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The Cold War Scaled Down


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Title: The Cold War Scaled Down

The Cold WarScaled Down
  • 1945-1991

Cold War
  • a bitter indirect conflict between the USSR the
    U.S. that lasted for 4 decades after the end of

The History Behind it
  • Russian Revolution of 1917 U.S. says will not
    recognize USSR as government. Does not recognize
    them as the government until 1933.
  • Non-aggression pact with Hitler then they fight
    on our side
  • USSR blamed U.S. for delay of western front
  • Atomic bomb project (U.S. kept USSR in dark but
    told G.B.)

Different Visions or paths
  • U.S. hopes after WWII share democratic ideas with
    the world. Liberty, Equality, Representative
  • Economic markets
  • USSR Communism predicts through class struggle
    the world will eventually triumph
  • USSR Totalitarian Dictatorship central
    government rules by terror and his complete
    control over peoples lives

Different Visions or paths
  • Dispute over Poland- USSR says they must have
    biggest influence on Poland- Satellite Nations
    Soviet dominated countries, Poland, Romania,
  • Iron curtain now dropped divided Europe
    Capitalist West --- Communist East this curtain
    must not be allowed to close around more nations
    (PIGS STORY 4 walls food) (CUBA story of schools
    prayer candy story and plant story God and Cuba)

Tensions Increase
  • League of Nations has failed
  • 1945 The United Nations (UN) formed U.S.
    supports this time. 50 nations agree to join
    pledge to settle their different peacefully, try
    end wars that do start
  • Containment U.S. policy goal to contain the
    spread of communism in the World. Stop spread of
    We would apply this.

Tensions Increase
  • 1947 Greece and Turkey in bad shape economically
    G.B. had been supplying economic and military aid
    they can no longer---Truman afraid they will fall
    to the communist----U.S. gives Greece Turkey
    400million in aid
  • Truman Doctrine cold war policy pledging U.S.
    support to all free people resisting communism
  • 1947 Marshall Plan plan to rebuild Europe
    Economically so it can withstand the threat of
    communism puts 13 billion dollars in Europe over
    next 4 years--- benefit to U.S. give strong trade
    partners----Biggest aid package 3.1 billion Great
    Britain----32 million Iceland

Tensions Increase
  • Yalta Conference During war GB, US, France,
    USSR agree to occupy Germany after war is
    over---divided into East West Germany
  • 1948 Berlin Airlift Stalin tries to force
    western allies out of Berlin. Closes roads and
    railroads West response around the clock airlift
    over 1 year--- USSR finally lifts blockade----
    hostility grows---- lasted 10 months
  • NATO North Atlantic Treaty organization
    (collective security)m12 nations in this
    alliance--- most important U.S.--- attack on one
    is an attack on all---- U.S now involved in
    European affairs (USSR responds with Warsaw Pact)

Worry in Asia
  • 1949 Mao Zedong communist party come to power
    in China--- spread of communism in Asia?
  • 1949 atomic explosion takes place in USSR now we
    are not alone ARMS RACE
  • U.S. Military budget increased another
    containment measure an arms race.
  • During 1950s U.S. will continue containment Some
    want to liberate satellite nations (countries
    controlled politically economically by USSR)

Examples of Containment leading to war
  • Korean War Japan had controlled Korea for
    several years. Japan will have to give up Korea _at_
    the end of the war. USSR accepts surrender in
    North above 38th parallel---USA accepts surrender
    below 38th South
  • Both North and South Korea want to be unified
  • 1950 North Korea makes moves across 38th
    parallel UN declares North Korea aggressor---UN
    must restore peace
  • Truman did not ask Congress to Declare War

Examples of Containment leading to war
  • UN troops lead by Douglas MacArthur push back
    North Korean troops back across 38th nearly to
    China---want to unify on South Korean
    terms---China says stop
  • China enters forces UN troops back to South
    MacArthur wants to use nuclear weapons , Truman
    no, fires MacArthur
  • War finally ends 1953 actually truce signed Korea
    still divided--- over 50,000 Americans die

Examples of Containment leading to war
  • Americans unsure about this war this war was not
    very popular people do question it---1950
  • 54,000 Americans die, 100,000 casualties, 2
    million Koreans 422,000 Chinese killed
  • Communism contained Korea same
  • Military build up continues

  • Students write essay on containment---evaluate
    was it a success in Korea. Smart policy? Why?
    Middle East?

Red Scare Part II
  • Truman administration worries about communism
    entering the U.S.
  • Communist party grew during depression
  • 1946 spy rings exposed
  • EST. Fed employee Loyalty Program--- FBI checks
    files of suspicious employees--- several 1000
    employees dismissed --- hurts many reputations
  • HVAC---established by congress to investigate
    Hollywood others 500 black listed

Spies among us
  • Alger Hiss high ranking government official
    accused of being a communist spy 1930s (by a
    former communist) espionage not proved goes to
    jail for perjury
  • Most people believe there is a real communist
    threat Proof knows intimate details about Hiss
    life Hiss had given old car away 5yrs for perjury

Spies among us
  • The Rosenbergs accused of being Soviet spies
    refused to give any information to the
    government--- executed in 1953 (make example)
    pled the 5th when asked if communist--- 1st
    civilians executed for espionage in the U.S.
    (electric chair)

Spies among us
  • McCarthyism background Senator Joseph McCarthy
    republican senator from Wisconsin (worst senator
    in senate at this time) speaking in West Virginia
    at a women s club (1950) claims he can point out
    2005 card carrying communist--- working for
  • Why did people believe him?
  • Lied about war service tail gunner Joe (really
    a secretary)
  • He was an alcoholic (brief case of bourbon)
  • Carried a brief case full of so called documents
    against the communist

Spies among us
  • Cause scare
  • Join communist party in Texas 20yrs in jail
  • Fluoridation in water? Robin Hood banned
  • Accused the U.S. Army of harboring communist
  • They say prove it
  • McCarty takes them to trial
  • News catches him yelling, belching, picking his
    nose etc
  • Only evidence a dentist who wouldnt sign a
    pledge of dedication to the US govt.
  • McCarthy lost trial

Spies among us
  • Never uncovered a single communist
  • McCarthyism definition (witch hunt) 1950 Brave
    patriotic stand against communism
  • Today
  • A smear campaign of groundless accusations from
    which the accused could not escape only
    confessions accepted people blacklisted accused
    go to trial

