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Chapter 15 The Interwar Years, World War II, and the Cold War

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Title: Chapter 15 The Interwar Years, World War II, and the Cold War


1
Chapter 15The Interwar Years, World War II, and
the Cold War
2
  • Militarism in Japan
  • Militarism in Japan
  • Impact of the Great Depression
  • Nationalism and militarism
  • Military dominated government
  • Assassination and terrorism
  • February Rebellion, 1936
  • Offensive against Manchuria
  • Alliance with Germany
  • Fascism in Italy
  • Benito Mussolini
  • Fascist party, black shirts
  • Consolidation of power, 1925-1926
  • Corporate state

3
  • Nazi Germany
  • Adolf Hitler
  • Beer Hall Putsch, 1923
  • Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
  • Appointed chancellor, 1933
  • Reichstag fire and Enabling Act, 1933
  • President and chancellor, 1934
  • Economic policies turn the economy around
  • Nazi racist ideology
  • Iberian Peninsula
  • Portugal, Antonio de Oliveira Salazar
  • Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939

4
Latin America Population Density and Guerrilla
Warfare 1. On April 1, 1964, Brazils civilian
government was displaced by the military. A
military junta was appointed and a democratic
revolution proclaimed. The military maintained
direct and indirect power until 1990 when it was
discredited and isolated due to failed economic
policies. Resistance to the military took the
form of urban guerrilla warfare. The military
responded with use of systematic torture by the
military police and the rise of "death squads"
against the leftists. The military permitted in
1982 a general election for Congress as well as
state and municipal elections. The military,
however, retained the presidency. In 1990
presidential elections were held and a civilian
was elected. 2. In Uruguay a Marxist urban
guerrilla movement called the Tupamaros was
organized in Montevideo in 1963. In the late
1960s similar guerrilla movements appeared in
Guatemala, Argentina, and Brazil. The Tupamaros
sought a violent overthrow of Uruguay's mixed
economy and the establishment of a completely
socialist state. Their tactics included robbery,
kidnapping, and murder. In 1971, after failing
to stem the guerrillas, the government turned to
the military. The following year a state of
internal war was declared. A counterinsurgency
campaign (with U.S. aid) broke the movement but
at the cost of brutality and repression. In
1981, a general was appointed the head of state.
Democratic elections were finally held in
1984. 3. In 1955, the Argentine military brougbt
down the government of President Juan Per6n who
had served since 1946. The military surrendered
power in 1958 but again in 1962 removed the
president. National elections were held in 1963
but the government was overthrown by the military
in 1966. Free elections were permitted in 1973,
opening the way for the return of Per6n.
Elected, he died a year later and was succeeded
by his wife Isabella who became the first female
head of state in Latin America. As the left and
right sought political advantage, the right
resorted to death squads (created by the Ministry
of Social Welfare) and the left to guerrilla
activity. Civil war seemed immanent in 1976
when the military once again seized power.
Civilian rule was restored in 1982 after war
against Britain over the Malvinas (Falkland)
Islands. 4. In 1970 Salvador Allende was elected
president of Chile when moderates split their
votes. His objective was to create a
Marxist-socialist state. Allande also sought to
continue a program of nationalizing the copper
industry begun by his predecessor. His attempt to
accomplish this without compensation angered the
Nixon administration that aided opponents of the
government. With the economy faltering, the army
under General Augusto Pinochet reacted with a
coup d'etat in 1973 resulting in Allende's
murder. A brutal regime under Pinochet followed
until 1989 when he was defeated by 55 percent of
the vote in a presidential election.
Nevertheless, Pinochet remained in command of the
army and was appointed senator for life. In
1999, he was arrested in England at the behest of
Spain that seeks extradition to try him for
crimes during his regime. 5. In 1979 a guerrilla
group called Sandistas launched an offensive
against President Anastasio Somoza Debayle whose
family had ruled Nicaragua since 1936. After
only seven weeks of fighting, Somoza fled and the
Sandanistas assumed power. Charging that the new
government, Cuba, and the Soviet Union were
supplying arms to rebels in El Salvador, the
United States cut off aid to Nicaragua and began
aiding guerrillas called "contras" who sought to
overthrow the Sandinista government. In 1984,
Daniel Ortega Saavedra, leader of the Sandinista
junta, was elected president with 63 of the
votes. The contra war lasted until 1989 when it
was agreed to call a general election in 1990, a
year early. In the election, Violetta Chamorro
won the presidency. Her term was plagued by
charges of corruption and dismantling the
achievements of the Sandinistas. Fearing
insurrection, in 1991 she brought the army under
her direct command. In 1996 there was a peaceful
transition of power to a new president. 6. Civil
war formally ended in 1992 after twelve years in
El Salvador. Guerrillas, drawing upon the
peasantry and their grievances, had been
fighting a rightist government backed by the
United States. A few years later, 1996, the
civil war in nearby Guatemala was brought to an
end after thirty-six years. Question 1. How did
the military and the right affect the region's
politics?
Latin America Population Density and Guerrilla
Warfare
5
  • Latin America
  • Personalist dictatorships
  • Getúlio Vargas, Brazil
  • Juan Perón, Argentina
  • Aggression in the 1930s
  • Japan against China
  • Fearful of Chinese tariffs
  • Manchurian or Mukden Incident, September 18, 1931
  • Manchuko
  • Shanghai
  • Jehol
  • National Salvation Movement

