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The Cold War 1945-1991

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Title: The Cold War 1945-1991


1
The Cold War1945-1991
  • (was not actually a war!!!)

2
Harry S. Truman
3
Yalta Conference
  • February 1945
  • Churchill, Stalin, and FDR
  • Stalin wanted Germany divided into zones.
  • Churchill disagrees.
  • FDR is mediator because he wants
  • Soviet Union to help defeat Japan.
  • Stalins support for creation of United Nations.

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Yalta Conference
  • Compromise
  • Germany temporarily divided into four zones.
  • American, British, French, and Soviet
  • Stalin promised free and unfettered elections
    in Soviet occupied territory.
  • Stalin agreed to join war with Japan.
  • Atomic bomb has not been tested yet.
  • Stalin agrees to participate in UN.

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United Nations
  • August 1945, 50 nations meet in San Francisco to
    establish the UN.
  • Today the headquarters are in New York City.

9
Harry S Truman
  • Became president 13 days before UN conference.
  • Very different from FDR.
  • Would have to deal with experienced leaders.

10
Potsdam Conference
  • July 1945
  • Atomic bomb will be tested while Truman at
    meeting.
  • Stalin, Truman, Churchill (Altee)
  • Stalin did not allow free elections like he
    promised at Yalta.
  • Truman wants free elections to ensure spread of
    democracy and so American businesses can expand.

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Potsdam Conference
  • Satellite nations are dependent on and dominated
    by Soviet Union.
  • Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
    Romania, and Poland.
  • Stalin Communism and Capitalism are not
    compatible.
  • Soviets focus on building weapons not consumer
    goods.

14
Containment Policy
  • February 1946
  • Time to stop babying the Soviets
  • Containment Policy
  • Take measures to prevent extension of Communist
    rule in other countries.
  • George F. Kennan American diplomat in Moscow
  • Containment guided Trumans foreign policy making
  • Churchill and iron curtain

15
Truman Doctrine
  • It must be the policy of the United States to
    support free people who are resisting attempted
    subjugation by armed minorities or by outside
    pressures.
  • Congress agreed and the U.S. sent 400 million to
    Turkey and Greece to keep them from communist
    takeover.

16
Marshall Plan
  • Proposed by Secretary of State, George Marshall
  • Provided aide to all European nations who needed
    it
  • 16 European countries received almost 13 billion
    to rebuild
  • 1952 - Western Europe flourishing and Communist
    Party losing appeal

17
Western Berlin Reunification
  • France, Great Britain, and U.S. wanted to reunify
    Germany and Berlin.
  • Soviets wanted Germany to remain weak.
  • Soviets cut off West Berlin and started starving
    them (enough food for 5 weeks)
  • Hoped Western nations would abandon Berlin or
    stop reunification.

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Question of Berlin
  • What should America do about the situation in
    Berlin?

21
Western Berlin Reunification
  • Berlin Airlift
  • American and British flew 227,000 airlifts in 327
    days.
  • Supplied food, medicine, fuel, and XMAS presents
    to West Berlin.
  • Boosted American prestige
  • Hurt Soviet prestige and eventually lifted the
    blockade

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Election of 1948
  • Democrat Harry Truman
  • For Civil Rights
  • Republican Thomas Dewey
  • Dixiecrat Strom Thurmond
  • Southern Democrats against Civil Rights.
  • One of closest elections. Many thought Dewey won
    when they went to bed.

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North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Purpose Stop Soviet aggression with defensive
    military alliances standing military at all
    times
  • Countries Belgium, Denmark, France, Great
    Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
    Norway, Portugal, U.S., and Canada
  • First time U.S. entered into a military alliance
    during peacetime
  • Cold War ended U.S. isolationism

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China
  • Mao Zedong Communist
  • Ruled in North China
  • Relied on financial aid from Soviet Union
  • Promise of land reform appealed to peasants

28
China
  • Chiang Kai-Shek Nationalist
  • Ruled in South China
  • Relied on financial aid from U.S.
  • Chinese Peasants turn to Communist Party,
    Nationalists flee to Taiwan
  • U.S. favored Nationalists because they opposed
    communism

29
Soviet Union
Taiwan
30
Korean War
  • Korea owned by Japan from 1910 1945
  • 38th parallel was imaginary line bisecting Korea
  • Japanese north of 38th parallel surrendered to
    Soviets
  • Japanese south of 38th parallel surrendered to
    U.S.

