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Changes in Georgia and America 1945-1963

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Terms Section 1 G.I. Bill Baby boomer Suburb ... Cold War America Cold War Cold War America Slide 17 John F. Kennedy John F. Kennedy John F. Kennedy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Changes in Georgia and America 1945-1963


1
Changes in Georgia and America 1945-1963
2
Postwar America
  • The U.S. and Georgia prosper and change in the
    years following World War II, but the nation
    faces several international crises.

3
Terms Section 1
  • G.I. Bill
  • Baby boomer
  • Suburb
  • Flannery OConner
  • Carson McCullers

4
Postwar America
  • The G.I. Bill-Servicemans Readjustment Act of
    1944
  • provides mortgage, business assistance free
  • education to veterans
  • 12 million soldiers returning from the War in
    June 1945
  • 320,000 of those soldiers are from Georgia
  • These soldiers are returning to civilian life
  • Eight millions attend school under the G.I. Bill

5
Postwar America
  • Because of the returning soldiers, there is a
    sudden rise in the American population.
  • Baby Boom Jump in birthrate
  • Children Born between 1946-1964 were know as baby
    boomers.
  • This sudden rise in population creates a need for
    schools and teachers.
  • Congress fears that the Soviet Union (Russia) has
    an advantage over the America Schools
  • Fund better Math and Science programs

6
Postwar America
  • Population suburbs increase in the 1950s due to
    the G.I. Bill
  • Minorities cannot afford the Suburban houses and
    owners will not sell to those that can afford the
    houses
  • Creates segregation in the community

7
Popular Cullture in in the 1950s
  • Teenagers reject the music of their parents
  • Rock-n-Roll and Jazz become very popular with the
    youth of America
  • Ray Charles, Gladys Knight, Little Richard, James
    Brown, others
  • Womens role in the 1950s were to stay at home to
    take care of the family
  • Women begin to attend college
  • Women want long-term careers

8
Popular Culture in America
  • Flannery OConnor perhaps best-known Georgia
    writer
  • born in Savannah writes two novels, 31 short
    stories
  • Carson McCullers writes The Heart is a Lonely
    Hunter at 23
  • style called Southern Gothicset in South, full
    of tragedy, danger

9
Cold War America
  • Cold War
  • Nuclear Arms Race
  • Iron Curtain
  • Containment
  • Joseph R. McCarthy
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

10
Cold War America
  • The belief that communism is a threat after World
    War II.
  • Cold War- Hostile relations between the U.S. and
    communist countries such as the Soviet Union.
  • the Soviet Union detonates an atomic weapon
  • Nuclear Arms Race U.S., Soviet Unions
    competition for atomic weapons.
  • Civil defense against the atomic bomb becomes an
    exercise.
  • Schools teach the nuclear explosion drill.
  • Fallout shelters are built for protection.

11
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12
Cold War America
  • Postwar Japan
  • U.S. Rebuilds Japan to be a Democracy
  • Japanese learn the industrial ways of the U.S.
  • Industry explodes in Japan
  • Postwar Germany
  • Allied Powers are in control of Germany
  • Soviet Union wants to establish power.
  • Creates an Iron Curtain- cutting the
    communicational lines to the Allied Powers of
    U.S., Britain and France
  • Tries to control nearby countries

13
Cold War America
  • Marshall Plan
  • Allied powers believe that the WWII started
    because of the Great Depression.
  • Believed that they must rebuild Europes economy
  • Soviet Union refuses to help rebuild.
  • Cuts off the western portion of Berlin
  • U.S. can not send aid to help.

14
Cold War America
  • United States and 11 other countries from NATO to
    stop the spread of Communism.
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Formed in case of a Soviet Union Invasion
  • The purpose is to stop the spread of communism to
    other countries.
  • Containment- Stopping the spread of communism
  • Soviet Union counters NATO by signing the Warsaw
    Pact in 1955.
  • Pact between the communist countries
  • Dissolves in 1991

15
Cold War
  • Threat of Communism is a fear in America
  • Joseph R. McCarthy- Senator from Wisconsin that
    accused people of being communist
  • Many of these peoples careers were ruined by
    McCarthy.
  • Public turns against the senator which ends his
    career.

16
Cold War America
  • Communist leader comes to power in China.
  • Mao Tse Tung U.S. fears the spread of communism
  • Korean Conflict
  • North Korea invades South Korea
  • United States sends troops to stop the invasion
  • China aids the North Korean interest.
  • Neither side wins the conflict after three years
    of fighting
  • A ceasefire was signed
  • Established a new border between the Koreas

17
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18
John F. Kennedy
  • Election of 1960
  • Kennedy runs on the platform of a New Frontier
  • Kennedy wants to focus on the social problems in
    the United States.
  • The Cold War will not allow him to focus on his
    promise.

19
John F. Kennedy
  • Bay of Pigs- Fidel Castro takes over Cuba
  • Kennedy supports a group of Cubans trying to over
    throw Castro
  • Castro captures the anti-Castro forces at the Bay
    of Pigs
  • The Berlin Wall
  • Soviet Union concerned by the people leaving East
    Berlin for West Berlin
  • Built the wall in 1961 to separate East and West
    Berlin.

20
John F. Kennedy
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • United States detection of communist missiles in
    Cuba.
  • Diplomacy problem for Kennedy
  • Blocks the Soviet Union access to Cuba and
    demands that they remove the missiles from Cuba.
  • The U.S. and Soviet Union on the brink of nuclear
    war.

21
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22
John F. Kennedy
  • Vietnam
  • North Vietnamese communist leader Ho Chi Minh is
    considered a threat to the South Vietnam
    democracy
  • United States sends money, supplies, and military
    advisors to South Vietnam.