6
Europe in 1939, Eve of World War II 1. The
announcement by Adolf Hitler in March 1935 of the
creation of a new German air force and the
introduction of a draft, both contravention of
the Versailles treaty, brought condemnation from
France, Britain, and Italy but none took concrete
action. Emboldened, German troops were sent into
the demilitarized Rhineland in March 1936.
Britain viewed this simply as the reoccupation of
German territory and without British support
France chose not to act. 2. In July 1934
Austrian Nazis tried to overthrow the Austrian
government by murdering the chancellor. They
were unable to take power, however, when
Mussolini threatened to use force to stop German
troop movement intended to aid the
insurrectionists. Hitler was more successful in
March 1938 when threats of invasion forced the
chancellor to put Austrian Nazis in charge of the
government. The new government invited Germany
to send troops to maintain law and order. 3.
Italy, under Benito Mussolini, embarked on
imperialist expansion with the invasion of
Ethiopia in October 1935. Roundly condemned by
Britain and France, Mussolini drew closer to
Hitler. This relationship was solidified by
their joint support of Francisco Franco in the
Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). In 1936 Hitler
and Mussolini signed an agreement recognizing
common economic and political interests. The
Rome-Berlin Axis was born. 4. The weakness
demonstrated by the European states convinced
Hitler he could move on Czechoslovakia with
impunity. His initial demand in 1938 was
autonomy for the Sudetenland, a mountainous area
on the northwestern border containing about three
million ethnic Germans. The region contained
Czechoslovakia's most important frontier defenses
and industrial resources. On September 15, 1938,
Hitler increased his demand to cession of the
Sudetenland to Germany. Two weeks later a
hastily arranged conference at Munich gave in to
Hitler. Under the pretext of quelling internal
disorder, Germany occupied the Czech lands of
Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939. Slovakia was
declared independent and became a puppet state of
Germany. 5. The German occupation of
Czechoslovakia in March 1939 sent the
predominantly German people of Memel into a
frenzy, forcing the Lithuanian foreign minister
to surrender the territory to Germany. 6.
Annoyed by the occupation of Prague, Mussolini
struck out with his own aggression in April 1939
by transforming the Italian protectorate over
Albania into full annexation into the Italian
Empire. 7. German demands for the return of
Danzig led Britain to openly declare protection
of Poland. On September 1, 1939, Poland was
invaded. Questions 1. What drove Hitler's quest
for territory? 2. Why and how did Italy and
Germany form an alliance.
Europe in 1939, Eve of World War II
7
  • Italys Aggression
  • Invasion of Ethiopia, 1935
  • Condemnation by the League of Nations
  • German Aggression
  • Lebensraum
  • Rhineland
  • Annexation of Austria
  • Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia
  • Munich Agreement, September 1938
  • Hitler-Stalin pact, August 1939
  • Invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939

