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Cold War

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Title: Cold War


1
Cold War Recovery
  • 1945-1968

2
Roots of Cold War
  • Teheran Conference, 1943 USSR guaranteed to be
    only power to liberate Eastern Europe
  • Yalta Conference, 1945
  • Stalin pledged to allow democratic elections in
    E. Europe (but later reneged)
  • Germany would be divided into four zones
    controlled by U.S., France, Britain and USSR
  • After war, Soviets dominated their zone and did
    not allow reunification of Germany
  • Potsdam Conference, 1945
  • Truman demanded free elections in Eastern Europe
    but Stalin refused
  • Stalin wanted a "buffer zone" between Germany and
    USSR for protection against future war

3
Roots of Cold War
  • U.S. point of view
  • Stalin seemed intent on creating "spheres" of
    influence in Eastern Europe
  • Broke pledges at Yalta refused to allow
    reunification of Germany
  • Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech in 1946 alerted
    Americans to a future conflict
  • U.S. wanted democracy spread throughout the world
    with a strong international organization to
    maintain global peace

4
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5
Roots of Cold War
  • Soviet point of view
  • Democracies traditionally hostile towards
    communism and the USSR
  • Ex non-recognition by U.S. until 1933
  • US Britain did not open western front in Europe
    early enough millions of Soviet soldiers were
    dying fighting the brunt of Nazi armies alone
    until mid-1944.
  • The US and Britain froze Russia out of the atomic
    bomb project.
  • US terminated lend-lease to Moscow in May 1945
    but gave Britain aid until 1946.
  • Wanted "buffer zone" for the Soviet western
    border esp. in Poland

6
Partition of Germany
  • USSR, U.S., Britain France would each occupy a
    part of Germany but would allow for German
    reunification once she was no longer a threat.
  • Germany was to pay heavy reparations to USSR in
    form of agricultural and industrial goods.
  • Soviets dominated their Eastern German zone
  • Did not want revitalized Germany that could once
    again pose a threat.
  • Stripped E. Germany of much of its resources.

7
Partition of Germany
  • U.S. and W. Europeans felt German economy vital
    to recovery of Europe
  • 1949, West Germany became an independent country
    when US, France and Britain gave back each of
    their zones
  • Federal Republic of Germany led by Konrad
    Adenauer
  • 1949, East Germany formally established
    Democratic Republic of Germany led by Walter
    Ulbricht (1883-1973) communist regime influenced
    by Moscow

8
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9
"Containment"
  • By 1947, US pledged to prevent further spread of
    communism
  • Truman Doctrine, 1947 U.S. gave aid to Greece
    and Turkey to defeat communist forces there.

10
Marshall Plan
  • 1947 Massive aid package to help war-torn Europe
    recover from the war
  • Purpose prevent communism from spreading into
    economically devastated regions
  • Result Western and Central Europe recovered
    economically -- the "economic miracle"
  • Soviets refused to allow U.S. aid to countries in
    eastern Europe

11
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12
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13
Berlin Crisis (1948-49)
  • Soviets attempted to remove Allies from Berlin by
    cutting off access of goods to Germans in the
    Allied-controlled section
  • One of high tension points of the Cold War World
    War III?
  • U.S. instituted a massive airlift Soviets lifted
    blockade in 1949 (Berlin Airlift)

14
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15
More Containment
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed
    in 1949
  • Collective security organization consisting of
    democracies in Europe, U.S. Canada to prevent
    against Soviet expansion in Europe.
  • Radio Free Europe Voice of America set up to
    send pro-democracy messages to countries behind
    the "iron curtain"

16
Eastern Bloc
  • Countries in Eastern Europe dominated by Soviet
    Union after WWII
  • Included Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East
    Germany, Rumania, Bulgaria
  • Communist parties of eastern Europe established
    one-party states by 1948, with help of Red Army
    and KGB (Soviet secret police)
  • Only Yugoslavia, led by Marshal Tito, is not
    dominated by Soviets
  • Postwar economic recovery in eastern Europe
    proceeded along Soviet lines.
  • Changes went forward at slow uneven pace came
    to almost a halt by the mid-1960s.
  • Five-year plans in USSR reintroduced to tackle
    massive economic reconstruction

17
Eastern Bloc
  • Stalin reinstitutes oppressive rule
  • Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland had
    fostered Russian nationalism and a relaxation of
    dictatorial terror.
  • Stalins new foe, the U.S., provided an excuse
    for re-establishing harsh dictatorship.
  • After war, Stalin repressed millions of Soviet
    citizens living outside Soviet borders when the
    war ended.
  • Stalin revived many forced labor camp, which had
    accounted for roughly 1/6 of all new construction
    in Soviet Union before the war
  • Culture and art were also purged

