a public insult to the Soviets. The
    boycott was disliked by Olympians, and wasnt
    seen as a great decision by Carter.

"Carter Tells U.S. Athletes of Olympic Boycott." AE Television Networks, n.d. Web.
17 Mar. 2014. "The Failed Carter Boycott of the
1980 Moscow Summer Olympics." Breitbart News
Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar.
2014. Http//
brief-history-of-olympic-dis-8.php. Web.
Iranian Hostage Crisis (1980)
  • On November 4th, 1979, the U.S Embassy in Tehran
    was invaded by Iranian students who were islamic
    revolutionaries. More than 60 Americans were in
    the building, and subsequently taken hostage. The
    invasion took place because the United States had
    allowed the Shah of Iran to take asylum in
    America, and much of Iran wanted him to be
    returned so he could be tried for his crimes and
    forced to repay the billions of dollars they
    claimed he stole. The United States responded by
    putting economic sanctions on Iran, while
    negotiating diplomatically. When nothing
    happened, President Carter put together a rescue
    mission, called Desert One, which failed. The
    hostages were eventually released when Khomeinis
    government (the man who had taken over after the
    departure of the Shah) decided that the hostage
    situation was no longer beneficial to Iran. The
    official release occurred just after Carter left
    the White House. The crisis made the American
    public view Carter as weak and ineffective, and
    lessened the international fear of the United
    States as a world power.
  • https//
  • "American Experience The Iranian Hostage
    Crisis." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.

Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) George Bush
  • Evil Empire Speech Ronald Reagans speech is
    known as being an attack towards the Soviet
    Union. Reagan ultimately degraded the Soviet
    Unions government. Reagan wanted to match the
    Soviet Union's strategic military capabilities.
  • Reagan Doctrine The foreign policy in the Reagan
    Doctrine was implemented by the Reagan
    administration to oppose the global influence of
    the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

"Reagan Doctrine." Princeton University. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
Strategic Defense Initiative discussed publicly
  • This was anti-ballistic missile program to
    prevent other countries (especially the SU) from
    attacking the US with missiles. This was the USs
    response to possible nuclear attacks. Weapons
    used were lasers, subatomic particle beams, and
    electromagnetic rail guns.
  • Significance
  • This program was dropped because legislators and
    congressmen thought it would raise tensions
    between the SU and the US.
  • Although the system was thought to be
    impenetrable, political pressure caused the
    program to be a failure from the beginning.

"The Cold War Museum." Cold War Museum. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
Soviet Union shoots down a Korean commercial
airliner over Soviet airspace (1983)
  • Korean airlines were going from New York City to
    Seoul. As it was flying into Russian airspace,
    the plane crossed over the Kamchatka Peninsula.
    The Soviet Union had sent 2 fighters to intercept
    the plane, and the plane was instantly shot down.
    All 269 passengers were killed on the plane.
  • As a result of the takedown, there was
  • an increase in Anti-Soviet sentiments especially
    in the U.S.
  • a change in U.S. tracking systems for planes
    leaving Alaska

"Korean Airlines Flight Shot down by Soviet
Union." AE Television Networks,
n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. "Korean Air Lines Flight
007." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web.
20 Mar. 2014.
Soviet Union boycotts Olympics in LA (1984)
  • The Soviet Union boycott of the 1984 Olympics was
    cause by a culmination of two things. First,
    America did not attend the 1980s Olympics in
    Moscow due to the Soviets presence in
    Afghanistan so the Soviet Unions boycott was
    merely retaliation. Another factor in the boycott
    was that Soviets believed that there was
    anti-soviet hysteria going on in America.
  • Significance
  • 14 other countries followed the Soviet Union and
    boycotted as well

"1984 Summer Olympics Boycott." Wikipedia.
Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Mar. 2014. Web. 20 Mar.
2014. History Channel, Soviets announce boycott
of 1984 Olympics- This Day in
History. Accessed April 7, 2013.
CIA provides arms to Contras in Nicaragua gets
involved in El Salvador (1980s)
  • President Reagan had accused Sandinistas of
    making Nicaragua a base for the Soviet Union but
    also with sending weapons to El Salvador.
  • The president sent over an advisor that supported
    the pro-American government of El Salvador.
  • Significance
  • The CIA provided Contras with money and materials
    to overrun the Sandinistas.