8
World War II in Europe 1. The defeat of
Poland took only four weeks. On September 28,
1939, it was divided between Germany and the
Soviet Union according to the terms of the
non-aggression pact signed on August 23, 1939.
In addition, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and
Lithuania went to the Soviets. 2. After a winter
of waiting, Germany launched an offensive on
Denmark and Norway in April 1940. The following
month Germany attacked the Netherlands, Belgium,
and France. Striking through Luxembourg and the
Ardennes Forest, the weakest part of the French
defenses, Germany raced across northern France.
Trapped at Dunkirk, the mostly British force of
330,000 men had to be evacuated between May 27
and June 4, 1940. On June 5 the Germans began an
offensive on southern France. Five days later,
Italy declared war on France to assure itself
some of the spoils. France surrendered on June
22. The northern and western parts were to be
occupied by Germany while the south, with its
capital at Vichy, would be under a puppet
government loyal to Germany. 4. In August 1940
the German Luftwaffe was turned on Britain for
the purpose of softening it up for an invasion.
The Battle of Britain lasted until June 1941 and
though there was wholesale destruction and more
than 40,000 deaths, Britain held firm.
Frustrated, Hitler broke off the attack and
turned his attention to the Russia. In
preparation for its invasion, Germany gained the
political cooperation of Hungary, Bulgaria, and
Romania. In addition, because the eastern flank
had been exposed by Italy's failure to capture
Greece, German forces were sent to Yugoslavia and
Greece in April 1941. On June 22, 1941, Russia
was invaded and by November two million Soviet
soldiers had been captured. The German army
swept into the Ukraine, besieged Leningrad
(modern St. Petersburg), and reached within
twenty-five miles of Moscow. An early winter
stopped the advance and in December the Russians
began a counterattack. Between November 1942 and
February 1943 German troops were stopped and
encircled at Stalingrad. 5. The Mediterranean
strategy of Germany to capture Egypt and the Suez
Canal with Italian troops failed and German
forces had to be sent. German advances to
Alexandria were stopped at El Alamein in the
summer of 1942. By May 1943 the Italians and
Germans had surrendered. When Tunisia was
surrendered in May 1943 the Allies crossed into
Italy to sweep into Germany from the south. In
June 1944 Rome surrendered. 6. On June 6, 1944,
the Allies invaded Europe from Normandy in
France. By the end of August they were in Paris
and in March Allied troops had crossed the Rhine.
Meanwhile, the Soviet Union pushed into Germany
from the east. At the tank battle at Kursk July
5-12, 1943, the Germans were decisively defeated.
By January 1945 Warsaw was occupied and in April
Soviet troops entered Berlin. Questions 1. With
the advantage of interior lines and a powerful
war machine, why was Germany unable to defeat the
Allies? 2. What was the strategy of the Allies to
defeat Germany?
World War II in Europe
9
  • World War II
  • Japanese War against China
  • Marco Polo Bridge Incident, July 7, 1937
  • Rape of Nanking
  • U.S. continues to sell steel and fuel to Japan
  • Axis Advances in Europe
  • Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis, 1937
  • Blitzkrieg against Poland
  • Phoney war
  • Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, and Luxembourg,
    April 1940
  • Dunkirk
  • Defeat of France and division, June 1940
  • Battle of Britain, 1940

10
  • Attack on Greece
  • Attack on Russia, June 22, 1941
  • United States Enters the War
  • U.S. cuts off scrap iron and oil to Japan, 1940
  • Simultaneous attack on British, Dutch, and U.S.
    possessions, December 7-8, 1941
  • Hitlers New Order
  • Occupied lands provide labor
  • Racial policy
  • Labor camps
  • Final Solution

11
  • Home Front
  • Central governments assume great powers to
    coordinate the economy and long range plans
  • Late civilian mobilization in Germany
  • Propaganda
  • Women
  • North Africa and the Invasion of Italy
  • Italy dispatched troops against Britain in
    northeast Africa, a failure
  • Germany sends the Afrika Corps to rescue Italy
  • British and Allied offensive in North Africa,
    1942
  • Invasion of Italy, July 1943