18
Czechoslovakia
  • Czechoslovakia the economic exception in E.
    Europe industrialized, strong middle class and
    industrial working class and experience of
    political democracy between the wars.
  • During dualist period", President Benes and
    Foreign minister Jan Masaryk proposed to govern a
    social democracy while maintaining close
    voluntary relations with the USSR.
  • In response to Marshall Plan in 1947, Stalin
    replaced govt in 1948 with 1-party communist
    rule to prevent nation from courting the West.

19
USSR under Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971)
20
Khrushchev
  • Power struggle emerged after Stalin died in 1953
    Khrushchev emerged a few years later
  • Stalins heirs realized reforms were needed.
  • Widespread fear and hatred of Stalins political
    terror resulted in reduction of power of secret
    police and gradual closure of forced labor camps.
  • Agriculture in bad shape.
  • Shortages of consumer goods.
  • Hard work and initiative in decline due to poor
    living conditions.

21
De-Stalinization
  • XXth Party Congress, 1956 Khrushchev took
    startling initiative against hard-liners by
    denouncing Stalins crimes in a closed session.
  • Secret anti-Stalin speech probably most
    influential statement in Russia since Lenin
    addressed the crowd on arriving in April 1917.
  • Gosplan Resources shifted from heavy industry
    and the military toward consumer goods and
    agriculture Centralized Economic Planning

22
De-Stalinization
  • Great ferment in the arts (anti-Stalinist views
    tolerated)
  • Boris Pasternak (1890-1960) wrote Dr. Zhivago in
    1956.
  • Story of prerevolutionary intellectual who
    rejects brutality of revolution of 1917
    Stalinism even as he is destroyed, he triumphs
    from his humanity and Christian spirit.
  • Aleksandr Solzenitsyn One Day in the Life of
    Ivan Denisovich (1962)
  • Portrays in grim detail life in Stalinist
    concentration camp (he had been a prisoner)

23
De-Stalinization
  • De-Stalinization resulted in communist reformers
    and the masses seeking greater liberty and
    national independence.
  • Poland March 1956, riots resulted in release of
    more than 9000 political prisoners, including
    previously purged leader Wladyslaw Gomulka.
  • Gomulka skillfully managed to win greater
    autonomy for Poland while keeping anti-Soviet
    feeling at bay.

24
Hungarian Uprising 1956
  • Students and workers in Budapest installed a
    liberal Communist reformer, Imre Nagy as new
    chief in October 1956.
  • Hungarian nationalists staged huge demonstrations
    demanding non-communist parties be legalized
    turned into armed rebellion and spread throughout
    the country.
  • Hoped U.S. would come in and help achieve
    Hungarian independence

25
Hungarian Uprising 1956
  • Soviet tanks and troops responded by invading
    Hungary and crushing the national democratic
    revolution.
  • János Kádár installed firm communist rule
  • After Hungarian invasion, most eastern Europeans
    hoped for small domestic gains while obediently
    following USSR in foreign affairs.

26
Post-War Political and Economic Framework
  • Bretton Woods Conference (1944) created
    International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • Lay foundations for modern monetary system based
    on U.S. dollar
  • IMF (World Bank) designed to loan money to
    struggling countries to prevent economic crises
    and anarchy instrumental in post-war economic
    boom.
  • United Nations created in 1945 Security Council
    (12 nations including 5 permanent members had
    powers to act General Assembly had powers to
    advise (included all nations of the world)

27
Western Europe Political Recovery
  • Economic hardship after WWII scarcity of food,
    runaway inflation, black markets
  • Many people believed Europe was finished.
  • Suffering was worst in Germany

28
Western Europe Political Recovery
  • Political restructuring
  • Christian Democrats inspired by common Christian
    and European heritage.
  • Rejected authoritarianism narrow nationalism
    had faith in democracy and cooperation.
  • Catholic parties also progressive in nature
  • Socialists and Communists also emerged with
    increased power and prestige, especially in
    France and Italy.
  • Pushed for social change and economic reform with
    considerable success.
  • Result social reform and political
    transformation created foundations for a great
    European renaissance.