Truman Years
  • Economy Postwar economy one of the greatest
    periods of expansion in history---- computers are
    put into use by factories business--- TV makes
    it big---- movement to the suburbs
  • Truman 1 job after WWII get soldiers home no
    boats no votes by 46 most soldiers are home
  • Truman 2 consumer goods had been limited during
    the war (greatest challenge keep inflation in
    check) war is over consumers want goods have
    money to spend
  • Huge demand inflation soars 25
  • )

Truman Years
  • Wages will not keep up, people not enjoying the
    fruits of sacrifice
  • 1946 4.6 million workers on strike, more than any
    time in history, many major industries impacted
    (Truman wants to draft striking RR workers)
  • Truman afraid wage increase will drive prices
    even higher
  • Taft-Hartley passed by Congress in 1947 If
    strike effects National interest, President can
    order them back to work (80 day cool off) govt.
    will conduct study (Truman did not support

Truman Years
  • Trumans Fair Deal 21 point extension of FDRs
    New Deal will promote
  • Employment
  • More unemployment compensation
  • Higher minimum wage
  • National Health Insurance
  • Control Atomic energy

Truman Years
  • Conservatives (Democrats and Republicans) oppose
    block most Fair Deal Legislation
  • Most Americans wear about expanding
  • Fair Deal Legislation
  • Did extended Social Security to 10 million more
  • Raised minimum wage 40cents to 75 cents
  • Many people see Truman as a bungling Bureaucrat
  • To err is Truman

Truman Years
  • Midterm elections Republicans win majorities in
  • 46-48 Republicans focus on
  • Decrease taxes
  • Reduce size and power of federal government
  • Block Trumans liberal goals

Truman Years
  • Truman also hurt by stance he takes on Civil
  • He supported Civil Rights hoped for
  • Gain Federal support for anti-lynching law
  • Abolish the poll tax
  • Create a board to prevent discrimination
  • Congress Refused All
  • 1948 Truman did ban discrimination in hiring of
    Federal employees
  • Ordered end to segregation in Armed forces

Things To Remember
  • Germany, and most specifically Berlin is divided
    after WWII
  • The Marshal Plan rebuilds Germany and Japan after
    the war
  • Communist are bad-The Soviet Union and
  • Korea is cold in the winter
  • Harry S. Truman (HST) is still the best President

The Berlin Airlift
  • The Berlin Blockade was one of the first major
    international crises of the Cold War.
  • During the multinational occupation of post-World
    War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the
    three Western powers' railroad and street access
    to the western sectors of Berlin that they had
    been controlling.
  • Their aim was to force the western powers to
    allow the Soviet controlled regions to start
    supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby
    giving them nominal control over the entire city.

  • In response, the Western Allies formed the Berlin
    Airlift to supply the city over pre-arranged air
  • The effort was initially viewed with skepticism
    even in the countries mounting the attempt, as
    this sort of logistical effort had never been
    mounted before.
  • The airlift to supply the German 6th Army at
    Stalingrad required 300 tons per day and rarely
    came even close to delivering this the Berlin
    effort would require at least 5,000 tons a day,
    well over ten times as much.
  • In spite of this, by the spring of 1949 the
    effort was clearly succeeding, and by April the
    airlift was delivering more cargo than had
    previously flowed into the city via rail.

Air Corridors To Berlin
Operation Little Vittles
  • Gail Halvorsen, one of the many Airlift pilots,
    decided to use his off time to fly into Berlin
    and make movies with his handheld camera.
  • As a goodwill gesture, he handed out his only two
    sticks of Wrigley's Doublemint Gum, and promised
    that if they did not fight over them, the next
    time he returned he would drop off more.
  • Before he left them, a child asked him how they
    would know it was him flying over, and he
    replied, "I'll wiggle my wings."
  • The very next day, on approach to Berlin, he
    rocked the aircraft and dropped some chocolate
    bars attached to a handkerchief parachute to the
    children waiting below.

  • Every day after that the number of children would
    increase and he made several more drops.
  • Soon there was a stack of mail in Base Ops
    addressed to "Uncle Wiggly Wings", "The Chocolate
    Uncle" and "The Chocolate Flier".
  • His commanding officer was upset when the story
    appeared in the news, but when Tunner heard about
    it he approved of the gesture and immediately
    expanded it into "Operation Little Vittles".
  • Soon the major candy companies joined in as well.
    In the end, over three tons of candy were dropped
    on Berlin, and the "operation" became a major
    propaganda success.
  • The candy-dropping aircraft were quickly
    christened "raisin bombers" by the German

The Truman Doctrine
  • The Truman Doctrine is a proclamation by Harry S.
    Truman on March 12, 1947.
  • It stated that the U.S. would support the Kingdom
    of Greece and Turkey economically and militarily
    to prevent their falling under Soviet control.
  • Truman called upon the U.S. to "support free
    peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation
    by armed minorities or by outside pressures,"
    which generalized his hopes for Greece and Turkey
    into a doctrine applicable throughout the world.
  • The Soviet Union was clearly at the heart of
    Truman's thoughts, but the nation was never
    directly mentioned in his speech.

  • Truman was attempting to solve Eastern Europe's
    instability while making sure the spread of
    communism would not affect nations like Greece
    and Turkey.
  • The Truman Doctrine represented the hard side of
    containment policy, while the Marshall Plan
    constituted the soft side.

The Forgotten War
  • The war starts, as you read, in June of 1950 when
    the North Koreans invade South Korea
  • It ends on June 27, 1951 when a cease fire is
    signed and the 38th Parallel is established as
    the border
  • The Korean Conflict (technically) is still going

  • The MASH unit was conceived by Michael E. DeBakey
    as the "mobile auxiliary surgical hospital".
  • It was an alternative to the system of portable
    surgical hospitals, field hospitals, and general
    hospitals used during World War II.
  • It was designed to get experienced personnel
    closer to the front, so that the wounded could be
    treated sooner and with greater success.
  • Casualties were first treated at the point of
    injury through buddy aid, then routed through for
    emergency stabilizing surgery, and finally routed
    to the MASH for the most extensive treatment.
  • This proved to be highly successful it was noted
    that during the Korean War, a seriously wounded
    soldier that made it to a MASH unit alive had a
    97 chance of survival once he received treatment

Mac In Korea
  • MacArthur, as US theater commander, became
    commander of the UN forces in South Asia.
  • In September, despite lingering concerns from
    superiors, MacArthur's army and marine troops
    made a daring and successful combined amphibious
    landing at Incheon, deep behind North Korean
  • Launched with naval and close air support, the
    daring landing outflanked the North Koreans,
    forcing them to retreat northward in disarray.
  • UN forces pursued the North Korean forces,
    eventually approaching the Yalu River border with
  • MacArthur boasted "The war is over. The Chinese
    are not coming... The Third Division will be back
    in Fort Benning for Christmas dinner."