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Korean War
  • North Korea
  • Kim Il Sung Democratic Republic of Korea
  • South Korea
  • Syngman Rhea Republic of South Korea
  • U.S. supports South Korea when North Korea attacks

33
Korean War
  • 1949 - U.S. and Soviets withdraw their troops
  • Leave North and South to figure it out
  • North and South claim right to rule all of Korea
  • North Korea attacks in 1950
  • Truman related aggression to WW II and how no one
    tried to stop it then

34
Korean War
  • UN adopted American Resolution to help South
    Korea
  • Soviet Union could have vetoed, but were
    boycotting UN
  • Douglas MacArthur given command of UN and South
    Korean troops

35
Korean War
  • North Korea pushes UN S. Korean troops to Pusan

36
Korean War
  • MacArthur drives them back across 38th parallel
  • MacArthur then invades North Korea

37
Korean War
  • China Reacts
  • Would not let Americans come to border, Yalu
    River
  • UN S. Korean forces get close to Yalu 300,000
    Chinese attack

38
Korean War
  • Push UN S. Korean forces back to 38th parallel

39
MacArthurs Recommendations - 1951
  • Blockade Chinese coast
  • Use atomic bomb on China
  • Russia exploded atomic bomb in 1949
  • Use Chiang Kai-Sheks troops in China
  • Truman rejects
  • Attacking China would start WW III

40
MacArthur Limited War
  • Upset because he could not fight total war
  • Tried to go over Trumans head
  • Truman relieved him of command
  • Americans supported MacArthur
  • After Congressional investigation of MacArthur,
    people thought Truman did right thing

41
Panmunjom July 1953
  • Armistice between North and South Korea signed.

42
Loyalty Review Board
  • Purpose Investigate government employees and
    dismiss those found to be disloyal (3.2 million
    investigated)
  • Disloyal was never defined.
  • Not allowed to see evidence against you or know
    who accused you.

43
House Un-American Activities Committee
  • Purpose Rid Hollywood of suspected Communists.
  • Hollywood Ten
  • 10 of 43 witnesses from film industry would not
    cooperate with HUAC. Sent to prison.
  • Blacklist List of people who had a Communist
    background. Could no longer work in film.

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McCarren Act
  • Loyalty Review Board did not go far enough.
  • Congress wants to make it unlawful to plan action
    against U.S.
  • Truman vetoed.
  • In a free country, we punish men for the crimes
    they commit, but never for the opinions they
    hold.
  • Congress passed over veto.

46
Alger Hiss
  • Hiss accused of selling secrets to Soviets.
  • Could not prove.
  • Hiss convicted of perjury, lying under oath, and
    sent to jail.

47
Rosenbergs
  • 1950 accused of selling A-bomb secrets to
    Soviets.
  • Convicted and electrocuted.

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Senator Joseph McCarthy
  • Wanted to be reelected as Wisconsin Republican
    Senator.
  • Needed an issue to focus attention on him.
  • Charged that Communist were taking over
    government.
  • Claimed Democrats were guilty of treason for
    allowing Communist infiltration.

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Senator Joseph McCarthy
  • Republicans in Congress did nothing because 1952
    presidential election was close.
  • Wanted the public to see them as strong
    anti-communists.

52
Vietnam
  • 1950 - America supporting France as they fight Ho
    Chi Minh in Vietnam
  • America supported Ho Chi Minh when he fought
    against the Japanese during WW II
  • Now Truman gives France nearly 15 million to
    defeat him
  • U.S. intended on keeping Communism out of Vietnam

53
Dwight David Eisenhower
  • Republican
  • 1953-1960

54
Election of 1952
  • Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Vice President Richard Nixon
  • I Like Ike

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H-Bomb
  • Atom Bomb Atom split.
  • Hydrogen Bomb Atoms fused. 67 times more
    powerful than those dropped on Japan.

57
H-Bomb
  • 1949 Soviets exploded atomic bomb.
  • U.S. began research on hydrogen bomb.
  • November 1, 1952 U.S. explode first
    thermonuclear device, H-bomb.
  • August 1953 Soviets explode H-bomb.

