The Cold War: 1945-1991 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Cold War: 1945-1991 PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 83b831-ZjgyM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Cold War: 1945-1991

Description:

The Cold War: 1945-1991 Democracy Sweeps Through Eastern Europe POLAND (Solidarity Movement) CZECHOSLOVAKIA (1992-divides to Slovak and Czech Republic) GERMANY ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:94
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 83
Provided by: njus150
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Cold War: 1945-1991


1
The Cold War 1945-1991
2
End of WWII
  • No Peace Talks like at the end of WWI-followed
    agreement at Yalta Conference-Feb. 1945
  • Countries feeling impacts of WWII
  • Death rate estimated from 50-60 million
  • Many countries in Europe were war torn
  • Soviet Union had a hold in E. European countries

3
Holocaust Who Should Be Held Accountable?
  • Nuremberg Trials (Germany)
  • Nazi Leaders that were captured
  • Charged with Crimes Against Humanity
  • Trials show that political and military leaders
    could be held accountable for actions in wartime

4
Japan
  • US-wanted to strengthen democracy to ensure peace
    and tolerance.
  • Tokyo Trial war crime trials were held in Japan
  • In Japan, McArthur stayed behind and helped
    Japanese politicians to create new constitution
  • power to people

5
Formation of the United Nations
  • April 1945 50 nations convened in San
    Francisco-draft UN Charter
  • Similar to the previous League of Nations
  • General Assembly Each country gets one vote
  • Security Council US, SU, Britain, France,
    China-right to veto council decisions
  • Has military power and power to apply economic
    sanctions
  • First actions Defined Genocide
  • Major Goal- Prevent Future Genocides
  • Established the nation of Israel

6
What Should be Done With Germany?
  • Germany divided East and West
  • West Germany Democracy
  • France, Britain and US unite their occupation
    zones and will give aid from the Marshall Plan to
    W. Germany
  • East Germany Communism
  • Upset that Allies combined zones and strengthen
    their hold on E. Germany
  • Capital City Berlin Also divided
  • Cold War Begins (East vs. West)

7
(No Transcript)
8
Cold War 1945-1991
  • Cold War State of hostility between the United
    States and the USSR
  • Characterized by USs hatred of communism and
    USSRs desire to spread communism
  • Ideological War
  • led US to actual war in Korea and Vietnam

9
Cold War East vs. West
10
Cold War Develops
  • West
  • Truman Doctrine March 1947 CONTAINTMENT-Stop
    the Spread of Communism
  • US sends military/economic aid and advisors to
    Greece and Turkey to help stand communist threat
  • Marshall Plan 1948 Aid to Europe to stop
    Communism
  • Postwar hunger/poverty made W. Europe fertile for
    communist ideas
  • Sent money and food to assist Europe
  • Formation of NATO North Atlantic Treaty
    Organization-1949
  • 10 western European nations joined together with
    U.S. and Canada (Belgium, Denmark, France, GB,
    Ireland, Italy, Iceland, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
    Norway, and Portugal)
  • Defensive Alliance
  • 1st US peacetime military alliance

11
Cold War Develops
  • East
  • Soviet Union Left a presence in Eastern
    European Countries
  • Warsaw Pact 1955-Soviet Union lead country
  • Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
    Hungary, Poland, Romania

12
Regional Alliances
  • 1955 US, Britain, France, Australia, Pakistan,
    Thailand, New Zealand, and the Philippines formed
    the South-East Treaty Organization (SEATO)
  • 1955 Britain, Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan formed
    the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)

13
SU Leaders US Leaders
  • Stalin 24-53
  • Khrushchev 53-71
  • Brezhnev- 71-82
  • Andropov 82-84
  • Chernenko 84-85
  • Gorbachov-85-91
  • Truman-45-53
  • Eisenhower-53-61
  • Kennedy-61-63
  • Johnson-63-69
  • Nixon-69-74
  • Ford-74-77
  • Carter-77-81
  • Reagan-81-89
  • Bush-89-93