  • In April 1951, MacArthur's habitual disregard of
    his superiors led to a crisis.
  • He also sent an ultimatum to the Chinese Army
    which destroyed HSTs cease-fire efforts.
  • This was seen by HST as a violation of the
    American constitutional principle that military
    commanders are subordinate to civilian
    leadership, and usurpation of the President's
    authority to make foreign policy.
  • By this time HST decided MacArthur was
    insubordinate, and relieved him of command on
    April 11, 1951, leading to a storm of
  • HST received criticism from WWII vets as well as
    his own mother in law

Back To HST
  • During this time HST is also going to enact what
    he calls the Fair Deal
  • This was designed to strengthen New Deal
    legislation and create new programs

  • This legislation never made it through the Do
    Nothing Congress and Truman leaves the
    Presidency with approval ratings in the 20 to 30

1948 Election
  • Truman decides to run seems like a bad idea he
    was having problems with his own party
  • Democrats Split--- Truman will be democratic
  • Southern Democrats form a party called
    Dixiecrats choose Strom Thurmond of South
    Carolina as their candidate----They opposed
  • Progressive Party liberal democrats choose Henry
    Wallace 1 time VP of FDR maybe he could carry out
    FDRs plans
  • Split seemed to spell doom for Truman

1948 Election
  • Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey
  • Truman ran a whistle stop campaign pulls
    biggest upset in historyTruman tactic was to
    attack the Republican Do Nothing Congress
  • Democrats also gain control of Congress
  • Republicans were frustrated push for 22nd
    amendment that limits a president to 2 terms

1952 Election
  • Truman Out
  • Democrat Adalai Stevenson
  • Republican Dwight Eisenhower former Military
  • I Like IKE
  • K1C2 Formula for victory
  • End Korean War with honor
  • Tough approach to communism
  • Running mate R. Nixon promised to hammer govt.

1952 Election
  • Eisenhower was a very popular candidate but his
    campaign ran into a snag
  • Richard Nixon V.P. Candidate accused of having a
    special fund set up by rich republican supporters
  • Nixon Response The Checkers Speech
  • Denied any wrong doing
  • Gave personal account of finance
  • wife wears a respectable republican cloth coat
  • Had received a gift he would not return black and
    white cocker spaniel little girl named Checkers
  • Nixon stays V.P. IKE becomes president 55 of
    popular vote will serve 2 terms

Eisenhower as President
  • Brought with him approach called
  • Modern Republicanism conservative when it comes
    to money but liberal when it comes to human
  • Favored big business
  • Cut government spending, but did not try to
    reverse the New Deal (Social Security extended
    minimum wage increased)
  • Economy Slumped

Things To Remember
  • Soviets dont like us at the point
  • Nukes are powerful
  • General Dwight David Eisenhower (Ike) is the
    President after Truman and though he is good hes
    no Harry Truman
  • We would also like to Welcome the Central
    Intelligence Agency into the picture

Building An Empire
  • As we talked about yesterday, after WWII the
    world broke into two different groups- us (The
    Free World) and them (The Communist World)
  • Each set out to collect colonies and out posts to
    expand their ideals
  • Whenever one side would gain a colony, the other
    would struggle to create a colony of their own
    near it to keep the other from gaining the upper

U.S v.s Them
Building A Nuclear Force
  • In the back of the Soviet and American was the
    idea of developing a colony that was close enough
    to strike their enemy with a nuke
  • In 1952 the U.S tested its first Hydrogen Bomb
  • In 1953 the Soviet tested their first H-Bomb
  • The Hydrogen Bomb was even more effective and
    deadly than the atom bomb, but hey when youre
    wiping whole towns off the map- whats a few more

Zero Sum
  • This arms race, and the Cold War, are often
    called an exercise in Brinkmenship
  • Brinkmenship is the idea that both sides have
    roughly the same weapons and try to gain a upper
    hand without going over the brink
  • However, many opponents (to this day) say that
    building a large nuclear arsenal is a zero sum
    exercise because in the end no one would win
  • Your text calls this mutually assured destruction

Ike Steps In
  • Ike opposed spending billions of dollars on
    regular forces (armies, navies, and air forces-oh
    my) and favored stockpiling nuclear weapons
  • His approach did save money
  • In 1953 the defense budget was 50.5 billion
  • In 1955 it was only 35.8

The Eisenhower Doctrine
  • Ike (in response to then recent events in Egypt)
    announced that the U.S would use force in any
    Middle Eastern country that was threatened by
  • He would use this to justify sending troops into

Who Called The CIA?
  • The Central Intelligence Agency was working
    within then Soviet Union as well as countries
    that would potentially fall to the Communist
  • After Stalin dies in 1953, the U.S saw an
    opportunity to stave off Communist Growth
  • In places like Poland, Hungary, and
    Czechoslovakia the CIA helped fund and support
    rebellions against the Soviets

The CIA In Iran Guatemala
  • Ike approves the CIA to use covert measures to
    form a coup that over throws the un-friendly
    governments in Iran in 1953 and Guatemala in 1954
  • Both were successful but create long standing
    hatred of the U.S in both countries
  • Many historians debate why the CIA was involved
    with a coup in what seemed to be a harmless
    government in Guatemala, but upon further
    inspection, you see that the United Fruit Company
    had lobbied the CIA to over-throw the government
    that purposed Communist ideals

Final Questions
  • What methods did the U.S use in its global
    struggle against the Soviet Union
  • How was the Eisenhower Doctrine similar to the
    Truman Doctrine?