58
H-Bomb
  • First H-bomb, Mike Mushroom cloud
  • 8 miles across
  • 27 miles high
  • 80 million tons of earth vaporized
  • Nuclear Testing Nuclear Drill

59
H-Bomb
  • "I was on a ship that was thirty miles away, and
    we had this horrible white stuff raining down on
    us. I got 10 rads 100 chest x-rays of radiation
    from it. It was pretty frightening. There was a
    huge fireball with these turbulent rolls going in
    and out. The thing was glowing. It looked to me
    like a diseased brain up in the sky. It spread
    until the edge of it looked as if it was almost
    directly overhead. It was a much more awesome
    sight than a puny little atomic bomb. It was a
    pretty sobering and shattering experience.
  • Marshall Rosenbluth, a U.S. theoretical physicist

60
Nuclear Age
  • Soviet and America had nuclear capabilities.
  • Americans fearful of nuclear strike from Soviets.
  • Civil Defense put out information in case of
    nuclear attack.
  • Bert the Turtle Duck and Cover

61
Nikita Khrushchev
  • Stalin dies in 1953.
  • Khrushchev becomes head of Soviet Communist Party
    (peaceful co-existence)

62
John Foster Dulles
  • Brinkmanship U.S. would keep peace by promising
    to use all its force against any aggressor.

63
CIA
  • Formed to gather information and overthrow
    governments unfriendly to U.S.

64
CIA
  • 1951 - Irans prime minister, Mohammed Mossadegh
    took oil fields owned by British and gave them to
    Iranians (Britain stopped by Iranian oil in
    return)
  • U.S. feared Mossedegh might look to Soviets for
    help
  • 1953 - CIA gave millions to anti-Mossedegh
    supporters to help the Shah of Iran return to
    power

65
CIA
  • 1954 - Guatemalas government gave land to
    peasants
  • Eisenhower believed Guatemalan government had
    Communist ties
  • CIA trained an army that would invade Guatemala
    and take over
  • President of Guatemala ousted and leader of army
    became dictator

66
Warsaw Pact
  • Military alliance between Soviet Union and
    satellite nations because West Germany re-armed
    and joined NATO

67
Geneva Summit
  • 1955 U.S. and Soviets meet in Geneva, Switzerland
  • U.S. wants open skies
  • Soviets reject

68
Eisenhower Doctrine
  • U.S. would defend Middle East against attacks
    from Communists

69
Sputnik I
  • October 4, 1957 first unmanned satellite to
    enter Earths orbit (Soviet)
  • Americans felt inferior to Soviets
  • U.S. schools focus on math, science, and foreign
    language
  • Sputnik Space Race

70
U-2 Incident
  • After failure of Geneva Summit, CIA began spying
    of Soviets with U-2 plane.
  • 1960 U.S. nervous about U-2
  • American press knew about U-2 missions.
  • Soviets were aware of flights.
  • Summer 1960 U.S. and Soviets scheduled to hold
    arms race conference.

71
U-2 Incident
  • Eisenhower agrees to one more flight of U-2 prior
    to meeting.
  • Francis Gray Powers pilot of U-2 on May 1, 1960.
  • Plane shot down by Soviets and Powers parachutes
    into Soviet territory.

72
U-2 Incident
  • Eisenhower denies spying
  • Claims U-2 is a weather plane
  • Eisenhower finally admits spying on Soviets
  • Khrushchev wants an apology and promise to stop
    U-2 flights
  • Eisenhower agrees to stop U-2 flights but will
    not apologize

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U-2 Incident
  • Khrushchev calls off summit and withdraws
    invitation to Eisenhower to visit Soviet Union
  • Tensions between Soviets and U.S. grow

75
Cuba
  • 1959 Fidel Castro overthrows Fulgencio Batista.
  • Castro takes control of American businesses in
    Cuba.
  • Trade is cut off between U.S. and Cuba.
  • Cuba turns to Soviets for aid.
  • Anti-Castro Cubans fled to America.

76
Cuba
  • Eisenhower approves CIA to train Cuban refugees
    to fight Castro.
  • Late 1960 Cuban refugees almost ready to invade
    Cuba and overthrow Castro.
  • John F. Kennedy elected president in 1960,
    becomes president in 1961

77
Vietnam
  • 1953 Eisenhower becomes president and continues
    to give aid to France.
  • By now America had agreed to a stalemate in
    Korea, so wanted to stop spread of Communism in
    Vietnam.
  • 1954 Domino Theory
  • When one country falls to Communism, surrounding
    countries will also fall.