29
Western Europe Political Recovery - Italy
  • Christian Democrats gained control in 1946 led
    by Alcide De Gasperi
  • Socialist influence social benefits came to
    equal a large part of the average workers wages

30
Western Europe Political Recovery - France
  • General Charles De Gaulle, inspiring wartime
    leader of Free French, re-established free and
    democratic Fourth Republic (resigned in 1949)
  • Catholic party provided some of best postwar
    leaders e.g. Robert Schuman
  • Socialist influence large banks, insurance
    companies, public utilities, coal mines, and the
    Renault auto company were nationalized by govt.
  • Britain followed same trend

31
Western Europe Political Recovery - West Germany
  • 1949, Konrad Adenauer began long, highly
    successful democratic rule.
  • Christian Democrats became West Germanys
    majority party for a generation

32
Western Europe Political Recovery Great Britain
  • Clement Attlee, socialist Labour party leader,
    defeated Winston Churchill and the Conservatives
    in 1945.
  • Attlee moved toward establishment of a welfare
    state.
  • Many industries nationalized, govt provided each
    citizen with free medical service and taxed the
    middle and upper classes more heavily.

33
Economic Miracle
  • Unprecedented economic growth in European history
  • Europe entered period of rapid economic progress
    lasting into late 1960s.
  • By 1963, western Europe produced more than 2.5X
    more than before the war.

34
Economic Miracle
  • Causes
  • Marshall Plan aid helped western Europe begin
    recovery in 1947
  • Korean War in 1950 stimulated economic activity.
  • Economic growth became a basic objective of all
    western European governments.
  • Governments accepted Keynesian economics to
    stimulate their economies.
  • Germany and France were especially successful and
    influential.
  • In most countries many people willing to work
    hard for low wages expanding industries
    benefited.
  • Increased demand for consumer goods.
  • Many economic barriers eliminated and a large
    unified market emerged Common Market.

35
Economic Miracle
  • German economic recovery led by finance minister
    Ludwig Erhard
  • Combined free-market economy extensive social
    welfare network inherited from Nazi era.
  • By late 1950s, West Germany had robust economy,
    full employment, a strong currency and stable
    prices.

36
Economic Miracle
  • France
  • Combined flexible planning and a mixed state
    and private economy to achieve most rapid
    economic development in its history.
  • Jean Monnet economic pragmatist and architect of
    European unity.
  • France used Marshall Plan aid money and the
    nationalized banks to funnel money into key
    industries, several of which were state owned.

37
European Unity
38
Council of Europe Created in 1948
  • European federalists hoped Council would quickly
    evolve into a true European parliament with
    sovereign rights, but this did not happen.
  • Britain, with its empire and its special
    relationship with U.S., opposed giving any real
    political powersovereigntyto the council.

39
Schuman Plan
  • 1950 created the European Coal and Steel
    Community
  • Put forth by French statesman Jean Monnet and
    Foreign Minister Robert Schuman.
  • Special international organization to control
    integrate European steel and coal production.
  • West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands,
    Luxembourg accepted in 1952 Britain refused to
    enter
  • Immediate economic goal a single competitive
    market w/o national tariffs or quotas.
  • "The Six" By 1958 coal and steel moved freely
    among six nations of the European Coal and Steel
    Community
  • Far-reaching political goal bind six member
    nations so closely together economically that war
    among them would become unthinkable and virtually
    impossible.

40
European Economic Community (EEC)
  • Treaty of Rome, 1957
  • Created European Economic Community (EEC) or the
    Common Market
  • Signed by same six nations in the Schuman Plan
    the Six
  • First goal of treaty Gradual reduction of all
    tariffs among the Six in order to create a single
    market almost as large as the U.S.
  • Other goals
  • Free movement of capital and labor.
  • Common economic policies and institutions.
  • Tariffs were rapidly reduced and regions
    specialized in what they did best.

41
European Economic Community (EEC)
  • EEC encouraged hopes of political and economic
    union.
  • Union frustrated in 1960s by resurgence of more
    traditional nationalism.
  • Euratom (European Atomic Energy Agency) also
    created by agency.
  • Communist states responded by forming their own
    economic association--COMECON

42
France Steps Back from European Unity
  • Bitter colonial war in Algeria resulted in the
    election in 1958 of General De Gaulle who
    established the Fifth French Republic and ruled
    as president until 1969.
  • Withdrew France from "US controlled" NATO and
    developed own nuclear weapons program.
  • De Gaulle twice vetoed application of
    pro-American British to European Union.
  • Britain did not inter until 1973.