Cold War Continued
  • 1957 USSR launched Sputnik 1st artificial
    satellite to orbit earth, weighed about 185lbs
    little bigger than basketball
  • Sputnik II launched a few months after Sputnik
    1---bigger---carried a dog
  • These Satellites Caused
  • Fear (Fall Out Shelters)
  • Education failing/ science math (National
    Defense Education Act)
  • NASA (National Aeronautics Space
    Administration) caused Space Race

The Culture Of The 1950s
  • For Bell Work Get out a piece of paper and write
    down as many things about the 1950s American
    culture you can think of
  • Items you might know can include musicians or
    musical groups, TV shows, famous people, toys,
    games, ideas, events,

Things To Remember
  • Were in the same time frame as we have been
  • Cars were made of metal
  • Paint had lead in it
  • This is, mostly likely, the decade many of your
    parents were born in
  • Johnny Cash becomes famous as well as this guy
    named Elvis-who names their kid Elvis?

Role of Men and Women (50s style)
  • Men
  • go to school, find a job, support wife family
  • For most part they continue to make most
    important political, economic, social
  • Women
  • Take care of home not unusual to be married at
    age 16,attend school functions, raise children

Role of Men and Women (50s style)
  • 1950 24 married women work outside the home it
    did increase 31 by 1960
  • 1963 Betty Friedan published The Feminine
    Mystique declared women were frustrated had a
    difficult time choosing alternative roles.

The G.I Bill
  • As World War Two came to a close, they Federal
    government had a large problem
  • What would it do with all the men that had either
    joined or were drafted into the military
  • In an attempt to combat the typical post-war
    economic depression, with high jobless rates, the
    federal government decided to enact the laws that
    became known as the Montgomery G.I. Bills or G.I
    Bill for short

  • Under the G.I Bill returning veterans were given
    money and encouraged to enter college.
  • It also gave money to those who could not find a
  • Many veterans took this money and either entered
    or returned to college, and increased the amount
    of college degrees drastically
  • Many modern historians have argued that the G.I
    Bill is one of the most significant pieces of
    legislation ever passed-
  • Partially (my opinion) because it inspired many
    African Americans to enter what were then
    segregated college

The Baby Boom
  • Another culturally significant event was the baby
  • As the name suggests it was a large increase of
    babies born
  • But as these babies grow up there is going to be
    an increase demand for everything in life-
    college degree, homes, job, and now health care

Lead Sleds
  • With a growing number of families moving into
    suburban homes the need for cars also increased
    in the post war years
  • The number of registered cars jumped from 26
    million in 1946 to 60 million in 1960

The Interstate Highway Act
  • Ike saw the increased traffic on Americas roads
    to be a problem so in 1956 he had Congress pass
    the Interstate Highway Act
  • These new roads allowed the average Americans the
    opportunity to travel to places like Disney World
  • While this helped the American public it also had
    military benefits
  • In the case of a Nuclear Attack or Russian
    Invasion the military could use the highways to
    rush forces quickly to where they were needed

Rock N Roll
  • A form of popular music arising from and
    incorporating a variety of musical styles,
    especially rhythm and blues, country music, and
  • Originating in the United States in the 1950s, it
    is characterized by electronically amplified
    instrumentation, a heavily accented beat, and
    relatively simple phrase structure

Rock N Roll In The 50s
  • The United States was divided by racial problems
    during the 1950's, but many people sensed a
    spirit of equality in Rock and Roll. 
  • With the rise of Rock and Roll's new popularity,
    black artists were becoming more popular with
    audiences of all colors.
  •  Chuck Berry was one of the first black Rock and
    Roll performers to appeal to black and white
    audiences by combining the popular black
    Rhythm-and-Blues sound with Rock and Roll.  His
    powerful guitar playing and energetic dancing
    thrilled audiences.

Chuck Berry and The Duck Walk
  • When Bill Haley's Rock Around the Clock appeared
    in 1955, America started to swing to a whole new
  • Rock Around the Clock was used in a popular movie
    named Blackboard Jungle. 
  • This movie gave Rock and Roll a huge audience and
    made Bill Haley and the Comets famous overnight.

Buddy Holly
  • Holly is described by critic Bruce Eder as "the
    single most influential creative force in early
    rock and roll.
  • His works and innovations were copied by his
    contemporaries and later musicians, notably The
    Beatles and The Rolling Stones, and exerted a
    profound influence on popular music.
  • In 2004, Rolling Stone Magazine ranked Holly 13
    on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All

  • Hollys career only span about a year before he,
    Richie Valens, and The Big Bopper were killed in
    a plane crash
  • In a strange twist of fate a young man by the
    name of Waylon Jennings was supposed to have had
    Hollys seat on the plane that crashed
  • Hollys death was the inspiration for Don
    McLeans Bye, Bye Miss American Pie

My Favorite Of The 1950s
  • Johnny Cash was born J. R. Cash in Kingsland,
    Arkansas and raised in Dyess, Arkansas
  • Cash started a band with Luther Perkins and
    Marshal Grant, and would eventually audition for
    Sam Phillips at Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee
  • Sun was famous already for having signed Elvis
    Presley, and the more popular at the time, Jerry
    Lee Lewis

  • Cash and his band the Tennessee Three would spend
    most of the 1950s touring with the likes of
    Elvis, Roy Orbison, and Jerry Lee Lewis

  • Elvis is by far the popular musician of all
    times, but in the 1950s he was just starting out
  • On July 18, 1953, Presley went to Sun Records'
    Memphis Recording Service to record "My
    Happiness" with "That's When Your Heartaches
    Begin", supposedly a present for his mother

  • On January 10, Presley made his first recordings
    for RCA in Nashville, Tennessee. The session
    produced "Heartbreak Hotel/I Was The One" which
    was released on January 27.
  • The public reaction to "Heartbreak Hotel"
    prompted RCA to release it as a single in its own
    right (February 11). April it had hit number one
    in the U.S. charts, selling in excess of one
    million copies.