78
Vietnam
  • 1954 French overrun by Vietminh.
  • Geneva Accords held to try and create peace in
    Vietnam through elections.
  • 1956 elections canceled because Communist might
    win, U.S. supports.

79
John Fitzgerald Kennedy
  • Democrat
  • 1960-1963

80
Election of 1960
  • What helped Kennedy win.
  • First televised debate between presidential
    candidates.
  • Kennedy looked and spoke better than Nixon
  • That night, image replaced the printed word as
    the natural language of politics. Russell Baker

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Kennedy takes Office
  • Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well
    or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any
    burden, meet any hardship, support any friend,
    oppose any foe to assure the survival and success
    of liberty. JFK inaugural address 1961
  • Ask not what your country can do for you, but
    what you can do for your country. JFK inaugural
    address 1961

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Kennedy takes Office
  • Wanted to redefine nations nuclear strategy.
  • Increased defense spending.
  • Created special forces, Green Berets.
  • Wanted U.S. to be able to fight a non-nuclear war.

86
Kennedy Cuba
  • Fidel Castro
  • Took power over Cuba in 1959
  • Seized control of Am. British oil refineries.
  • Relied on aide from Soviet Union
  • Cubans who disagreed with Castro moved to U.S.

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Kennedy Cuba
  • Bay of Pigs
  • 1960 President Eisenhower authorized the CIA to
    train Cuban exiles to invade Cuba.
  • 9 days after JFK became president he learned of
    the operation and approved it.

89
Kennedy Cuba
  • April 1961
  • 1400 Cuban exiles landed at Bahia de Cochinos
    (Bay of Pigs)
  • 20,000 Cuban troops with Soviet tanks and planes
    defeated them.
  • JFK accepted blame and paid 53 million in food
    and medicine to free survivors.

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Kennedy Cuba
  • Americans looked like fools to our friends,
    rascals to our enemies, and incompetents to the
    rest.

92
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1962 U.S. discovered Soviets building missile
    bases in Cuba.
  • Kennedy informed the nation of Soviet missiles in
    Cuba.

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Cuban Missile Crisis
  • For 6 days in October 1962 the world faced
    nuclear war.
  • America imposed a naval blockade on Cuba.
  • Soviets backed off.
  • Khrushchev agreed to take missiles out of Cuba if
    America promised not to invade.

96
Berlin Crisis
  • 1961 West Berlin was a showcase of democracy
  • 20 of East Germans fled to West Berlin.
  • Khrushchev wanted to close all access to West
    Berlin
  • Kennedy refused.

97
Berlin Crisis
  • August 1961 construction of the Berlin Wall
    begins.
  • Wall becomes an ugly symbol of Communism.
  • Torn down in 1989.

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Easing Tensions
  • April 1963 a direct telephone line was installed
    from the Kremlin to the White House.
  • Late 1963 U.S. and Soviets agreed to ban nuclear
    testing in the atmosphere. Limited Test Ban
    Treaty.

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Vietnam
  • 1961 Kennedy supports South Vietnams leader Ngo
    Dien Diem with money as well as military
    advisors.
  • 1963 16,000 U.S. military personnel in South
    Vietnam.
  • 1963 U.S. supported overthrow of Diem.
  • Before Kennedy died he said he was going to
    withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam.

103
Race to the Moon
  • April 12, 1961
  • Soviet cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, was first man in
    space.

104
Race to the Moon
  • JFK announced to Congress
  • The U.S. should commit itself to achieving the
    goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man
    on the moon and returning him safely to earth.

105
Race to the Moon
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    (NASA)
  • Constructed launch facilities in FL.
  • Constructed mission control in TX.

106
Race to the Moon
  • Alan Shepard, first American in space. 1961

107
Race to the Moon
  • John Glenn, first American to orbit Earth. 1962

108
Race to the Moon
  • July 20, 1969
  • Apollo 11
  • Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins,
  • and Buzz Aldrin
  • Land on Moon
  • The Eagle has landed.
  • One small step for man. One giant leap for
    mankind.