14
Berlin Airlift (1948)
  • U.S., Britain, and France combined their sections
    of Germany
  • Soviet Union retaliated by holding West Berlin
    hostage (Soviet blockade)
  • Flew food and supplies to West Berlin- 327 days

15
(No Transcript)
16
(No Transcript)
17
Korea
18
The situation in Korea
  • Japan took over in 1910
  • End of WWII-Japanese troops North of 38th
    parallel surrendered to USSR, south of 38th
    surrendered to US
  • Two nations developed
  • Republic of Korea (ROK)- South Korea-Rhee,
    Seoul
  • Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea- North
    Korea- Kim Il Sung, Pyongyang

19
Korea
20
North Koreans cross the 38th parallel- June 25,
1950 North Korea and China vs. South Korea, US/UN
21
1st Summer 1945 Korea divided along 38th
parallel-Soviet occupied North and
American-occupied South 2nd Summer 1950 N.K.
invades S.K.-U.S and S.K. forces halt their
retreat around Pusan 3rd Fall 1950 UN forces
land at Inchon-break out of Pusan Perimeter, and
advance to the Yalu River
22
4th Late Fall-Early Winter 1950-1951 Chinese
and N.K. forces push UN forces back to the 38th
parallel 5th 1951-1953 UN forces advance to the
38th parallel in Jan. 1951. A ceasefire in June
1953 ends a long stalemate
No Peace Treaty was ever negotiatedtension/issue
s still exist to this day
23
Arms Race Bomb Timeline
  • 1945- US- atomic bomb
  • 1949- USSR- atomic bomb
  • Nov 1952- US- hydrogen bomb
  • August 1953- USSR- hydrogen bomb
  • US vs. USSR-in competition to build nuclear
    arsenal

24
Meet Bert the Turtle
  • Bert the Turtle's Public Service Announcement
  • US prepares for nuclear war
  • Duck and Cover drills

25
The Space Race-US vs. USSR
  • Arms race turned into technology race and space
    race
  • Sputnik- first unmanned artificial satellite-(Oct
    1957) USSR
  • US response
  • Jan 1958-Explorer I
  • July 20, 1969-US put first men on the moon

26
Cuba
  • Castro took control of Cuban govt in 1959 and
    relied heavily on Soviet aid
  • Enemy of US-wants him out of power

27
CUBA
28
Bay of Pigs Invasion- April 1961
  • US covert action (trained Cuban exiles)-hoped
    invasion would trigger uprising against Castro
  • 1400 Cuban exiles against 20,000 Cuban troops
  • Results?US failed and humiliated
  • Castro strengthened

29
The Berlin Wall
  • West Berlinshowcase for democracy
  • Khrushchev reacts?starts the night between the
    12th 13th of August 1961(completed with/in
    days)- surrounds entire city of West Berlin
  • Wall constructed?Guard towers were installed, and
    no-mans-land between inner and outer walls was
    mined and booby-trapped.
  • Almost impossible for E. Germans to escape to W.
    Berlin without being killed or captured.
  • Became most famous symbol of Cold War. (Torn down
    in 89)

30
(No Transcript)
31
(No Transcript)
32
(No Transcript)
33
(No Transcript)
34
(No Transcript)
35
Cuban Missile Crisis Background
  • Khrushchev promised to defend Cuba with nuclear
    arms
  • Nuclear bases being built in Cuba
  • Oct 22, 1962- JFK announces Soviet missile sights
    in Cuba- stand off begins (spotted by U-2 planes)
  • JFK-sets up naval blockade around Cuba
  • TENSE 13 days World stood on brink of all-out
    nuclear war for nearly 2 weeks.