  • After more hectic touring, Presley returned to
    The Milton Berle Show on June 5 and performed
    "Hound Dog" (without his guitar).
  • Singing the song up tempo, he then began a slower
  • Presley's "gyrations" created a storm of
    controversyeven eclipsing the 'communist threat'
    headlines prevalent at the time.
  • The press described his performance as "vulgar"
    and "obscene".
  • On March 24, 1958, he was inducted as US Army
    private 53310761 and completed basic training at
    Fort Hood, Texas on September 17, 1958, before
    being posted to Friedberg, Germany with the 3rd
    Armored Division, where his service took place
    from October 1, 1958

Dissent and Discontent
  • Despite the relative prosperity of the 1950s
  • Many felt as is the material conditions had
    improved during the 1950s but the quality of
    life had not
  • These protest that start in the 1950s are going
    to be what plants the seed for the mass protests
    of the cant have Hippies without

Literary Protest
  • The protest would primarily come from writers
    like J.D Salinger, Sloan Wilson, Jack Kerouac
    Truman Capote, and William S. Burroughs
  • Where writers like Hemmingway, Faulkner, Wolfe,
    and Fitzgerald made up the Lost Generation
    these writers become the Beat Generation

The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit
  • The novel about the American search for purpose
    in world dominated by business.
  • Tom and Betsy Rath share a struggle to find
    contentment in their hectic and material culture.
  • In the end, it is a story of taking
    responsibility for one's own life.
  • The book was largely autobiographical, drawing on
    Wilson's experiences as assistant director of the
    US national citizen commission for the public

The Catcher In The Rye
  • First published in the United States in 1951, the
    novel has been frequently challenged in its home
    country for its liberal use of profanity and
    portrayal of sexuality and teenage angst.
  • Originally published for adults, the novel has
    become a common part of high school and college
    curricula throughout the English-speaking world
    it has also been translated into almost all of
    the world's major languages.

  • Written in the first person, The Catcher in the
    Rye follows a young mans (Holden Caulfield)
    experiences in New York City in the days
    following his expulsion from Pencey Prep, a
    college preparatory school.
  • As Holden shares his experiences, it becomes
    evident that he is talking from a mental facility
    where he is being psychoanalyzed
  • Holden spends a total of two days in the city,
    characterized largely by drunkenness and
  • At one point he ends up at a museum, where he
    contrasts his life with the statues of Eskimos on
  • Holden intends to move out west, in the end he
    doesnt go
  • His voice in the novel's last few pages indicates
    more perspective, yet he remains lonely and
    without definite direction

On The Road
  • It is a largely autobiographical based on the
    road trips of Kerouac and his friends across
    mid-century America.
  • It is often considered a defining work of the
    postwar Beat Generation that was inspired by
    jazz, poetry, and drug experience
  • The novel was chosen by TIME Magazine as one of
    the 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to

  • The book begins by introducing the catalyst for
    most of the adventures of the story Dean
  • The narrator, Sal Paradise, is fascinated with
    the idea of humanity, and particularly his
    eclectic group of friends, jazz, the landscapes
    of America, and women.
  • The opening paragraph states that "with the
    coming of Dean Moriarty began the part of my life
    you could call my life on the road."

  • His friend Remi Boncœur has sent an invitation to
    join him, with hints of worldwide travels aboard
    a ship.
  • He sets out with fifty dollars in his pocket.
  • From there he travels across the world and
  • Dean comes back to New York to see Sal and steal
    Sals girl, but it doesnt work so Dean returns
    to the West alone.
  • Sal closes the novel sitting on a pier during
    sunset, looking west reminiscing on God, America,
    and the idea that "nobody knows whats going to
    happen to anybody besides the forlorn rags of
    growing old,"

Vietnam War Overview
  • 1945
  • Ho Chi Minh Creates Provisional Government  
    Following the surrender of Japan to Allied
    forces, Ho Chi Minh and his People's Congress
    create the National Liberation Committee of
    Vietnam to form a provisional government. Japan
    transfers all power to Ho's Vietminh.
  • Ho Declares Independence of Vietnam
  • British Forces Land in Saigon, Return Authority
    to French
  • First American Dies in Vietnam    Lt. Col. A.
    Peter Dewey, head of American OSS mission, was
    killed by Vietminh troops while driving a jeep to
    the airport. Reports later indicated that his
    death was due to a case of mistaken identity --
    he had been mistaken for a Frenchman.

Vietnam War Overview
  • 1954
  • Eisenhower Cites "Domino Theory" Regarding
    Southeast Asia   Responding to the defeat of the
    French by the Vietminh at Dienbienphu, President
    Eisenhower outlines the Domino Theory "You have
    a row of dominoes set up. You knock over the
    first one, and what will happen to the last one
    is the certainty that it will go over very
  • Geneva Convention Begins     Delegates from nine
    nations convene in Geneva to start negotiations
    that will lead to the end of hostilities in
    Indochina. The idea of partitioning Vietnam is
    first explored at this forum.
  • Geneva Convention Agreements Announced    
    Vietminh General Ta Quang Buu and French General
    Henri Delteil sign the Agreement on the Cessation
    of Hostilities in Vietnam. As part of the
    agreement, a provisional demarcation line is
    drawn at the 17th parallel which will divide
    Vietnam until nationwide elections are held in
    1956. The United States does not accept the
    agreement, neither does the government of Bao

Vietnam War Overview
  • 1960
  • Vietcong Formed     Hanoi forms National
    Liberation Front for South Vietnam. Diem
    government dubs them "Vietcong."
  • 1961
  • Vice President Johnson Tours Saigon     During a
    tour of Asian countries, Vice President Lyndon
    Johnson visits Diem in Saigon. Johnson assures
    Diem that he is crucial to US objectives in
    Vietnam and calls him "the Churchill of Asia."
  • 1962
  • US Military Employs Agent Orange     US Air
    Force begins using Agent Orange -- a defoliant
    that came in metal orange containers-to expose
    roads and trails used by Vietcong forces.
  • 1963
  • Diem Overthrown, Murdered     With tacit
    approval of the United States, operatives within
    the South Vietnamese military overthrow Diem. He
    and his brother Nhu are shot and killed in the

Vietnam War Overview
  • 1964
  • General Nguyen Khanh Seizes Power in Saigon    
    In a bloodless coup, General Nguyen Khanh seizes
    power in Saigon. South Vietnam junta leader,
    Major General Duong Van Minh, is placed under
    house arrest, but is allowed to remain as a
    figurehead chief-of-state.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Incident     On August 2, three
    North Vietnamese PT boats allegedly fire
    torpedoes at the USS Maddox, a destroyer located
    in the international waters of the Tonkin Gulf,
    some thirty miles off the coast of North Vietnam.
    The attack comes after six months of covert US
    and South Vietnamese naval operations. A second,
    even more highly disputed attack, is alleged to
    have taken place on August 4.
  • Debate on Gulf of Tonkin Resolution     The Gulf
    of Tonkin Resolution is approved by Congress on
    August 7 and authorizes President Lyndon Johnson
    to "take all necessary measures to repel any
    armed attack against forces of the United States
    and to prevent further aggression." The
    resolution passes unanimously in the House, and
    by a margin of 82-2 in the Senate. The Resolution
    allows Johnson to wage all out war against North
    Vietnam without ever securing a formal
    Declaration of War from Congress.

