Cold War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation

Cold War


Cold War & Recovery 1945-1968 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:551
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 86
Provided by: Preferr1404


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Cold War

Cold War Recovery
  • 1945-1968

Roots of Cold War
  • Teheran Conference, 1943 USSR guaranteed to be
    only power to liberate Eastern Europe
  • Yalta Conference, 1945
  • Stalin pledged to allow democratic elections in
    E. Europe (but later reneged)
  • Germany would be divided into four zones
    controlled by U.S., France, Britain and USSR
  • After war, Soviets dominated their zone and did
    not allow reunification of Germany
  • Potsdam Conference, 1945
  • Truman demanded free elections in Eastern Europe
    but Stalin refused
  • Stalin wanted a "buffer zone" between Germany and
    USSR for protection against future war

Roots of Cold War
  • U.S. point of view
  • Stalin seemed intent on creating "spheres" of
    influence in Eastern Europe
  • Broke pledges at Yalta refused to allow
    reunification of Germany
  • Churchhill's "Iron Curtain" speech in 1946
    alerted Americans to a future conflict
  • U.S. wanted democracy spread throughout the world
    with a strong international organization to
    maintain global peace

(No Transcript)
Roots of Cold War
  • Soviet point of view
  • Democracies traditionally hostile towards
    communism and the USSR
  • e.g., Archangel expedition during WWI
    non-recognition by U.S. until 1933
  • US Britain did not open western front in Europe
    early enough millions of Soviet soldiers were
    dying fighting the brunt of Nazi armies alone
    until mid-1944.
  • The US and Britain froze Russia out of the atomic
    bomb project.
  • US terminated lend-lease to Moscow in May 1945
    but gave Britain aid until 1946.
  • Wanted "buffer zone" for the Soviet western
    border esp. in Poland

Partition of Germany
  • USSR, U.S., Britain France would each occupy a
    part of Germany but would allow for German
    reunification once she was no longer a threat.
  • Germany was to pay heavy reparations to USSR in
    form of agricultural and industrial goods.
  • Soviets dominated their Eastern German zone
  • Did not want revitalized Germany that could once
    again pose a threat.
  • Stripped E. Germany of much of its resources.

Partition of Germany
  • U.S. and W. Europeans felt German economy vital
    to recovery of Europe
  • 1949, West Germany became an independent country
    when US, France and Britain gave back each of
    their zones
  • Federal Republic of Germany led by Konrad
  • 1949, East Germany formally established
    Democratic Republic of Germany led by Walter
    Ulbricht (1883-1973) communist regime influenced
    by Moscow

(No Transcript)
  • By 1947, US pledged to prevent further spread of
  • Truman Doctrine, 1947 U.S. gave aid to Greece
    and Turkey to defeat communist forces there.

Marshall Plan
  • 1947 Massive aid package to help war-torn Europe
    recover from the war
  • Purpose prevent communism from spreading into
    economically devastated regions
  • Result Western and Central Europe recovered
    economically -- the "economic miracle"
  • Soviets refused to allow U.S. aid to countries in
    eastern Europe

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Berlin Crisis (1948-49)
  • Soviets attempted to remove Allies from Berlin by
    cutting off access
  • One of high tension points of the Cold War World
    War III?
  • U.S. instituted a massive airlift Soviets lifted
    blockade in 1949 (Berlin Airlift)

(No Transcript)
More Containment
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed
    in 1949
  • Collective security organization consisting of
    democracies in Europe, U.S. Canada to prevent
    against Soviet expansion in Europe.
  • Radio Free Europe Voice of America set up to
    send pro-democracy messages to countries behind
    the "iron curtain"

Eastern Bloc
  • Countries in Eastern Europe dominated by Soviet
    Union after WWII
  • Included Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East
    Germany, Rumania, Bulgaria
  • Communist parties of eastern Europe established
    one-party states by 1948, with help of Red Army
    and KGB (Soviet secret police)
  • Only Yugoslavia, led by Marshal Tito, is not
    dominated by Soviets
  • Postwar economic recovery in eastern Europe
    proceeded along Soviet lines.
  • Changes went forward at slow uneven pace came
    to almost a halt by the mid-1960s.
  • Five-year plans in USSR reintroduced to tackle
    massive economic reconstruction