36
(No Transcript)
37
(No Transcript)
38
Cuban Missile Crisis Resolution
  • Result Khrushchev offered to remove the
    missiles if the United States ended the blockade.
  • Kennedy quickly agreed and offered to remove from
    American warheads in Turkey aimed at the USSR.
  • Washington and Moscow agree to install hotline
    between capitals

39
Khrushchev vs. Kennedy
40
Vietnam War
41
French-Indochina War
  • E. part of mainland SE Asia conquered by French
    in 1800s. Japan overuns during WWII
  • France-determined to re-establish authority in
    1946.
  • Vietnamused guerillas led by Ho Chi Minh
  • Vietnam victorious at Battle of
    Dienbeinphu-1954. France leaves Vietnam.
  • (Cambodia and Laos-gain independence separately)

42
Geneva Accords
  • 17th Parallel
  • Ho Chi Minh in North, capital Hanoi
  • Nationalists in South Diem, capital Saigon
  • 1956 to have an election to unify the country
  • elections never held

43
Eisenhowers Domino Theory
If one nation falls to communism, then
countries near it will fall as well
44
Vietnam War 1955-1975
  • Ho Chi Minh-determined to unite Vietnam under
    communist rule
  • Aided the National Liberation Front, a.k.a,
    Vietcong-communist rebels trying to overthrow
    South Vietnams govt.
  • By early 1960s communist guerilla fighters
    appeared in the jungles of South Vietnam

45
Ho Chi Minh Trail
  • Minh supplies arms to Vietcong
  • S. Vietnam more unstable

46
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution-President Johnson-Aug.
1964
  • President could take all necessary measures to
    prevent further aggression in SE Asia
  • US begins bombing targets in N.V.
  • 500,000 plus US soldiers sent to assist S.V.
  • The S.U. and China sent aid but no troops to N.V.

47
War in the Jungle
  • US thinks advanced weapons win
  • Vietcong hit and run/ambush attacks/ knowledge
    of the jungle
  • Guerilla warfare
  • No frontline
  • Enemy among civilian population, didnt know who
    the enemy was
  • Countless booby traps/land mines
  • Heat, leaches, bugs

48
  • Began assembly during war w/ Fr
  • Connected villages throughout the countryside,
    home to guerrilla fighters
  • Inside ate, slept, stored arms, built land
    mines, treated wounded

49
(No Transcript)
50
(No Transcript)
51
Chemical Warfare
  • Napalm gasoline-based bomb set fire to the
    jungle
  • Agent Orange leaf-killing toxic chemical that
    devastated the landscape

52
Napalm Attack
53
Agent Orange
54
Agent Orange Victims, 1999
55
Tet Offensive
  • 1968-guerilla forces attacked American and S.V.
    forces in cities all across the South
  • Unexpected took place during Vietnamese New
    Years
  • Communists unable to hold any cities against
    American counter-attacks-but major turning point
    in public opinion in US

56
  • Jan 1973 Nixon negotiated Paris Peace
    Accord-est. cease-fire
  • US agrees to withdraw troops
  • N.V. agrees to not send more troops to South
  • Leaves S.V. alone to determine its future and
    reunification with the North
  • 2 years later-N.V. captures Saigon and North
    Vietnam wins the war

57
1976 Postwar
  • Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon)
  • Communist takeover of Vietnam
  • Saigon is renamed to Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Capital of unified Vietnam was Hanoi
  • Laos and Cambodia end up with governments
    dominated by Communist Vietnam

58
Vietnam Under Communists
  • Vietnam-destroyed by war and recovery was slow
  • Communists imposed harsh rule on the South
  • Hundreds of thousands of Vietnamese fled
    country-most in small boats- boat people
  • Many drowned
  • Survivors landed in refugee camps in neighboring
    countries.
  • Many eventually settled in US

59
Khmer Rouge
  • US invasion of Cambodia created civil war
  • 1975-Khmer Rouge-a communist group-led by Pol
    Pot- overthrew Cambodian govt.
  • Wanted to destroy all Western influences
    transform country to a peasant society, executed
    govt officials/academics, believed to kill 2
    million Cambodians

