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The Cold War Era 1945-1989


The Cold War Era 1945-1989 The Soviet Union The United States Communism Capitalism & Democracy VS – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War Era 1945-1989

The Cold War Era 1945-1989
The Soviet Union
The United States
Capitalism Democracy
Comprehension Questions
  • What is the purpose of the United Nations?
  • What happened in Eastern Europe?
  • Who controlled Germany after the war?
  • What was containment?

The United Nations 1945-Present
  • Was created in April of 1945, when
    representatives from 50 nations met in San
    Francisco, California.
  • Its purpose is to provide peaceful resolutions to
    the worlds problems.

United Nations (cont.)
Security Council of the United Nations
Beginning of the Cold War
  • The Cold War was a struggle for power between the
    U.S. and the Soviet Union.
  • The U.S. wanted to spread democracy and
    capitalism while the Soviet Union wanted to
    spread communism.

Beginning of the Cold War (cont.)
  • After WWII, the Soviet Union forced the countries
    in Eastern Europe to become communist.
  • Winston Churchill called Stalins communist
    Eastern Europe an Iron Curtain. It described
    the invisible wall that surrounded these
    communist countries. It divided Europe.

Communist Eastern Europe
  • Although he had promised the Allies free
    elections in Eastern Europe, Joseph Stalin
    decided to install communist governments.

The Berlin Airlift
  • After WWII, Germany was divided into four parts
    each one controlled by a different superpower
    the U.S., Great Britain, France and the Soviet
  • In 1948, the U.S., Britain and France united
    their part of Germany into one nation West

Berlin Division of the City
  • Germanys capital, Berlin, which was in the
    Soviet-controlled part of Germany, had also been
    divided into four parts.

The Berlin Airlift (cont.)
  • The Soviet Union decided to NOT allow supplies
    going to West Berlin from West Germany to cross
    their part of the country by trucks or trains.
  • The U.S. and Britain decided to fly in all the
    supplies needed into West Berlin. They did this
    for one year until the Soviet Union gave up their
  • West Berlin remained a democratic city inside of
    communist East Germany.

The Berlin Airlift (cont.)
  • Planes flew in and out of West Berlin every
    minute of the day.

The Berlin Airlift
U.S. Policy Against Communism
  • The U.S. policy against communism was outlined in
    the Truman Doctrine it was called containment
    (to stop something from spreading).
  • Containment meant that the U.S. would help
    nations that were fighting to remain free from
  • The U.S. decided to help the rest of Europe
    reconstruct so that they would have strong
    economies and they would not turn to communism.

(No Transcript)
Comprehension Questions
  • What two events happened in 1949?
  • What was the arms race?
  • What were the two major wars the United States
    fought during the Cold War?
  • What was the Cuban missile Crisis?

Arms Race
  • In 1949, the Soviet Union exploded its first
    nuclear bomb. This began a race between the USSR
    and the US to make the most amount of bombs.
  • While the US led the race the entire time, by the
    1970s both countries had made more nuclear bombs
    than what they could really use.

Arms Race (cont.)
Arms Race (cont.)
Red China
  • In 1949, after a civil war, the communist party
    won in China.
  • China became an ally of the USSR and helped
    spread communism.
  • The US did not work with or recognize the
    communist Chinese government until 1978.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • NATO was an alliance started in 1949 by the
    United States and Western European countries to
    protect themselves, mainly from communism.
  • In 1955, the Soviet Union formed an alliance with
    the communist Eastern European countries called
    The Warsaw Pact.

NATO and The Warsaw Pact
The Wars of the Cold War
  • While the United States and the Soviet Union
    never actually fought, many wars did happen over
    spread of democracy and capitalism.
  • The United States fought two major wars in the
    name of containing communism
  • The Korean War, 1950-1953
  • Vietnam War, mid-1950s to 1975

The Korean War, 1950-1953
  • The Korean War started when communist North Korea
    invaded South Korea. The United States and The
    U.N. sent troops to help South Korea.
  • In the end, the North Koreans were forced to
    retreat and South Korea remained democratic.
    Over 38,000 U.S. soldiers died in this war.

Pictures of the Korean War
Vietnam War, 1950s-1975
  • In the 1950s, a struggle happened between
    communists and non-communists in South Vietnam.
    The United States slowly began helping the
  • By the mid to late 1960s, the US had thousands of
    troops in Vietnam fighting communist North

Vietnam War (cont.)
  • The U.S lost the fight in Vietnam. By 1975
    Americans were tired of the war. Vietnam became
    communist. Over 58,000 Americans were killed in
    this war.

Vietnam War Map
Vienam War Pictures
Vietnam War Protest
  • Many Americans disagreed with the war because
    they didnt think we needed to be there much
    like the war in Iraq today.

The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
  • This was the closest the US and the USSR came
    to war. The USSR was attempting to install
    nuclear weapons in Cuba. The US quarantined the
    island threatening to to destroy any Soviet ships
    that tried to enter Cuba. The USSR finally agreed
    to remove them.

President Nixons Détente
  • President Richard Nixons Cold War policy was
    called détente, a French word meaning relaxation
    of tension.
  • 1972 SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) an
    agreement between the US and the USSR that
    limited their offensive weapons to those they
    already had or were producing.
  • 1979 SALT II limited the number of missiles and
    long-range bombers each nation could build.

SDI (Strategic Missile Defense)
  • SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) In 1983,
    President Ronald Reagan increased military
    spending and proposed SDI as the next step in
    defense. It would use satellites and lasers to
    shoot down incoming missiles. It would cost
    billions of dollars and many scientists were
    skeptical about it working.

End of the Cold War
  • Several events in the 1980s began unraveling the
    Cold War in 1989, one major event was when
    Germans in Berlin began taking down the wall and
    the Soviet army did not stop them.
  • Soon after, former Soviet countries had free
    elections and became democratic, including Russia.

Modern European Map
Berlin Wall