Eastern Bloc
  • Stalin reinstitutes oppressive rule
  • Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland had
    fostered Russian nationalism and a relaxation of
    dictatorial terror.
  • Stalins new foe, the U.S., provided an excuse
    for re-establishing harsh dictatorship.
  • After war, Stalin repressed millions of Soviet
    citizens living outside Soviet borders when the
    war ended.
  • Stalin revived many forced labor camp, which had
    accounted for roughly 1/6 of all new construction
    in Soviet Union before the war
  • Culture and art were also purged

  • Czechoslovakia the economic exception in E.
    Europe industrialized, strong middle class and
    industrial working class and experience of
    political democracy between the wars.
  • During dualist period", President Benes and
    Foreign minister Jan Masaryk proposed to govern a
    social democracy while maintaining close
    voluntary relations with the USSR.
  • In response to Marshall Plan in 1947, Stalin
    replaced govt in 1948 with 1-party communist
    rule to prevent nation from courting the West.

USSR under Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971)
  • Power struggle emerged after Stalin died in 1953
    Khrushchev emerged a few years later
  • Stalins heirs realized reforms were needed.
  • Widespread fear and hatred of Stalins political
    terror resulted in reduction of power of secret
    police and gradual closure of forced labor camps.
  • Agriculture in bad shape.
  • Shortages of consumer goods.
  • Hard work and initiative in decline due to poor
    living conditions.

  • XXth Party Congress, 1956 Khrushchev took
    startling initiative against hard-liners by
    denouncing Stalins crimes in a closed session.
  • Secret anti-Stalin speech probably most
    influential statement in Russia since Lenin
    addressed the crowd on arriving in April 1917.
  • Gosplan Resources shifted from heavy industry
    and the military toward consumer goods and
    agriculture Centralized Economic Planning

  • Great ferment in the arts (anti-Stalinist views
  • Boris Pasternak (1890-1960) wrote Dr. Zhivago in
  • Story of prerevolutionary intellectual who
    rejects brutality of revolution of 1917
    Stalinism even as he is destroyed, he triumphs
    from his humanity and Christian spirit.
  • Aleksandr Solzenitsyn One Day in the Life of
    Ivan Denisovich (1962)
  • Portrays in grim detail life in Stalinist
    concentration camp (he had been a prisoner)

  • De-Stalinization resulted in communist reformers
    and the masses seeking greater liberty and
    national independence.
  • Poland March 1956, riots resulted in release of
    more than 9000 political prisoners, including
    previously purged leader Wladyslaw Gomulka.
  • Gomulka skillfully managed to win greater
    autonomy for Poland while keeping anti-Soviet
    feeling at bay.

Hungarian Uprising 1956
  • Students and workers in Budapest installed a
    liberal Communist reformer, Imre Nagy as new
    chief in October 1956.
  • Hungarian nationalists staged huge demonstrations
    demanding non-communist parties be legalized
    turned into armed rebellion and spread throughout
    the country.
  • Hoped U.S. would come in and help achieve
    Hungarian independence

Hungarian Uprising 1956
  • Soviet tanks and troops responded by invading
    Hungary and crushing the national democratic
  • János Kádár installed firm communist rule
  • After Hungarian invasion, most eastern Europeans
    hoped for small domestic gains while obediently
    following USSR in foreign affairs.

Post-War Political and Economic Framework
  • Bretton Woods Conference (1944) created
    International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • Lay foundations for modern monetary system based
    on U.S. dollar
  • IMF (World Bank) designed to loan money to
    struggling countries to prevent economic crises
    and anarchy instrumental in post-war economic
  • United Nations created in 1945 Security Council
    (12 nations including 5 permanent members had
    powers to act General Assembly had powers to
    advise (included all nations of the world)

Western Europe Political Recovery
  • Economic hardship after WWII scarcity of food,
    runaway inflation, black markets
  • Many people believed Europe was finished.
  • Suffering was worst in Germany

Western Europe Political Recovery
  • Political restructuring
  • Christian Democrats inspired by common Christian
    and European heritage.
  • Rejected authoritarianism narrow nationalism
    had faith in democracy and cooperation.
  • Catholic parties also progressive in nature
  • Socialists and Communists also emerged with
    increased power and prestige, especially in
    France and Italy.
  • Pushed for social change and economic reform with
    considerable success.
  • Result social reform and political
    transformation created foundations for a great
    European renaissance.