"Understanding the Iran-Contra Affairs - The
Iran-Contra Affairs." Understanding the
Iran-Contra Affairs - The Iran-Contra Affairs.
N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
Reagan gives Evil Empire speech (1983)
  • In Ronald Reagans Evil Empire speech, he talks
    about the evils in the world, and saying that the
    Soviet Union was the evil empire. The Soviet
    Union was being publicly announced as an enemy.
    This speech definitely did not help the relations
    between the United States and the Soviet Union.
    He said the collapse of communism was assured. He
    assured the people that democracy was the only
    way to keep alive this best hope of man.
  • Significance
  • Regan would not allow people in the United States
    to support communism because it was evil.
    Democracy was seen as the best system of

"Regan, "Evil Empire," Speech Text." Voices of
Democracy. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. "Evil
Empire." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Mar.
2014. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
US in Grenada (1984)
  • Along with Cuba, Nicaragua and Jamaica, Grenada
    was seen as a communist government. Reagan was
    concerned about a 10,000 ft. runway being
    constructed by the Cubans, which he feared would
    be used as a base for Russian bombers, so he
    declared an invasion on Grenada. Furthermore,
    there were approximately 200 American medical
    students on the island and the Reagan wanted to
    avoid a hostage situation. The invasion was
    completely unorganized and the overall success of
    the invasion was entirely due to Grenadas lack
    of army, not American prestige.
  • Significance
  • The U.S. was able to prevail while the communists
    were severely hurt
  • The United Nations believed that the U.S. was
    trying to enforce imperialistic ideas which was
    what the Russians were doing

"Invasion of Grenada." Wikipedia. Wikimedia
Foundation, 18 Mar. 2014. Web. 20 Mar.
2014. "United States Invades Grenada." AE Television Networks, n.d. Web.
20 Mar. 2014.
Mikhail Gorbachev becomes leader of Soviet Union
  • He was the last leader of the SU. He was also one
    of their youngest leaders, at 54 years. His main
    efforts were to use glasnost and perestroika to
    revitalise the country. He wanted the country to
    become a more modern social democracy. Gorbachev
    was the first leader to be born after the
  • Significance
  • He tried to reform the old party by introducing
    glasnost (openness), perestroika (restructuring),
    demokratizatsia (democratization), and uskoreniye
    (acceleration of economic growth).

"More Information About Mikhail Gorbachev." BBC
News. BBC, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
Soviet Union initiates glasnost and perestroika
  • In Russian perestroika means restructuring, and
    glasnost means openness. Glasnost allowed writers
    and journalists to push beyond the limits that
    Gorbachev and his deputies had approved, freedoms
    were expanded. This undermined public confidence
    in the ability of the countries leaders to give
    the SU prosperity. Perestroika was the first
    attempt to democratize the SU. In some
    elections, the secret ballot was being used.
    There was also the limited introduction of
    free-market mechanisms.
  • Significance
  • Much of the government resisted perestroika
    reforms due to wanting to maintain control.
  • The government attempted to make the country have
    a system similar to democracy.

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Mikhail
Gorbachev." Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
Encyclopedia Britannica, Jan.-Feb. 2014. Web. 20
Mar. 2014.
Intermediate-Range Forces Treaty (1987)
  • Required the U.S. and the Soviet Union to give up
    all of their powerful and nuclear weapons.
    Allowed for 20 short-notice inspections per year,
    as well as inspection and inventory of missiles
    30-90 days after initiation of the treaty. As a
    result many powerful missiles were destroyed.
  • Significance
  • Marked the first time that large world powers
    agreed to limit weapons and open themselves up to
    inspections on the matter

"The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF)
Treaty at a Glance." Arms Control Association.
ACA, Feb. 2008. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. "The Moscow
Summit 20 Years Later." The Moscow Summit 20
Years Later. The National Security Archive, n.d.
Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
Gorbachev announces USSRs policy of
nonintervention in Eastern and Central America
  • Gorbachev wanted to improve relations with the
    US. He wanted nuclear non-proliferation with
    America. Also in Gorbachevs speech he stated
    that he would not resort to previous Soviet
    Policy by interfering with satellite states/
    Warsaw pact territories in eastern Europe, and
    with this it allowed the satellite states to
    reform their government as well as hold
    multiparty elections if they wanted to.
  • Significance
  • The result of Gorbachevs new policy was the end
    of communism in Eastern Europe and eventually by
    1992 the Soviet Union collapsed.