23
Civil Rights
  • 1954- the U.S. Supreme court rules on Brown v.
    Board of Education
  • Separate is unconstitutional
  • 1957- Little Rock, AK, nine African American
    students were to be integrated into Central High
    School
  • Govern used National Guard to keep the students
    out of the school
  • President Eisenhower ordered the 101st Airborne
    to protect the students
  • Lester Maddox promise that segregation will not
    happen as long as he is in office.
  • Many Caucasians worked with African Americans to
    help segregate society.

24
John F. Kennedy
  • November 22, 1963, Kennedy is assassinated while
    riding in the streets of Dallas, TX.
  • The death was a shock to the nation
  • Kennedy brought a new era to society
  • One filled with confidence, hope, and a
    commitment to change.
  • Ask not what your country can do for you, ask
    what you can do for your country.

25
Section 1 Quiz
  1. The ______ gave returning soldiers the
    opportunity to go to school and buy low cost
    homes.
  2. Children born between 1946-1964 were known as
    ________.
  3. The Cold War was a time of hostilities between
    ________ and __________.
  4. As a result of the hostilities during the Cold
    War, there was a competition to build atomic
    bombs known as _______ ______ _________.
  5. NATO was formed to stop the spread of communism
    better known as __________.

26
  • 6. The court ruling in this case proved that
    separate is not equal making segregation illegal
    in schools. What is the court case?
  • Senator ___________ accused many people of
    communist beliefs during the 1950s eventually
    ruining their careers.
  • Name the two woman authors from Georgia.
  • President Kennedy had to deal with this intense
    situation during the 1960s in which the world was
    a heartbeat away from nuclear war.
  • The Soviet Union cutoff ties to nations of
    democracy using the technique known as
    ___________

27
Section 3 Terms
  • Operation Dixie
  • Lake Sidney Lanier
  • Board of Regents controversy
  • Helen Douglas Mankin
  • Three Governors Controversy
  • Carl Sanders
  • Richard B. Russell, Jr.
  • Carl Vinson

28
Georgias Growing Economy
  • Shifting Populations
  • Many African American, white farmers move to
    cities from 1930s to 1960s
  • Rural population falls, from 1.3 million in 1940
    to 228,000 by 1970
  • Many people move to Georgia steady incline in
    population
  • Defense industry and other businesses attract
    skilled workers.
  • Public services become strained leading to the
    growth of suburbs.

29
Georgias Growing Economy
  • People are earning more than ever before in
    Georgia.
  • Factory workers and farmers are still making
    below national average.
  • Public Service 33 of workforce
  • One third of new factory jobs are in the metro
    Atlanta area.
  • Savannah becomes one of the U.S. largest port
    cities.
  • Military Bases provide jobs as well.

30
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31
Georgias Growing Economy
  • Labor Unions
  • Auto assembly lines, textile factories remain
    important industries
  • Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) attempt
    to organize factories for better working
    conditions
  • Operation Dixie- attempt to set labor unions in
    the south
  • Met intimidation by the factory management.

32
Georgias Growing Economy
  • Change in agriculture
  • Prosperity ends for Georgia farmers and
    Sharecroppers
  • Sharecroppers are pushed off the land
  • Rely on Tractors to till the soil and harvest
  • Livestock becomes an important industry
  • Poultry is the now the leading farm industry
  • Improved transportation and new markets make
    dairy farming profitable.

33
Changes in Agriculture
  • Improvements in agriculture change how things are
    grow
  • Pesticides, new strains, and better organization
  • Small farms are sold
  • Agriculture become less important
  • 10 is used to grow cotton
  • Crop diversity such as the growth peanuts,
    poultry, livestock, peanuts, tobacco, soybeans
    are dominant by 1980

34
Urban Change
  • Atlanta becomes the hub of the south
  • MARTA becomes a large part of transportation
  • The growth of the city creates a need for war.
  • Dam the Chattahoochee River creating Lake Sidney
    Lanier

35
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36
Political Changes in Georgia
  • The Board of Regents controversy cost the
    University of Georgia their accreditation
  • Two teachers were promoting integration
  • Talmadge is elected in 1941, plans to change to
    the idea of integration.
  • Fires members from the Board of Regents to place
    his men to fire the teachers.
  • Ellis Arnall defeats Talmadge in 1942
  • Reduces the power that the governor came have on
    in the state.
  • Abolishes Chain gangs and lowers voting ages.

37
Political Changes in Georgia
  • William Berry Hartsfield
  • William B. Hartsfield becomes Atlantas mayor,
    193740, 194262
  • convinces whites, African-Americans to work
    together for progress
  • Atlanta grows in population, size is known for
    doing business
  • While councilman in 1920s, Hartsfield starts
    Atlantas airport
  • supports Atlantas zoo reforms police, fire
    departments

38
Political Changes in Georgia
  • Helen Douglas Mankin becomes first Georgia woman
    in Congress, 1947
  • 1946 Governors Race
  • Eugene Talmadge runs again in 1946 on white
    supremacy platform
  • Talmadge wins election but dies before taking
    office
  • resulting confusion known as three governors
    controversy
  • Herman Talmadge, Ellis Arnall, M.E. Thompson
  • Court rules for Thompson to hold office until
    special election
  • Herman wins in 1948 and serves two terms

39
Political changes in Georgia
  • County Unit System is ruled unconstitutional by
    the federal court.
  • The rural community has too much control over
    politics keeping the state segregated
  • Carl Sanders is elected in 1962 vows to change
    the states image
  • Richard Russell, Jr. serves as State senator from
    1933-1971
  • Supports the New Deal at firsts, as the
    depression continues changes his mind.
  • Carl Vinson is elected to congress at the age of
    30 being the youngest of that time.
  • Supports military expansion, builds two-ocean
    navy.
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