Western Europe Political Recovery - Italy
  • Christian Democrats gained control in 1946 led
    by Alcide De Gasperi
  • Socialist influence social benefits came to
    equal a large part of the average workers wages

Western Europe Political Recovery - France
  • General Charles De Gaulle, inspiring wartime
    leader of Free French, re-established free and
    democratic Fourth Republic (resigned in 1949)
  • Catholic party provided some of best postwar
    leaders e.g. Robert Schuman
  • Socialist influence large banks, insurance
    companies, public utilities, coal mines, and the
    Renault auto company were nationalized by govt.
  • Britain followed same trend

Western Europe Political Recovery - West Germany
  • 1949, Konrad Adenauer began long, highly
    successful democratic rule.
  • Christian Democrats became West Germanys
    majority party for a generation

Western Europe Political Recovery Great Britain
  • Clement Attlee, socialist Labour party leader,
    defeated Winston Churchill and the Conservatives
    in 1945.
  • Attlee moved toward establishment of a welfare
  • Many industries nationalized, govt provided each
    citizen with free medical service and taxed the
    middle and upper classes more heavily.

Economic Miracle
  • Unprecedented economic growth in European history
  • Europe entered period of rapid economic progress
    lasting into late 1960s.
  • By 1963, western Europe produced more than 2.5X
    more than before the war.

Economic Miracle
  • Causes
  • Marshall Plan aid helped western Europe begin
    recovery in 1947
  • Korean War in 1950 stimulated economic activity.
  • Economic growth became a basic objective of all
    western European governments.
  • Governments accepted Keynesian economics to
    stimulate their economies.
  • Germany and France were especially successful and
  • In most countries many people willing to work
    hard for low wages expanding industries
  • Increased demand for consumer goods.
  • Many economic barriers eliminated and a large
    unified market emerged Common Market.

Economic Miracle
  • German economic recovery led by finance minister
    Ludwig Erhard
  • Combined free-market economy extensive social
    welfare network inherited from Nazi era.
  • By late 1950s, West Germany had robust economy,
    full employment, a strong currency and stable

Economic Miracle
  • France
  • Combined flexible planning and a mixed state
    and private economy to achieve most rapid
    economic development in its history.
  • Jean Monnet economic pragmatist and architect of
    European unity.
  • France used Marshall Plan aid money and the
    nationalized banks to funnel money into key
    industries, several of which were state owned.

European Unity
Council of Europe Created in 1948
  • European federalists hoped Council would quickly
    evolve into a true European parliament with
    sovereign rights, but this did not happen.
  • Britain, with its empire and its special
    relationship with U.S., opposed giving any real
    political powersovereigntyto the council.

Schuman Plan
  • 1950 created the European Coal and Steel
  • Put forth by French statesman Jean Monnet and
    Foreign Minister Robert Schuman.
  • Special international organization to control
    integrate European steel and coal production.
  • West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands,
    Luxembourg accepted in 1952 Britain refused to
  • Immediate economic goal a single competitive
    market w/o national tariffs or quotas.
  • "The Six" By 1958 coal and steel moved freely
    among six nations of the European Coal and Steel
  • Far-reaching political goal bind six member
    nations so closely together economically that war
    among them would become unthinkable and virtually

European Economic Community (EEC)
  • Treaty of Rome, 1957
  • Created European Economic Community (EEC) or the
    Common Market
  • Signed by same six nations in the Schuman Plan
    the Six
  • First goal of treaty Gradual reduction of all
    tariffs among the Six in order to create a single
    market almost as large as the U.S.
  • Other goals
  • Free movement of capital and labor.
  • Common economic policies and institutions.
  • Tariffs were rapidly reduced and regions
    specialized in what they did best.

European Economic Community (EEC)
  • EEC encouraged hopes of political and economic
  • Union frustrated in 1960s by resurgence of more
    traditional nationalism.
  • Euratom (European Atomic Energy Agency) also
    created by agency.
  • Communist states responded by forming their own
    economic association--COMECON

France Steps Back from European Unity
  • Bitter colonial war in Algeria resulted in the
    election in 1958 of General De Gaulle who
    established the Fifth French Republic and ruled
    as president until 1969.
  • Withdrew France from "US controlled" NATO and
    developed own nuclear weapons program.
  • De Gaulle twice vetoed application of
    pro-American British to European Union.
  • Britain did not inter until 1973.