Vietnam War Overview
  • 1965
  • Operation "Rolling Thunder" Deployed   
    Sustained American bombing raids of North
    Vietnam, dubbed Operation Rolling Thunder, begin
    in February. The nearly continuous air raids
    would go on for three years.
  • US Troop Levels Top 200,000
  • 1966
  • Veterans Stage Anti-War Rally     Veterans from
    World Wars I and II, along with veterans from the
    Korean war stage a protest rally in New York
    City. Discharge and separation papers are burned
    in protest of US involvement in Vietnam.
  • CORE Cites "Burden On Minorities and Poor" in
    Vietnam    The Congress of Racial Equality
    (CORE) issues a report claiming that the US
    military draft places "a heavy discriminatory
    burden on minority groups and the poor." The
    group also calls for a withdrawal of all US
    troops from Vietnam.

Vietnam War Overview
  • 1968
  • Launch Tet Offensive      In a show of military
    might that catches the US military off guard,
    North Vietnamese and Vietcong forces sweep down
    upon several key cities and provinces in South
    Vietnam, including its capital, Saigon. Within
    days, American forces turn back the onslaught and
    recapture most areas. From a military point of
    view, Tet is a huge defeat for the Communists,
    but turns out to be a political and psychological
    victory. The US military's assessment of the war
    is questioned and the "end of tunnel" seems very
    far off.
  • My Lai Massacre     On March 16, the angry and
    frustrated men of Charlie Company, 11th Brigade,
    Americal Division entered the village of My Lai.
    "This is what you've been waiting for -- search
    and destroy -- and you've got it," said their
    superior officers. A short time later the killing
    began. When news of the atrocities surfaced, it
    sent shockwaves through the US political
    establishment, the military's chain of command,
    and an already divided American public.

Vietnam War Overview
  • 1968 Continued
  • Paris Peace Talks Begin     Following a lengthy
    period of debate and discussion, North Vietnamese
    and American negotiators agree on a location and
    start date of peace talks. Talks are slated to
    begin in Paris on May 10 with W. Averell Harriman
    representing the United States, and former
    Foreign Minister Xuan Thuy heading the North
    Vietnamese delegation.
  • 1969
  • Nixon Begins Secret Bombing of Cambodia     In
    an effort to destroy Communist supply routes and
    base camps in Cambodia, President Nixon gives the
    go-ahead to "Operation Breakfast." The covert
    bombing of Cambodia, conducted without the
    knowledge of Congress or the American public,
    will continue for fourteen months.
  • Policy of "Vietnamization" Announced   
    Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird describes a
    policy of "Vietnamization" when discussing a
    diminishing role for the US military in Vietnam.
    The objective of the policy is to shift the
    burden of defeating the Communists onto the South
    Vietnamese Army and away from the United States.

Vietnam War Overview
  • 1969 Continued
  • Ho Chi Minh Dies at Age 79
  • News of My Lai Massacre Reaches US     Through
    the reporting of journalist Seymour Hersh,
    Americans read for the first time of the
    atrocities committed by Lt. William Calley and
    his troops in the village of My Lai. At the time
    the reports were made public, the Army had
    already charged Calley with the crime of murder.

Vietnam War Overview
  • 1972
  • Nixon Cuts Troop Levels by 70K     Responding to
    charges by Democratic presidential candidates
    that he is not moving fast enough to end US
    involvement in Vietnam, President Nixon orders
    troop strength reduced by seventy thousand.
  • Secret Peace Talks Revealed
  • 1973
  • Cease-fire Signed in Paris     A cease-fire
    agreement that, in the words of Richard Nixon,
    "brings peace with honor in Vietnam and Southeast
    Asia," is signed in Paris by Henry Kissinger and
    Le Duc Tho. The agreement is to go into effect on
    January 28.
  • End of Draft Announced
  • Last American Troops Leave Vietnam

Vietnam War Overview
  • 1975
  • Ford Calls Vietnam War "Finished"    
    Anticipating the fall of Saigon to Communist
    forces, US President Gerald Ford, speaking in New
    Orleans, announces that as far as the US is
    concerned, the Vietnam War is "finished."
  • Last Americans Evacuate as Saigon Falls to
    Communists    South Vietnamese President Duong
    Van Minh delivers an unconditional surrender to
    the Communists in the early hours of April 30.
    North Vietnamese Colonel Bui Tin accepts the
    surrender and assures Minh that, "...Only the
    Americans have been beaten. If you are patriots,
    consider this a moment of joy." As the few
    remaining Americans evacuate Saigon, the last two
    US servicemen to die in Vietnam are killed when
    their helicopter crashes.

Khrushchev, Eisenhower and De-Stalinization
  • In 1953, changes in political leadership on both
    sides shifted the dynamic of the Cold War.71
    Dwight D. Eisenhower was inaugurated president
    that January. During the last 18 months of the
    Truman administration, the American defense
    budget had quadrupled, and Eisenhower moved to
    reduce military spending by a third while
    continuing to fight the Cold War effectively

Khrushchev, Eisenhower and De-Stalinization
  • After the death of Joseph Stalin, Nikita
    Khrushchev became the Soviet leader following the
    deposition and execution of Lavrentiy Beria and
    the pushing aside of rivals Georgy Malenkov and
    Vyacheslav Molotov. On February 25, 1956,
    Khrushchev shocked delegates to the 20th Congress
    of the Soviet Communist Party by cataloguing and
    denouncing Stalin's crimes.106 As part of a
    campaign of de-Stalinization, he declared that
    the only way to reform and move away from
    Stalin's policies would be to acknowledge errors
    made in the past

Khrushchev, Eisenhower and De-Stalinization
  • On November 18, 1956, while addressing Western
    ambassadors at a reception at the Polish embassy
    in Moscow, Khrushchev used his famous "Whether
    you like it or not, history is on our side. We
    will bury you" expression, shocking everyone
    present.107 He later claimed that he had not
    been talking about nuclear war, but rather about
    the historically determined victory of communism
    over capitalism.108 In 1961, Khrushchev
    declared that even if the USSR was behind the
    West, within a decade its housing shortage would
    disappear, consumer goods would be abundant, and
    within two decades, the "construction of a
    communist society" in the USSR would be completed
    "in the main"