12
World War II in Asia and the Pacific 1. The
population of Japan had exploded from 30 million
in 1870 to 80 million in 1937. The ability to
feed the people and purchase raw materials
depended on the manufacturing of industrial goods
and textiles. When Western nations hit by the
depression sought to protect their economies by
erecting tariff barriers, Japan's economy was
devastated. This, in turn, affected democratic
growth. 2. Patriotic societies allied with the
army and navy to push for expansion at the
expense of China and Russia. The navy especially
cast its eyes on oil rich British Malaya and the
Dutch East Indies. 3. Japan had controlled
Manchuria (Manchuko) since its victory over
Russia in 1905. Chinese nationalism, however,
threatened Japan's warlord puppets. In response,
junior army officers in 1931 blew up the tracks
of a Japanese owned railroad at Mukden. Citing
the need for self-defense, Manchuria was
occupied. The following year, Japan proclaimed
Manchuko an independent state with a Manchu
puppet as emperor. Manchuria's valuable raw
materials had been guaranteed. When the League of
Nations condemned Japan in 1933, it withdrew from
the League. In July 1937 Japan invaded northern
China. Two years later, from May to September
1939, an undeclared war was fought with the
Russians on the Mongolian border. 4. Following
the German defeat of France in June 1940,
Japanese troops pushed into northern French
Indochina. By July 1941 the occupation was
completed when southern Indochina was seized.
The United States responded by cutting off
supplies of vital scrap iron and oil to Japan.
This action led the army to press for the
occupation of the oil rich Dutch East Indies and
Malaya. However, the military leaders feared
this would provoke the United States. Therefore,
a preemptive strike was determined. On December
7, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
This was quickly followed in succession by the
capture of Singapore, the Dutch East Indies, the
Philippines, and northern Burma between February
and May 1942. 5. The tide of battle turned on
May 7-8, 1942, at the battle of the Coral Sea
when naval and air power stopped the Japanese
advance and also relieved Australia from the
pressure of Japan. The following month Japanese
hopes of annihilating the rest of the American
Pacific fleet were dashed at the battle of Midway
in which Japan lost four aircraft carriers. At
this point the war became a defensive one for the
Japanese. The Americans initiated two island
hoping campaigns. The first sought the recapture
of the Philippines which was accomplished by June
1945. The second struck out across the South
Pacific beginning at the Gilbert Islands (Tarawa,
November 1943). The two offensives converged at
Okinawa in April 1945. From Okinawa American
bombers could strike Japan. Questions 1. Why
did Japan need an economic hegemony over Asia? 2.
What was the strategy of Japan in fighting the
war against the United States? What was the
strategy of the US? Why was one more successful
than the other?
World War II In Asia and the Pacific
13
  • Allied Victory in Europe
  • Allies decide to defeat Germany first
  • Success of Allied navies and air forces
  • Soviet counteroffensive, 1942
  • June 6, 1944, D Day
  • April 30, 1945, Hitler suicide
  • German surrender, May 8, 1945
  • Defeat of Japan
  • Island hopping, 1943
  • Atomic bomb Hiroshima, August 6, 1945 Nagasaki,
    August 9, 1945
  • Japanese surrender, August 14, 1945