43
Cold War in the 1950s
44
Events
  • 1949, Communists in China led by Mao Zedong win
    Chinese revolution
  • Establish "Peoples Republic of China" ("Red
    China")
  • 1949, Soviets successfully test atomic bomb

45
Korean War 1950-1953
  • After WWII, Korea divided at 38th parallel North
    was communist, South was not
  • Cause 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea
    (supported by Soviet resources)
  • UN (led by US Gen. Douglas MacArthur) sent
    forces to push back communists
  • Soviets boycotting UN for U.S. refusal to allow
    "Red China" into UN Security Council
  • China sends hundreds of thousands of troops to
    push back UN
  • Result cease-fire and border at 38th parallel
    restored still in existence today

46
Korean War
47
Hydrogen Bomb
  • Developed by US in 1952 USSR in 1953 world now
    has two superpowers

48
Warsaw Pact 1955
  • Collective security organization of eastern bloc
    nations to counter NATO.
  • U.S. policy of "massive retaliation" between
    1953-55
  • U.S. policy now is to help eastern European
    countries remove communism.
  • U.S. vows to destroy USSR with nuclear weapons if
    it tries to expand
  • Brinksmanship the art of going to the brink of
    war to force the other side t back down.

49
Relations b/n USSR U.S. Improve w/ Ascension to
power of Nikita Khrushchev
  • Seeks peaceful coexistence with the West in
    order to focus on Soviet economy
  • Austrian Independence USSR agreed in 1955 to
    real independence for a neutral Austria after 10
    years of Allied occupation.
  • Resulted in significant reduction in cold war
    tensions between 1955 1957.

50
Relations b/n USSR U.S. Improve w/ Ascension to
power of Nikita Khrushchev
  • Krushchev sought to prove communism was superior
    to capitalism and the USSR would be the model
    communist state in the world "we will bury you.
  • Krushchev began wooing new nations of Asia and
    Africa with promises and aid, even if they were
    not communist.
  • Geneva Summit -- 1955 (July)
  • US meets with USSR, Britain, France to begin
    discussions on European security and disarmament
    no agreements made
  • 1958, relations sour with Khrushchev's ultimatum
    for Allies to leave Berlin 6 month deadline
    passes without incident, extended indefinitely

51
Cold War in 1960s
52
U-2 Incident
  • U.S. spy plane shot down over USSR
  • Khrushchev demanded an apology from Eisenhower
    Eisenhower refused
  • Khrushchev and Eisenhower aborted

53
Berlin Wall Built in 1961
  • 2 million East Germans escaped to West Berlin
    between 1949-1961 Soviets frustrated
  • Khrushchev threatened President Kennedy USSR
    would sign peace treaty with East Germany who
    would then control access to Berlin Soviets
    would protect East Germanys right to control
    flow into Berlin.
  • Berlin Wall built instead of enforcing ultimatum
    to U.S. ended future crises over Berlin

54
Berlin Wall
55
Cuba
  • Became a communist country in 1959 under
    leadership of Fidel Castro
  • Cuba became an ally of the Soviet Union
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961 U.S.-trained Cuban
    exiles tried unsuccessfully to invade Cuba

56
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1962 U.S. demanded Soviets remove their newly
    installed nuclear missiles from Cuba.
  • Crisis became the closest USSR and US came to
    nuclear war
  • U.S. placed blockade (naval quarantine) on any
    further missiles into Cuba
  • Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles in return
    for U.S. removing its missiles from Turkey and
    vowing not to invade Cuba in the future.
  • Crisis weakened Khrushchev and contributed to his
    downfall in 1964

57
Cuban Missile Crisis
58
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963
  • Khrushchev, Kennedy Britain signed historic
    treaty banning atmospheric testing in an attempt
    to reduce Cold War tensions
  • France refused to sign (was in the process of
    developing own nuclear weapons program)
  • China became a nuclear power in 1964 leading to
    its estrangement with Soviet Union

59
Fall of Khrushchev 1964
  • His cold war foreign policies erratic
    ultimately unsuccessful (Berlin, Cuban Missile
    Crisis)
  • Expensive space and armaments programs postponed
    any significant shift to consumer goods.
  • Most important reason agricultural projects
    backfired
  • Resurgence of conservative Stalinists led to
    quiet removal of Khrushchev in October, 1964

60
Leonid Brezhnev
  • Became new General Secretary (1964-1982)
  • Beginning in 1964, USSR began a period of
    stagnation and limited re-Stalinization
  • Massive arms buildup started in response to
    humiliation of Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • USSR avoided direct confrontation with the U.S.
    and seemed more committed to peaceful coexistence
    than Khrushchev had been.