Cold War in the 1950s
  • 1949, Communists in China led by Mao Zedong win
    Chinese revolution
  • Establish "Peoples Republic of China" ("Red
  • 1949, Soviets successfully test atomic bomb

Korean War 1950-1953
  • After WWII, Korea divided at 38th parallel North
    was communist, South was not
  • Cause 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea
    (supported by Soviet resources)
  • UN (led by US Gen. Douglas MacArthur) sent
    forces to push back communists
  • Soviets boycotting UN for U.S. refusal to allow
    "Red China" into UN Security Council
  • China sends hundreds of thousands of troops to
    push back UN
  • Result cease-fire and border at 38th parallel
    restored still in existence today

Korean War
Hydrogen Bomb
  • Developed by US in 1952 USSR in 1953 world now
    has two superpowers

Warsaw Pact 1955
  • Collective security organization of eastern bloc
    nations to counter NATO.
  • U.S. policy of "massive retaliation" between
  • U.S. policy now is to help eastern European
    countries remove communism.
  • U.S. vows to destroy USSR with nuclear weapons if
    it tries to expand
  • Brinksmanship the art of going to the brink of
    war to force the other side t back down.

Relations b/n USSR U.S. Improve w/ Ascension to
power of Nikita Khrushchev
  • Seeks peaceful coexistence with the West in
    order to focus on Soviet economy
  • Austrian Independence USSR agreed in 1955 to
    real independence for a neutral Austria after 10
    years of Allied occupation.
  • Resulted in significant reduction in cold war
    tensions between 1955 1957.

Relations b/n USSR U.S. Improve w/ Ascension to
power of Nikita Khrushchev
  • Krushchev sought to prove communism was superior
    to capitalism and the USSR would be the model
    communist state in the world "we will bury you.
  • Krushchev began wooing new nations of Asia and
    Africa with promises and aid, even if they were
    not communist.
  • Geneva Summit -- 1955 (July)
  • US meets with USSR, Britain, France to begin
    discussions on European security and disarmament
    no agreements made
  • 1958, relations sour with Khrushchev's ultimatum
    for Allies to leave Berlin 6 month deadline
    passes without incident, extended indefinitely

Cold War in 1960s
U-2 Incident
  • U.S. spy plane shot down over USSR
  • Khrushchev demanded an apology from Eisenhower
    Eisenhower refused
  • Khrushchev and Eisenhower aborted

Berlin Wall Built in 1961
  • 2 million East Germans escaped to West Berlin
    between 1949-1961 Soviets frustrated
  • Khrushchev threatened President Kennedy USSR
    would sign peace treaty with East Germany who
    would then control access to Berlin Soviets
    would protect East Germanys right to control
    flow into Berlin.
  • Berlin Wall built instead of enforcing ultimatum
    to U.S. ended future crises over Berlin

Berlin Wall
  • Became a communist country in 1959 under
    leadership of Fidel Castro
  • Cuba became an ally of the Soviet Union
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961 U.S.-trained Cuban
    exiles tried unsuccessfully to invade Cuba

Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1962 U.S. demanded Soviets remove their newly
    installed nuclear missiles from Cuba.
  • Crisis became the closest USSR and US came to
    nuclear war
  • U.S. placed blockade (naval quarantine) on any
    further missiles into Cuba
  • Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles in return
    for U.S. removing its missiles from Turkey and
    vowing not to invade Cuba in the future.
  • Crisis weakened Khrushchev and contributed to his
    downfall in 1964

Cuban Missile Crisis
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963
  • Khrushchev, Kennedy Britain signed historic
    treaty banning atmospheric testing in an attempt
    to reduce Cold War tensions
  • France refused to sign (was in the process of
    developing own nuclear weapons program)
  • China became a nuclear power in 1964 leading to
    its estrangement with Soviet Union

Fall of Khrushchev 1964
  • His cold war foreign policies erratic
    ultimately unsuccessful (Berlin, Cuban Missile
  • Expensive space and armaments programs postponed
    any significant shift to consumer goods.
  • Most important reason agricultural projects
  • Resurgence of conservative Stalinists led to
    quiet removal of Khrushchev in October, 1964

Leonid Brezhnev
  • Became new General Secretary (1964-1982)
  • Beginning in 1964, USSR began a period of
    stagnation and limited re-Stalinization
  • Massive arms buildup started in response to
    humiliation of Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • USSR avoided direct confrontation with the U.S.
    and seemed more committed to peaceful coexistence
    than Khrushchev had been.