"Perestroika The Word That Changed the World."
RT. N.p., 27 Jan. 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
Formation of NAFTA
  • The North American Free Trade Agreement aka NAFTA
    was eliminated the majority of tariffs on
    products traded among the United States, Mexico
    and Canada, due to these tariffs being removed it
    encouraged trade amongst the three countries.
  • The overall significance of NAFTA would be that
    the economy of America has grown 54 since the
    adoption of NAFTA and 25 million new jobs were
    created as well therefore NAFTA is seen as a
    positive aspect of foreign policy.

"North American Free Trade Agreement." Wikipedia.
Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 23 Mar.
Fall of Berlin Wall Reunification of Germany
  • Historical Overview
  • The Berlin Wall was a wall which surrounded
    Western Berlin from Eastern Germany. Germany was
    broken up into four parts at the close of World
    War II. Eastern Germany was controlled by the
    USSR while Western Germany was controlled by
    Great Britain, France, and the United States.
    Because Berlin was the nations capital, it was
    also broken up into four sectors. The areas
    controlled by France, Great Britain, and the
    United States would united into Western Berlin.
    The USSR created this wall to stop democratic
    influences from leaking into Eastern Germany. The
    wall would eventually fall on November 9, 1989.
    This would help to lead to the reunification in
    1990. Germany was reunified when the Federal
    Republic of Germany (West Germany) united with
    The German Democratic Republic (East
    Germany).Treaty on the Final Settlement with
    Respect to Germany was signed in Moscow on
    September 12, 1990. Under this treaty, the allied
    troops stationed in Germany left in 1994.
  • US Response
  • The United States helped to reunite Germany
    following the fall of the Berlin Wall
  • Historical Significance
  • This event helped to ease the Cold War tensions
    because the question of what to do with Germany
    was ended between the Four Powers. This decreases
    the amount of disagreement between the US and the

"Berlin Wall." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation,
n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.
Operation Desert Storm (1991)
  • Historical Overview
  • Also called the Gulf War, Operation Desert Storm
    was a war waged by thirty-four countries (led by
    the United States) opposed to Iraqs invasion of
    Kuwait during the Persian Gulf War. This was the
    first incident where the United States was
    actually involved in the Middle East.
  • US Response
  • The United States sent in troops to Kuwait to
    push out Iraq. The U.S. spent a total of sixty
    billion dollars in this operation
  • Overall Historical Significance
  • This operation is historically significant
    because the US lead the largest group of
    countries since WWII against a threat. This
    operation would also lead to a war in Iraq in the
    next decade.

"Desert Storm." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation,
n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2014
Gorbachev resigns (1991)
  • After Gorbachev resigned in 1991, there were
    immediate changes, for example, the Cold War
    ended and the USSR separated. In Gorbachevs
    farewell speech, he talks about why he resigned,
    and his main motive to resignation was the
    development and creation of the CIS. Even before
    the development of the CIS, Gorbachev had lost
    his power in the Soviet Union and the economy had
    become unstable.

"Gorbachev Resigns as President of the USSR." AE Television Networks, n.d. Web.
24 Mar. 2014.
USSR dissolved into 15 separate nations by end of
the year (1993)
  • Historical Overview
  • In December of 1991, the USSR began to dissolve
    into fifteen separate nations. During this month,
    representative from eleven of the Soviet unions
    provinces met to discuss the breaking up of the
    USSR. The fifteen nations created the
    Commonwealth of Independent States to replace the
    USSR. One of the main causes of this dissolution
    is the radical reform which was created during
    Gorbachevs presidency. The fall of the USSR
    represented the fall of communism's greatest
  • U.S. Response
  • This was seen as a victory for the United States
    and democracy in general. The United States was
    ecstatic about the fall of the USSR because it
    signified the end of the Cold War as the US was
    now the worlds only superpower.
  • Overall Historical Overview
  • This haltered the spread of communism and helped
    the spread of democracy. The dissolving of the
    USSR changed the status of the world and its
    nations disputes.

"Fall of the Soviet Union." AE
Television Networks, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014.
"The Cold War Museum." Cold War Museum. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2014.
The End?
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