Khrushchev, Eisenhower and De-Stalinization
  • Eisenhower's secretary of state, John Foster
    Dulles, initiated a "New Look" for the
    containment strategy, calling for a greater
    reliance on nuclear weapons against US enemies in
    wartime.71 Dulles also enunciated the doctrine
    of "massive retaliation", threatening a severe US
    response to any Soviet aggression. Possessing
    nuclear superiority, for example, allowed
    Eisenhower to face down Soviet threats to
    intervene in the Middle East during the 1956 Suez

Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution
  • While Stalin's death in 1953 slightly relaxed
    tensions, the situation in Europe remained an
    uneasy armed truce.110 The Soviets, who had
    already created a network of mutual assistance
    treaties in the Eastern Bloc by 1949,111
    established a formal alliance therein, the Warsaw
    Pact, in 1955.32
  • The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 occurred shortly
    after Khrushchev arranged the removal of
    Hungary's Stalinist leader Mátyás Rákosi.112 In
    response to a popular uprising,113 the new
    regime formally disbanded the secret police,
    declared its intention to withdraw from the
    Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free
    elections. The Soviet army invaded.114
    Thousands of Hungarians were arrested, imprisoned
    and deported to the Soviet Union,115 and
    approximately 200,000 Hungarians fled Hungary in
    the chaos.116 Hungarian leader Imre Nagy and
    others were executed following secret trials

Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution
  • From 1957 through 1961, Khrushchev openly and
    repeatedly threatened the West with nuclear
    annihilation. He claimed that Soviet missile
    capabilities were far superior to those of the
    United States, capable of wiping out any American
    or European city. However, Khrushchev rejected
    Stalin's belief in the inevitability of war, and
    declared his new goal was to be "peaceful
    coexistence".118 This formulation modified the
    Stalin-era Soviet stance, where international
    class struggle meant the two opposing camps were
    on an inevitable collision course where Communism
    would triumph through global war now, peace
    would allow capitalism to collapse on its
    own,119 as well as giving the Soviets time to
    boost their military capabilities,120 which
    remained for decades until Gorbachev's later "new
    thinking" envisioning peaceful coexistence as an
    end in itself rather than a form of class struggle

Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution
  • The events in Hungary produced ideological
    fractures within the Communist parties of the
    world, particularly in Western Europe, with great
    decline in membership as many in both western and
    communist countries felt disillusioned by the
    brutal Soviet response.122 The communist
    parties in the west would never recover from the
    effect the Hungarian Revolution had on their
    membership, a fact that was immediately
    recognized by some, such as the Yugoslavian
    politician Milovan Djilas who shortly after the
    revolution was crushed said that "The wound which
    the Hungarian Revolution inflicted on communism
    can never be completely healed

Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution
  • America's pronouncements concentrated on American
    strength abroad and the success of liberal
    capitalism.123 However, by the late 1960s, the
    "battle for men's minds" between two systems of
    social organization that Kennedy spoke of in 1961
    was largely over, with tensions henceforth based
    primarily on clashing geopolitical objectives
    rather than ideology

Berlin ultimatum and European integration
  • The maximum territorial extent of countries in
    the world under Soviet influence, after the Cuban
    Revolution of 1959 and before the official
    Sino-Soviet split of 1961
  • During November 1958, Khrushchev made an
    unsuccessful attempt to turn all of Berlin into
    an independent, demilitarized "free city", giving
    the United States, Great Britain, and France a
    six-month ultimatum to withdraw their troops from
    the sectors they still occupied in West Berlin,
    or he would transfer control of Western access
    rights to the East Germans. Khrushchev earlier
    explained to Mao Zedong that "Berlin is the
    testicles of the West. Every time I want to make
    the West scream, I squeeze on Berlin."125 NATO
    formally rejected the ultimatum in mid-December
    and Khrushchev withdrew it in return for a Geneva
    conference on the German question.

Berlin ultimatum and European integration
  • More broadly, one hallmark of the 1950s was the
    beginning of European integration
  • a fundamental by-product of the Cold War that
    Truman and Eisenhower promoted politically,
    economically, and militarily, but which later
    administrations viewed ambivalently, fearful that
    an independent Europe would forge a separate
    détente with the Soviet Union, which would use
    this to exacerbate Western disunity

Worldwide competition
  • 1961 Soviet stamp commemorating Patrice Lumumba,
    prime minister of the Republic of the Congo.
  • 1961 Soviet postage stamp demanding freedom for
    African nations.

Worldwide competition
  • 1961 Soviet stamp commemorating Patrice Lumumba,
    prime minister of the Republic of the Congo.
  • Nationalist movements in some countries and
    regions, notably Guatemala, Indonesia and
    Indochina were often allied with communist
    groups, or perceived in the West to be allied
    with communists.71 In this context, the United
    States and the Soviet Union increasingly competed
    for influence by proxy in the Third World as
    decolonization gained momentum in the 1950s and
    early 1960s128 additionally, the Soviets saw
    continuing losses by imperial powers as presaging
    the eventual victory of their ideology

Worldwide competition
  • The United States made use of the Central
    Intelligence Agency (CIA) to do away with a
    string of unfriendly Third World governments and
    to support allied ones.71 In 1953, President
    Eisenhower's Central Intelligence Agency
    implemented Operation Ajax, a covert operation
    aimed at the overthrow of the Iranian prime
    minister, Mohammad Mosaddegh. The
    popularly-elected and non-aligned Mosaddegh had
    been a Middle Eastern nemesis of Britain since
    nationalizing the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil
    Company in 1951. Churchill told the United States
    that Mosaddegh was "increasingly turning towards
    communism" and was moving Iran towards the Soviet
    sphere.130131132133 The pro-Western shah,
    Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, assumed control as an
    autocratic monarch.134 The shah's policies
    included the banning of the communist Tudeh Party
    and general suppression of political dissent by
    SAVAK, the shah's domestic security and
    intelligence agency.