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Dallas Nov. 22, 1963
  • JFK Jacqueline came to TX to gain support from
    Democrats.

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Dallas Nov. 22, 1963
  • As JFK, Jacqueline, TX Governor Connally, and
    Connallys wife rode through Dealy Plaza in
    Dallas, TX. JFK was shot.

122
Dallas Nov. 22, 1963
  • Limo rushed JFK to hospital where he died.

123
Dealy Plaza Dallas, TX
124
Zapruder Film
JFK Motorcade Route
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Dallas Nov. 22, 1963
  • Zapruder Film
  • LBJ took the oath of office to become president
    on Air Force One.
  • Jacqueline was standing beside him in blood
    stained clothes.

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Dallas Nov. 22, 1963
  • Lee Harvey Oswald charged with assassination.

133
Dallas Nov. 22, 1963
  • November 24, Oswald was shot and killed by Jack
    Ruby.

134
Warren Commission 1963
  • Established to investigate the Kennedy
    assassination.
  • Concluded that JFK was shot by Oswald
  • 1979 a Congressional committee reinvestigated the
    case and said JFK was probably shot by Oswald,
    but it was possible that there were two shooters.

135
Conspiracy Theories
  • Cuban refugees angry after Bay of Pigs.
  • Communists sponsored attack.
  • CIA conspiracy.
  • Mafia ordered the assassination.

136
Life in the 50s 60s
137
The American Dream in the Fifties
  • Americans shift from blue-collar work to
    white-collar work.
  • Businesses
  • Conglomerate Businesses diversify by buying
    smaller businesses.
  • Franchise Company that can offer similar
    product in many locations.
  • McDonalds, Fast Food.

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The American Dream in the Fifties
  • Baby Boom 1946 1964
  • Baby born every 7 seconds.
  • Why?
  • Dr. Jonas Salk
  • Vaccine against poliomyelitis (polio).

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The American Dream in the Fifties
  • Dr. Benjamin Spock
  • Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care
  • Parents should talk to children.
  • Mothers should stay at home.
  • The Good Wifes Guide

142
The American Dream in the Fifties
  • Consumerism Material goods equal success.
  • Automobile mania
  • Car became necessity for commuting to work.
  • Symbol of individual.
  • Planned Obsolescence
  • Goods designed to become obsolete.
  • America becoming, throwaway society

143
Baseball
  • 1947 Jackie Robinson first African-American to
    play in Major League Baseball.
  • Played in the Negro Leagues prior to 1947.
  • 1949 voted National Leagues MVP.
  • Inducted into Baseball Hall of Fame.

144
Baseball
145
Pop Culture
  • Mass Media TV spread news, ideas, pictures
    fast.
  • FCC Govt agency to regulate TV, Telephone,
    Telegraph, and Radio (Federal Communications
    Commission).

146
Pop Culture
  • Milton Berle Texaco Star Theatre (Comedy)

147
Pop Culture
  • Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz I Love Lucy

148
Pop Culture
  • Mickey Mouse Club Howdy Doody Show
  • Children shows that attracted loyal young fans.
  • Nagged parents to buy products on show.

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Pop Culture
  • Alfred Hitchcock Horror films.

152
Pop Culture
  • Many feared that TV would take away from movie
    and radio audiences.
  • Radio turned from shows to music, news, and
    weather.
  • Movies had advantages like color, big screen, and
    sound.

153
Pop Culture
  • Beatniks Nonconformity cared little for
    material goods.

154
Pop Culture
  • Rock n Roll New type of music born out of
    rhythm and blues.
  • Many adults condemned because it would lead to
    teenage delinquency and immorality.

155
Pop Culture
  • Little Richard

156
Pop Culture
  • Chuck Berry

157
Pop Culture
  • Bill Haley and the Comets

158
Pop Culture
  • Elvis Presley King of Rock n Roll

159
Pop Culture
  • American Bandstand Dick Clark

160
Pop Culture
  • Nat King Cole First African American to have
    weekly series on national TV.

161
Pop Culture
  • Lena Horne

162
Pop Culture
  • Harry Belafonte

163
Pop Culture
  • Sydney Poitier

164
Pop Culture
  • Miles Davis

165
Pop Culture
  • Dizzy Gillespie
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