61
Vietnam War (1964-1973)
  • U.S. fought unsuccessful war in Southeast Asia to
    prevent communism from spreading into South
    Vietnam.
  • Domino Theory U.S. believed if Vietnam fell
    to communism, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand would
    also fall (perhaps even India) (1964-1973)

62
SOCIETY AFTER WORLD WAR II
63
Science and Technology
  • For first time in history, pure theoretical
    science and practical technology (applied
    science) effectively joined together on massive
    scale during WWII.
  • British scientists developed radar to detect
    enemy aircraft.
  • Jet aircraft developed by Germany
  • Electronic computers further developed had
    barely come into existence before 1939.
  • Manhattan Project Atomic bomb most spectacular
    result of scientific research during the war
    project overseen by J. Robert Oppenheimer

64
Science and Technology
  • Big Science became new model for science after
    WWII
  • Combined theoretical work with sophisticated
    engineering in a large, often huge organization.
  • U.S. emerged as leader in Big Science after WWII
  • Science not demobilized after WWII either in U.S.
    or USSR
  • Large portion of all postwar scientific research
    went for defense (25!)

65
Space Race
  • (Part of Cold War competition to achieve
    technological superiority)
  • 1957, USSR launched Sputnik, an orbiting
    satellite using long-range rockets
  • US fearful Soviets could now launch a nuclear
    missile into space and then down to U.S.
  • Resulted in development of ICBMs
    (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles)

66
Space Race
  • U.S. countered with creation of NASA and vastly
    increased educational funding for science.
  • 1961, Soviets sent worlds first cosmonaut, Yuri
    Gagarin, into orbit.
  • President John F. Kennedy responded by increasing
    funds for space.
  • 1969, Apollo Program put first man on the moon 4
    more moon landings followed by 1972.

67
Brain Drain
  • U.S. attracted many of Europes best scientists
    during 1950s and 1960sseen as the American
    Challenge
  • Some Europeans feared Europe was falling behind
    U.S. in science, technology, and most dynamic
    industrial sectors of the late 20th century.
  • Yet, revitalized Europe pooling resources on Big
    Science projects
  • Concorde supersonic passenger airliner and
    peaceful uses of atomic energy.

68
Massive Growth of Scientific Community
  • Four times as many scientists in Europe and North
    America in 1975 as in 1945.
  • Highly specialized modern scientists and
    technologists worked as members of a team, which
    completely changed work and lifestyle of modern
    scientists.
  • James Watson and Francis Crick win Nobel Prize in
    1962 for discovering structure of DNA

69
Change in Class Structure and Social Reform
  • Rise of the middle-class largely result of
    increased access to higher education
  • Structure of lower classes also became more
    flexible and open.
  • Mass exodus from farms and countryside.
  • Resulted in drastic decline in one of Europes
    most traditional and least mobile groups.
  • Industrial working class ceased to expand while
    job opportunities for white-collar and service
    employees grew rapidly.
  • European governments reduced class tensions by
    further expanding social security reforms health
    care, family allowances, maternity grants, public
    housing

70
Change in Class Structure and Social Reform
  • Gadget revolution
  • Like US, Europeans bought washing machines,
    vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, dishwashers,
    radios, TVs, and stereos.
  • Increased social welfare resulted in more
    disposable income and less need to save for old
    age.
  • Leisure and recreation
  • Soccer matches, horse races, movies, TV,
    commercialized hobbies
  • Increased attendance in cultural events concerts
    and exhibitions.
  • Travel industry mushroomed most dramatically
  • Before WWII travel for pleasure or relaxation
    largely aristocratic.
  • Paid vacations required by law in most countries

71
The Youth Movement and Counterculture
  • Counter-Culture rebellion against parents,
    authority figures and status quo
  • Baby boom after WWII developed distinctive and
    international youth culture.
  • Many raised in economic prosperity and more
    democratic class structure.
  • New generation influenced by revival of leftist
    thought created a counter-culture
  • Some youth rebelled against conformity and
    boredom of middle-class suburbs.
  • Rock music helped tie counter-culture together

72
Student Revolts in the Late 1960s
73
Causes of Student Revolts
  • Opposition to U.S. war in Vietnam triggered
    revolutionary ferment among youths
  • Influenced by Marxist current in French
    universities after 1945 new left thinking in US
  • Believed older generation US fighting immoral
    imperialistic war against Vietnam.
  • Students in western Europe shared US youth's
    rejection of materialism and belief that postwar
    society was repressive and flawed.
  • Problems in higher education classes
    overcrowded little contact with professors
    competition for grades intense demanded even
    more practical areas of study to qualify for
    high-paying jobs after college
  • Some students warned of dangers of narrowly
    trained experts ("technocrats") who would serve
    the establishment to the detriment of working
    class.