14
131 ME-11 The Cold War in Europe,
1945-1990 1. In a speech at Westminister College
in Fulton, Missouri, on March 5, 1946, Winston
Churchill proclaimed that "... an iron curtain
has descended across the continent." 2. At Yalta
in February 1945 it was agreed that Germany,
Austria, and Berlin would be divided into four
zones of occupation. While the Western leaders
wanted Eastern European states to be independent,
autonomous, and democratic, Stalin feared that
such conditions could mean an unfriendly attitude
toward the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, rather
than risk confrontation, Stalin signed the
Declaration on Liberated Europe promising
self-determination and free democratic elections.
By 1948 the Soviets had established loyal
governments in Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria,
Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia, though
communist, remained unallied to either East or
West. 3. As disagreements over the economic and
political future of Germany became heated, the
Western Allies proceeded in 1948 with uniting
their sectors. In the summer, Russia sought to
drive the West out of Berlin (located in the
Russian sector) by closing railroads and
highways. The Berlin Blockade failed and access
was reestablished in May 1949. The split of
Germany became formal in September 1949 when a
constitution was granted to the western German
Federated Republic. In October, the eastern
German Democratic Republic was granted its own
constitution by the Soviets. In both cases,
outside troops remained while in Austria troops
were withdrawn. 4. In March 1948 Belgium, the
Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, and Britain
signed the Treaty of Brussels that provided for
cooperation in economic and military matters. In
April 1949 these states were joined by Italy,
Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and Iceland in signing
an agreement with the United States and Canada
forming the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO). A few years later, West Germany, Greece,
and Turkey joined the alliance. The United
States agreed both to supply equipment for
European rearmament and to guarantee Western
Europe against invasion. The alliance was
somewhat weakened when France, protesting the
influence of the United States in Europe,
withdrew in 1969. However, France still remained
a western ally. 5. In 1953, workers revolted in
East Germany over the nationalization of
industry. The Soviets responded with tanks.
Such a steady flight of people to West Germany
ensued that East Germany built the Berlin Wall in
August 1961. 6. The Warsaw Pact was created in
May 1955 as a formal military alliance. It
included Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East
Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the
Soviet Union. Earlier in the year, Soviet
occupation forces were withdrawn from Austria
after it pledged to be a neutral state. 7. In
October 1956 the Polish Communist Party refused
to fill the vacant office of prime minister with
a Soviet selected successor. Instead, they
selected Wladyslaw Gomulka who declared Poland
had a right to follow its own socialist path.
Nevertheless, rather than provoke the Soviets,
Poland promised to remain loyal to the Warsaw
Pact. With this, Poland was allowed to pursue
its own socialism. 8. Drawing energy from
Poland, Hungary attempted an independent road
when the new head of government, Imry Nagy,
declared it a free state on November 1, 1956.
Since the promise of free elections could
potentially doom communist rule, Russia sent
tanks into Budapest on November 4. Soviet
authority was reestablished. 9. In January 1968
Alexander Dubcek was elected first secretary of
the Czechoslovakian Communist Party and
introduced reforms that included freedom of
speech and the press. However, he went too far
when suggesting neutrality and withdrawal from
the Soviet bloc. In August the Soviet army
crushed the reform movement. 10. At Gadansk,
Poland, an independent labor movement called
Solidarity began to make revolutionary demands
for the workers in 1980. Despite arrests,
outlawing the union, and military rule,
Solidarity triumphed and parliamentary elections
were held in 1988. Question 1. What were the
future implications of Soviet gains after the war?
The Cold War in Europe, 1945-1990
15
  • Settlements with Germany
  • Germany to be divided into four occupation zones
  • De-Nazified Germany
  • Berlin divided but in Soviet zone
  • Nuremberg Trials, 1945-1946
  • Soviets retain territory gained in 1939-1940
  • Soviet boundary moved westward
  • German western boundary returned to 1937
  • Settlement with Japan
  • Emperor and government retained General Douglas
    MacArthur the allied commander in charge of Japan
  • Lost all conquests
  • Tokyo International Court
  • Emperor renounces divine status

16
  • Beginning of the Cold War, 1945-1949
  • Britain wished to retain its empire and imperial
    economic system
  • U.S. wants spheres of influence and worldwide
    free markets
  • Soviet Union wants to dominate Easter Europe and
    keep Germany military important
  • Relations deteriorate at Yalta and Potsdam
    Conferences, 1945
  • U.S. wants to rebuild Germany economically
  • West wants democratic governments in Eastern
    Europe
  • Soviets want eastern Europe as a buffer zone
  • Soviets integrate eastern economies into their
    own