Vietnam War (1964-1973)
  • U.S. fought unsuccessful war in Southeast Asia to
    prevent communism from spreading into South
  • Domino Theory U.S. believed if Vietnam fell
    to communism, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand would
    also fall (perhaps even India) (1964-1973)

Science and Technology
  • For first time in history, pure theoretical
    science and practical technology (applied
    science) effectively joined together on massive
    scale during WWII.
  • British scientists developed radar to detect
    enemy aircraft.
  • Jet aircraft developed by Germany
  • Electronic computers further developed had
    barely come into existence before 1939.
  • Manhattan Project Atomic bomb most spectacular
    result of scientific research during the war
    project overseen by J. Robert Oppenheimer

Science and Technology
  • Big Science became new model for science after
  • Combined theoretical work with sophisticated
    engineering in a large, often huge organization.
  • U.S. emerged as leader in Big Science after WWII
  • Science not demobilized after WWII either in U.S.
    or USSR
  • Large portion of all postwar scientific research
    went for defense (25!)

Space Race
  • (Part of Cold War competition to achieve
    technological superiority)
  • 1957, USSR launched Sputnik, an orbiting
    satellite using long-range rockets
  • US fearful Soviets could now launch a nuclear
    missile into space and then down to U.S.
  • Resulted in development of ICBMs
    (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles)

Space Race
  • U.S. countered with creation of NASA and vastly
    increased educational funding for science.
  • 1961, Soviets sent worlds first cosmonaut, Yuri
    Gagarin, into orbit.
  • President John F. Kennedy responded by increasing
    funds for space.
  • 1969, Apollo Program put first man on the moon 4
    more moon landings followed by 1972.

Brain Drain
  • U.S. attracted many of Europes best scientists
    during 1950s and 1960sseen as the American
  • Some Europeans feared Europe was falling behind
    U.S. in science, technology, and most dynamic
    industrial sectors of the late 20th century.
  • Yet, revitalized Europe pooling resources on Big
    Science projects
  • Concorde supersonic passenger airliner and
    peaceful uses of atomic energy.

Massive Growth of Scientific Community
  • Four times as many scientists in Europe and North
    America in 1975 as in 1945.
  • Highly specialized modern scientists and
    technologists worked as members of a team, which
    completely changed work and lifestyle of modern
  • James Watson and Francis Crick win Nobel Prize in
    1962 for discovering structure of DNA

Change in Class Structure and Social Reform
  • Rise of the middle-class largely result of
    increased access to higher education
  • Structure of lower classes also became more
    flexible and open.
  • Mass exodus from farms and countryside.
  • Resulted in drastic decline in one of Europes
    most traditional and least mobile groups.
  • Industrial working class ceased to expand while
    job opportunities for white-collar and service
    employees grew rapidly.
  • European governments reduced class tensions by
    further expanding social security reforms health
    care, family allowances, maternity grants, public

Change in Class Structure and Social Reform
  • Gadget revolution
  • Like US, Europeans bought washing machines,
    vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, dishwashers,
    radios, TVs, and stereos.
  • Increased social welfare resulted in more
    disposable income and less need to save for old
  • Leisure and recreation
  • Soccer matches, horse races, movies, TV,
    commercialized hobbies
  • Increased attendance in cultural events concerts
    and exhibitions.
  • Travel industry mushroomed most dramatically
  • Before WWII travel for pleasure or relaxation
    largely aristocratic.
  • Paid vacations required by law in most countries

The Youth Movement and Counterculture
  • Counter-Culture rebellion against parents,
    authority figures and status quo
  • Baby boom after WWII developed distinctive and
    international youth culture.
  • Many raised in economic prosperity and more
    democratic class structure.
  • New generation influenced by revival of leftist
    thought created a counter-culture
  • Some youth rebelled against conformity and
    boredom of middle-class suburbs.
  • Rock music helped tie counter-culture together

Student Revolts in the Late 1960s
Causes of Student Revolts
  • Opposition to U.S. war in Vietnam triggered
    revolutionary ferment among youths
  • Influenced by Marxist current in French
    universities after 1945 new left thinking in US
  • Believed older generation US fighting immoral
    imperialistic war against Vietnam.
  • Students in western Europe shared US youth's
    rejection of materialism and belief that postwar
    society was repressive and flawed.
  • Problems in higher education classes
    overcrowded little contact with professors
    competition for grades intense demanded even
    more practical areas of study to qualify for
    high-paying jobs after college
  • Some students warned of dangers of narrowly
    trained experts ("technocrats") who would serve
    the establishment to the detriment of working