74
French Student Revolt 1968
  • Students took over the university, leading to
    violent clashes with police.
  • Most students demanded changes in curriculum and
    real voice in running the university
  • Appealed to industrial workers for help
    spontaneous general strike spread across France
  • To many it seemed the French Fifth Republic might
    collapse
  • De Gaulle called in troops and called for new
    elections (which he won decisively)
  • The mini-Revolution collapsed.
  • For much of the older generation in western
    Europe, the student revolution of 1968 signaled
    the end of illusions and end of an era.

75
Czechoslovakia
  • Due to Khrushchevs reforms in USSR, 1960s
    brought modest liberalization and more consumer
    goods to eastern Europe
  • 1968, reform elements in Czechoslovak Communist
    party gained a majority and voted out long-time
    Stalinist leader.
  • Alexander Dubcek elected leader ushered new
    period of thaw and rebirth in famous Prague
    Spring of 1968.
  • Czech reformers building socialism with a human
    face frightened hard-line communists.
  • Soviet troops brutally invaded Czechoslovakia in
    August 1968.
  • Czechoslovakia became one of most hard-line
    communist regimes well into 1980s.
  • Brezhnev Doctrine Soviet Union and its allies
    had right to intervene in any socialist country
    whenever they saw the need 

76
Prague Spring
77
De-Colonization After WWII
78
De-Colonization
  • Postwar era saw total collapse of colonial
    empires.
  • Between 1947 and 1962, almost every colonial
    territory gained independence.
  • New nations of Asia and Africa deeply influenced
    by Western ideas and achievements.

79
Causes of De-Colonialization
  • Modern nationalism and belief in
    self-determination and racial equality, spread
    from intellectuals to the masses in virtually
    every colonial territory after WWI.
  • Decline of European prestige Japanese victories
    destruction of Europe during WWII
  • After 1945, European powers more concerned about
    rebuilding let colonies go

80
India
  • Played a key role in decolonization and the end
    of empire.
  • Indian National Congress British had no choice
    but to develop a native political elite that
    could assist in ruling such huge country.
  • Exposure of young Indians to Western ideas of
    nationalism, socialism, and democracy led to
    demands for independence by the early 20th
    century.
  • Mohandas K. Gandhi after WWI led independence
    movement with principle of passive resistance
    (civil disobedience)
  • Jawaharlal Nehru led Congress party in its push
    for independence
  • Clement Attlee and others in Labour party wished
    to focus on internal affairs.
  • Divided India into two nations India (Hindu) and
    Pakistan (Muslim)

81
Ghandi
82
China
  • After WWII (defeat of Japanese invaders) a civil
    war broke out between communists led by Mao
    Zedong and Nationalists led by Jiang Jieshi
    (Chang kai-shek)
  • Mao won the revolution and created a communist
    country People's Republic of China

83
Vietnam
  • After Japanese removed after WWII, French tried
    to reassert control of Indochina
  • Ho Chi Minh led the independence movement in the
    north
  • 1954, defeated French forces at Dien Bien Phu
  • 1954,Vietnam was divided into North (communist)
    and South (pro-Western) civil war resulted
  • U.S. defeated in attempt to prevent communist
    takeover of South Vietnam Vietnam unified in 1975

84
Arab Nationalism
  • Arab nationalists loosely united by opposition to
    colonialism and migration of Jews to Palestine
  • Israel and Palestine
  • Balfour Declaration in 1917 indicated Britain
    favored creation of Jewish national home in
    Palestineopposed by Saudi Arabia Transjordan
  • Great Britain announced its withdrawal from
    Palestine in 1948.
  • United Nations voted for creation of two states,
    one Arab and one Jewish
  • Palestinians vowed to fight on until state of
    Israel destroyed or until they established own
    independent Palestinian state led to several
    wars and numerous conflicts in late 20th century

85
Egypt
  • Arab defeat in 1948 by Israel triggered
    nationalist revolution in Egypt in 1952.
  • 1956, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser
    nationalized the Suez Canal, the last symbol and
    substance of Western power in the Middle East.
  • France, Britain and Israel attacked Egypt, trying
    to take back control of Suez Canal
  • U.S. and Soviet Union demanded their withdrawal
    and the canal remained in Egypt's control
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