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Post World War 2

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Post World War 2 Rise of the Cold War – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Post World War 2


1
Post World War 2
  • Rise of the Cold War

2
After World War II
  • Germany was divided into military zones.
  • Germany was divided into East and West Germany

  • British, American, French controlled the West
  • USSR controlled the East

The city of Berlin was also divided the same way
3
Conferences
  • Tehran Conference- Set out the strategy for the
    defeat of Germany.
  • Carry on a two front war Great Britain and US
    from the West and USSR from the East

4
Conferences
  • Yalta Conference- The Big Three decided to split
    Germany and Austria into zones of occupation.
  • Also divide Vienna and Berlin

5
After World War II
  • Post-War occupation of Japan was led by
  • General MacArthur.
  • economy was devastated
  • Shortages

6
Conflicting Goals
  • Potsdam Conference (1945) - This was the start of
    the Cold War when Joseph Stalin refused
    free elections in Eastern Europe.
  • US Goals
  • 1. Encourage self-determination
  • 2. Gain access to materials and markets
    (globally)
  • 3. Rebuild Europe
  • 4. Reunite Germany
  • 5. Stop the spread of Communism

7
Conflicting Goals
  • USSR Goals
  • 1. Encourage Communism
  • 2. Rebuild their own economy using the countries
    of Eastern Europe
  • 3. Maintain control of Eastern Europe (Satellite
    Nations)
  • Keep Germany divided so they are never a threat
    again.
  • The two super powers will never fight, but they
    will use other countries as battle grounds -
    Cuba, Korea, Vietnam, Latin America, and the
    Middle East.

8
Europe after WWII
  • United Nations
  • 1. Created in 1945 after WWII to replace League
    of Nations which was
  • ineffective
  • 2. Goals of UN to promote cooperation in
    international law, security, economic
    development, social progress, human rights, and
    world peace.
  • Based on the Atlantic Charter
  • 3. Security Council
  • Maintain peace and security among countries.

9
United Nations
  • Security Council made up of 5 permanent member
    nations US, GB, France, China, Soviet Union. 10
    rotating temporary members that spend two years
    in the position elected form the General
    Assembly.
  • General Assembly- member nations. All members
    have the same rights and voting power.
  • GA elect the secretary-general and the judges for
    the International Court of Justice.

10
Europe after WWII
  • Iron Curtain
  • Soviet Union took control of all of Eastern
    Europe
  • Winston Churchill described the situation as an
    iron curtain descending across the continent of
    Europe.

11
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12
The New US foreign policy
  • Containment (1946) -
  • 1. The policy developed by U.S. Ambassador George
    Kennan, stated
  • a. Eastern Europe is already lost to Communism so
    we should keep it there.
  • b. U.S. should prevent the spread of communism.

13
Truman Doctrine
  • Truman Doctrine (1947)-
  • the U.S. took over a leadership role in world by
    supporting countries threatened by communism.
  • 400 million to help Greece and Turkey to get the
    economies running again and to stop rebellions in
    the countries. This was an effort to stop
    communist aggression and advancement
  • Part of the containment policy

14
Marshall Plan
  • Marshall Plan (1947 - 1952) -
  • Created be President Trumans Secretary of State
  • George Marshall
  • Provided 13 billion in aid to Western European
  • countries. Also offered to the Soviet Union
    and Eastern
  • European Countries under Soviet control.
    (refused)
  • The economy of all countries grew, output rose
    35
  • Helped the US by supplying export goods to
    European countries.

15
COMECON
  • USSR created COMECON- Council for Mutual
    Assistance to help economies of Eastern Europe.
  • Failed because the USSR could not fund the
    program adequately

16
Berlin Airlift June 1948 - May 1949
At the Yalta Conference, US/USSR/France/Britain
agreed to occupy the city of Berlin in East
Germany. In 1948, the 3 western zones of Berlin
merged and with the Marshall plan became very
prosperous. a. The poverty of East Berlin became
an embarrassment for Stalin.
17
Berlin Airlift June 1948 - May 1949
  • Stalin blockaded the city of Berlin by not
    letting Allied convoys into the city through
    Soviet-controlled part of Germany.

  • Stalin was attempting to force the Allies out of
    Berlin
  • President Truman decided to airlift supplies to
    the people of Berlin.
  • 2.2 million tons of supplies - everyday for 327
    days. A total of 227,000 flights

18
Alliances
  • US created NATO (North Atlantic Trade
    Organization) 1949
  • The US, Canada and 9 Western European countries
    promised collective security for each other to
    defend against Soviet aggression.
  • Warsaw Pact (1955) - Soviet Response - linked
    them with Eastern Europe.

19
Communism in China (1945-1949) Following the
Chinese Civil War Mao Zedong and the communists
overthrew Chiang Kai-Shek and the
Nationalists. Mao was a follower of Karl Marx
20
  • Domino Theory - If one nation falls to communism,
    how many will follow.

21
Harry Truman
  • 1945 WWII ends with Trumans decision to drop
    atomic bomb on Japan
  • - The United Nations is created.
  • 1946 Churchill claimed an Iron Curtain has
    descended upon Europe
  • 1947 Truman Doctrine aid is aimed at saving
    Greece Turkey- part of the containment policy
    of the United States against communism. 400
    million to the two countries.
  • 1948 U.S.S.R. cuts off supply route to West
    Berlin in an effort to get the Allies out of East
    Germany. The U.S. responds by airlifting supplies
    to West Berlin.
  • - Marshall Plan- 13 Billion in aid to help
    rebuild Western Europe

22
Truman
  • 1949 U.S.S.R. detonates their first hydrogen
    bomb as a show of force against the U. S.
  • Civil War in China turns most populous country
    into a Communist Nation
  • N.A.T.O. is created as a military alliance. US,
    Canada, and 9 Western European nations.
  • 1950 Korean Conflict begins as a result United
    Nations police action begins to defend S. Korea
  • Sen. Joseph McCarthy claims communists have
    infested the government, starts 2nd Red Scare in
    the US.
  • 1951 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are tried and
    sentenced for providing nuclear secrets to the
    Soviets. They were executed in 1953

23
Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • 1953 Stalin dies. Nikita Khrushchev becomes
    General Secretary
  • Korean Conflict ends in a stalemate. The two
    Koreas are divided at the 38th parallel
  • 1954 S.E.A.T.O. forms to protect Southeast Asia
  • 1955 Mutually Assured Destruction or MAD Plan
    introduced by John Foster Dulles
  • S.U. creates Warsaw Pact to offset NATO
  • 1956 Nikita Khrushchev proposes idea of
    peaceful coexistence between the US and Soviet
    Union

24
Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • 1957 Sputnik launches the U.S. Soviets into a
    space race.
  • Eisenhower Doctrine is offered to Middle East
    countries
  • 1959 Communist dictator Fidel Castro (Cuba),
    takes power and seizes all US assets and priv.
    property
  • 1960 Francis Gary Powers is shot down in his
    U-2 spy plane over U.S.S.R.
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