17
The Economic Division of Europe During the Cold
War 1. France, Federal Republic of Germany (West
Germany), Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg,
and Italy formed the European Coal and Steel
Company (ECSC) in 1951. This was the first
post-war attempt to create a sense of European
economic unity. The arrangement sought to
establish a common market for coal and steel
among the members by eliminating tariffs and
trade barriers. 2. The success of the ECSC led
the Europeans in 1957 to create the European
Economic Community (EEC). The Common Market, as
it is called, by 1968 had eliminated customs
barriers for the six member nations and created a
large free trade area protected from the outside
nations by a common external tariff. In 1973 it
expanded to include Great Britain, Ireland, and
Denmark. Spain, Portugal, and Greece were added
in 1986. 3. In 1959, Britain, Denmark, Norway,
Sweden, Switzerland, Austria, and Portugal formed
the European Free Trade Area. Nevertheless,
Britain sought membership in EEC but was turned
down in 1963 and 1967 due to the veto of France's
president Charles de Gaulle who said that Britain
was too closely tied to the United States.
Finally, Britain was admitted in 1973. 4. The
leaders of the EEC (now called the European
Union) in 1991 signed the Treaty of Maastricht
that would eventually lead to a universal
currency and a strong central bank. It failed to
be adopted in Denmark and only narrowly was
approved in France and Britain. On January 1,
1999, Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany,
Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,
Portugal, and Spain fixed their currencies
according to the value of the Euro. By 2002 the
national currencies of these states will be
replaced by the common currency of the Euro. 5.
In 1949 the Council for Mutual Economic
Assistance was established by the Eastern
European states for economic cooperation and
integration. This was more to serve the Soviet
Union than anything else. Questions 1. Why is it
important for the European states to form a
single economic community? 2. What kind of
difficulties could undermine the EEC? 3. Why was
France opposed to British membership in the EEC?
The Economic Division of Europe during the Cold
War
18
  • Economic and Political Divisions
  • Soviets want joint Soviet-Turkish supervision
    over the Bosporus Strait
  • Civil war in Greece Britain withdraws aid
  • Truman Doctrine, March 12, 1947
  • Marshall Plan, June 1947
  • European Economic Community, 1957
  • European Community, 1992
  • Berlin Blockade, June 1948-May 1949
  • West and East Germany created, 1949
  • Communists defeat Nationalists in China, 1949

19
The New European Alliance Systems in the 1950s
and 1960 1. In March 1948 Belgium, the
Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, and Britain
signed the Treaty of Brussels that provided for
cooperation in economic and military matters. In
April 1949 these states were joined by Italy,
Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and Iceland in signing
an agreement with the United States and Canada
forming the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO). A few years later, West Germany, Greece,
and Turkey joined the alliance. The United
States agreed both to supply equipment for
European rearmament and to guarantee Western
Europe against invasion. The alliance was
somewhat weakened when France, protesting the
influence of the United States in Europe,
withdrew in 1969. However, France still remained
an ally. 2. In 1949 the Council for Mutual
Economic Assistance (COMECON) was formed by the
Eastern European states for the purpose of
integrating their economies. 3. A workers revolt
broke out in the German Democratic Republic in
1953 over the nationalization of industry. The
Soviets responded with tanks. Such a steady
flight of people to West Germany followed,
especially skilled workers, that East Germany
built the Berlin Wall in 1961. 4. The Warsaw
Pact was created in May 1955 as a formal military
alliance. It included Albania, Bulgaria,
Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland,
Romania, and the Soviet Union. Earlier in the
year, Soviet occupation forces were withdrawn
from Austria after it pledged to be a neutral
state. 5. In October 1956 the Polish Communist
Party refused to fill the vacant office of prime
minister with a Soviet selected successor.
Instead, they chose Wladyslaw Gomulka who
declared Poland had a right to follow its own
socialist path. Nevertheless, rather than
provoke the Russians, Poland promised to remain
loyal to the Warsaw Pact. With this, the Soviets
allowed Poland to pursue its own socialism. 6.
Drawing energy from Poland, Hungary attempted to
also take an independent road when the new head
of government, Imry Nagy, declared it a free
state on November 1, 1956. Since the promise of
free elections could potentially doom communist
rule, Russia sent tanks into Budapest on November
4. Soviet authority was reestablished. 7. In
January 1968 Alexander Dubcek was elected first
secretary of the Czechoslovakian Communist Party
and soon introduced reforms which included
freedom of speech and the press. However, Dubcek
went too far when he suggested neutrality and
withdrawal from the Soviet bloc. In August the
Soviet army invaded and crushed the reform
movement. Questions 1.Why would France
withdraw from NATO? 2. Why did reform work in
Poland but not Hungary and Czechoslovakia?
The New European Alliance Systems in the 1950s
and 1960s
20
  • Cold War Military Expansion
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • Warsaw Pact, 1955
  • Sputnik launched, 1957
  • Space race, mutually assured destruction
  • Dissatisfaction in East German (1953), Poland and
    Hungary (1956)
  • U.S. spy plane shot down over Russia, May 1960
  • Berlin Wall, August 1961
  • Reunited Germany, 1990
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