French Student Revolt 1968
  • Students took over the university, leading to
    violent clashes with police.
  • Most students demanded changes in curriculum and
    real voice in running the university
  • Appealed to industrial workers for help
    spontaneous general strike spread across France
  • To many it seemed the French Fifth Republic might
  • De Gaulle called in troops and called for new
    elections (which he won decisively)
  • The mini-Revolution collapsed.
  • For much of the older generation in western
    Europe, the student revolution of 1968 signaled
    the end of illusions and end of an era.

  • Due to Khrushchevs reforms in USSR, 1960s
    brought modest liberalization and more consumer
    goods to eastern Europe
  • 1968, reform elements in Czechoslovak Communist
    party gained a majority and voted out long-time
    Stalinist leader.
  • Alexander Dubcek elected leader ushered new
    period of thaw and rebirth in famous Prague
    Spring of 1968.
  • Czech reformers building socialism with a human
    face frightened hard-line communists.
  • Soviet troops brutally invaded Czechoslovakia in
    August 1968.
  • Czechoslovakia became one of most hard-line
    communist regimes well into 1980s.
  • Brezhnev Doctrine Soviet Union and its allies
    had right to intervene in any socialist country
    whenever they saw the need 

Prague Spring
De-Colonization After WWII
  • Postwar era saw total collapse of colonial
  • Between 1947 and 1962, almost every colonial
    territory gained independence.
  • New nations of Asia and Africa deeply influenced
    by Western ideas and achievements.

Causes of De-Colonialization
  • Modern nationalism and belief in
    self-determination and racial equality, spread
    from intellectuals to the masses in virtually
    every colonial territory after WWI.
  • Decline of European prestige Japanese victories
    destruction of Europe during WWII
  • After 1945, European powers more concerned about
    rebuilding let colonies go

  • Played a key role in decolonization and the end
    of empire.
  • Indian National Congress British had no choice
    but to develop a native political elite that
    could assist in ruling such huge country.
  • Exposure of young Indians to Western ideas of
    nationalism, socialism, and democracy led to
    demands for independence by the early 20th
  • Mohandas K. Gandhi after WWI led independence
    movement with principle of passive resistance
    (civil disobedience)
  • Jawaharlal Nehru led Congress party in its push
    for independence
  • Clement Attlee and others in Labour party wished
    to focus on internal affairs.
  • Divided India into two nations India (Hindu) and
    Pakistan (Muslim)

  • After WWII (defeat of Japanese invaders) a civil
    war broke out between communists led by Mao
    Zedong and Nationalists led by Jiang Jieshi
    (Chang kai-shek)
  • Mao won the revolution and created a communist
    country People's Republic of China

  • After Japanese removed after WWII, French tried
    to reassert control of Indochina
  • Ho Chi Minh led the independence movement in the
  • 1954, defeated French forces at Dien Bien Phu
  • 1954,Vietnam was divided into North (communist)
    and South (pro-Western) civil war resulted
  • U.S. defeated in attempt to prevent communist
    takeover of South Vietnam Vietnam unified in 1975

Arab Nationalism
  • Arab nationalists loosely united by opposition to
    colonialism and migration of Jews to Palestine
  • Israel and Palestine
  • Balfour Declaration in 1917 indicated Britain
    favored creation of Jewish national home in
    Palestineopposed by Saudi Arabia Transjordan
  • Great Britain announced its withdrawal from
    Palestine in 1948.
  • United Nations voted for creation of two states,
    one Arab and one Jewish
  • Palestinians vowed to fight on until state of
    Israel destroyed or until they established own
    independent Palestinian state led to several
    wars and numerous conflicts in late 20th century

  • Arab defeat in 1948 by Israel triggered
    nationalist revolution in Egypt in 1952.
  • 1956, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser
    nationalized the Suez Canal, the last symbol and
    substance of Western power in the Middle East.
  • France, Britain and Israel attacked Egypt, trying
    to take back control of Suez Canal
  • U.S. and Soviet Union demanded their withdrawal
    and the canal remained in Egypt's control
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)