Worldwide competition
  • In Guatemala, a CIA-backed military coup ousted
    the left-wing President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in
    1954.135 The post-Arbenz government, a military
    junta headed by Carlos Castillo Armas, returned
    nationalized American property, set up a National
    Committee of Defense Against Communism, and
    decreed a Preventive Penal Law Against Communism
    at the request of the United States.
  • In the Republic of the Congo, newly independent
    from Belgium since June 1960, the CIA-cultivated
    President Joseph Kasa-Vubu ordered the dismissal
    of the democratically-elected Prime Minister
    Patrice Lumumba and the Lumumba cabinet in
    September Lumumba called for Kasa-Vubu's
    dismissal instead.
  • In the ensuing Congo Crisis, the CIA-backed
    Colonel Mobutu quickly mobilized his forces to
    seize power through a military coup d'état

Worldwide competition
  • In British Guiana, the leftist People's
    Progressive Party (PPP) candidate Cheddi Jagan
    won the position of chief minister in a
    colonially-administered election in 1953, but was
    quickly forced to resign from power after
    Britain's suspension of the still-dependent
    nation's constitution.138 Embarrassed by the
    landslide electoral victory of Jagan's allegedly
    Marxist party, the British imprisoned the PPP's
    leadership and maneuvered the organization into a
    divisive rupture in 1955, engineering a split
    between Jagan and his PPP colleagues.139 Jagan
    again won the colonial elections in 1957 and
    1961 despite Britain's shift to a
    reconsideration of its view of the left-wing
    Jagan as a Soviet-style communist at this time,
    the United States pressured the British to
    withhold Guyana's independence until an
    alternative to Jagan could be identified,
    supported, and brought into office

Worldwide competition
  • Worn down by the communist guerrilla war for
    Vietnamese independence and handed a watershed
    defeat by communist Vietminh rebels at the 1954
    Battle of Ði?n Biên Ph?, the French accepted a
    negotiated abandonment of their colonial stake in
    Vietnam. Peace accords signed in Geneva left
    Vietnam divided between a pro-Soviet
    administration in North Vietnam and a pro-Western
    administration in South Vietnam at the 17th
    parallel north. Between 1954 and 1961,
    Eisenhower's United States sent economic aid and
    military advisers to strengthen South Vietnam's
    pro-Western regime against communist efforts to
    destabilize it

Worldwide competition
  • Many emerging nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin
    America rejected the pressure to choose sides in
    the East-West competition. In 1955, at the
    Bandung Conference in Indonesia, dozens of Third
    World governments resolved to stay out of the
    Cold War.141 The consensus reached at Bandung
    culminated with the creation of the
    Belgrade-headquartered Non-Aligned Movement in
    1961.71 Meanwhile, Khrushchev broadened
    Moscow's policy to establish ties with India and
    other key neutral states. Independence movements
    in the Third World transformed the post-war order
    into a more pluralistic world of decolonized
    African and Middle Eastern nations and of rising
    nationalism in Asia and Latin America

Sino-Soviet split, space race, ICBMs
  • Charting the progress of the Space Race in

Sino-Soviet split, space race, ICBMs
  • The period after 1956 was marked by serious
    setbacks for the Soviet Union, most notably the
    breakdown of the Sino-Soviet alliance, beginning
    the Sino-Soviet split. Mao had defended Stalin
    when Khrushchev attacked him after his death in
    1956, and treated the new Soviet leader as a
    superficial upstart, accusing him of having lost
    his revolutionary edge

Sino-Soviet split, space race, ICBMs
  • After this, Khrushchev made many desperate
    attempts to reconstitute the Sino-Soviet
    alliance, but Mao considered it useless and
    denied any proposal.142 The Chinese-Soviet
    animosity spilled out in an intra-communist
    propaganda war.143 Further on, the Soviets
    focused on a bitter rivalry with Mao's China for
    leadership of the global communist movement,

Sino-Soviet split, space race, ICBMs
  • On the nuclear weapons front, the United States
    and the USSR pursued nuclear rearmament and
    developed long-range weapons with which they
    could strike the territory of the other.32 In
    August 1957, the Soviets successfully launched
    the world's first intercontinental ballistic
    missile (ICBM)145 and in October, launched the
    first Earth satellite, Sputnik.146 The launch
    of Sputnik inaugurated the Space Race. This
    culminated in the Apollo Moon landings, which
    astronaut Frank Borman later described as "just a
    battle in the Cold War.

Cuban Revolution and the Bay of Pigs
  • In Cuba, the 26th of July Movement seized power
    in January 1959, toppling President Fulgencio
    Batista, whose unpopular regime had been denied
    arms by the Eisenhower administration.148
  • Diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United
    States continued for some time after Batista's
    fall, but President Eisenhower deliberately left
    the capital to avoid meeting Cuba's young
    revolutionary leader Fidel Castro during the
    latter's trip to Washington in April, leaving
    Vice President Richard Nixon to conduct the
    meeting in his place.149 Eisenhower's officials
    were not sure as to whether Castro was a
    communist, but hostile toward the Cubans' efforts
    to decrease their economic reliance on the United

Cuban Revolution and the Bay of Pigs
  • n January 1961, just prior to leaving office,
    Eisenhower formally severed relations with the
    Cuban government. In April 1961, the
    administration of newly-elected American
    President John F. Kennedy mounted an unsuccessful
    CIA-organized invasion of the island at Playa
    Girón in the Bay of Pigs  a failure that
    publicly humiliated the United States.150
    Castro responded by embracing Marxism-Leninism,
    and the Soviet Union pledged to provide support.

Berlin Crisis of 1961
  • The Berlin Crisis of 1961 was the last major
    incident in the Cold War regarding the status of
    Berlin and postWorld War II Germany. By the
    early 1950s, the Soviet approach to restricting
    emigration movement was emulated by most of the
    rest of the Eastern Bloc.151 However, hundreds
    of thousands of East Germans annually emigrated
    to West Germany through a "loophole" in the
    system that existed between East and West Berlin,
    where the four occupying World War II powers
    governed movement.
  • The emigration resulted in a massive "brain
    drain" from East Germany to West Germany of
    younger educated professionals, such that nearly
    20 of East Germany's population had migrated to
    West Germany by 1961.153 That June, the Soviet
    Union issued a new ultimatum demanding the
    withdrawal of Allied forces from West
    Berlin.154 The request was rebuffed, and in
    August, East Germany erected a barbed-wire
    barrier that would eventually be expanded through
    construction into the Berlin Wall, effectively
    closing the loophole

Cuban Missile Crisis and Khrushchev ouster
  • A U.S. Navy P-2 of VP-18 flying over a Soviet
    freighter during the Cuban Missile Crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis and Khrushchev ouster
  • Continuing to seek ways to oust Castro following
    the Bay of Pigs, Kennedy and his admini
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