60
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
  • Afghanistan's government-modernizing the nation
    to include social reforms and land
    distribution?would reduce power of regional
    landlords.
  • Muslim conservatives believed it threatened
    Islamic tradition and took arms against govt.
  • Soviet troops come to support

61
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
  • Soviets vs. Mujahedin (Muslim religious warriors)
  • Soviets Vietnam
  • Fighting in the mountains proved incredibly
    difficult
  • Mid 1980s-America smuggles weapons to the
    Mujahedin
  • After a decade of heavy casualties, high costs,
    and few successes, Soviets pulled out

62
Why did the Cold War End and the Soviet Union
collapse?
  1. Decades of patient containment by NATO
  2. Economic Burden of Arms Race-US and SDI-Strategic
    Defense Initiative USSR couldnt keep up
  3. Gorbachevs policies Glasnost and Perestroika

63
Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991)
  • Eager for change
  • Economy was in bad shape
  • War in Afghanistan was dragging on
  • Sought to avoid Cold War confrontations
  • Signed arms treaties with US and pulled Soviets
    out of Afghanistan

64
Gorbachevs Plan
  • At home called for
  • perestroika a restructuring of the Soviet
    economy
  • glasnost -openness

65
Collapsing of the Soviet Union
  • Revolts erupted in Poland, Hungary, and
    Czechoslovakia in the 50s and 60 and were
    unsuccessful
  • 1989-pivotal year Gorbachevs policies fed
    unrest across Soviet empire-Starting with
    Poland-countries broke from the Soviet oribt.

66
Democracy Sweeps Through Eastern Europe
  • POLAND (Solidarity Movement)
  • CZECHOSLOVAKIA (1992-divides to Slovak and Czech
    Republic)
  • GERMANY
  • ROMANIA
  • BULGARIA
  • HUNGARY

67
Berlin Wall
Reagan at B. Wall Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this
wall June 12, 1987 Nov 9, 1989- the Berlin
Wall fell
68
East Germany
69
Aug 1991-failed coup against Gorbachev-however
greatly weakened he steps down from
power USSR-split into 15 republics-The
Commonwealth of Independent States (Dec. 25,
1991)-USSR is DISSOLVED! With the collapse of the
S.U.- the US widely recognized as only remaining
superpower.
70
End of the Soviet Union
71
End of Communism?
72
1950-1953 Korean War
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
1979-1990s War in Afghanistan The Afghan govt
supported by Soviet Forces in fight against
US-backed guerrilla fighters
1960s-1980s In Central South America the USA
supported anti-Communist regimes (e.g. General
Pinochet in Chile). The USSR supported Communist
rebels
1956-1989 USSR encounters communist protests
from Eastern Bloc countries
1967-1980s Israel supported by the US govt in
Middle East conflict w/ Arabs. The USSR
supported the Palestinians Arab states
1965-1973 Vietnam War
73
China
  • 1949-China falls to communism
  • Discouraged traditional Chinese beliefs and
    religion
  • Seized property of rural landlords and urban
    business owners
  • Put down opponents as counterrevolutionaries?beate
    n, sent to labor camps or killed.
  • Set up collectivization

74
China
  • Mao built Communist one-party totalitarian state
    in the Peoples Republic of China
  • Great Leap Forward 1958-1960-urged increase in
    farm and industrial output
  • Created communes brought together several
    villages, thousands of acres of land and up to
    25,000 people
  • Set up backyard industries-produced poor quality
    goods
  • Dismal failure-removed incentives for farmers and
    families and bad weather led to a terrible famine
    1959-1961 est. up to 55 million Chinese starved
    to death

75
Cultural Revolution
  • China slowly recovers-reduces size of communes
    and takes better approach with economy
  • 1966-Mao launched Cultural Revolution
  • Formed Red Guards
  • Made of School children
  • All had little red book Quotations from
    Chairman Mao Zedong
  • Used violence to abolish capitalists, bourgeois,
    old ideas, old culture, old customs, old habits
  • Skilled workers and managers were forced to quit
    their jobs and do manual labor on farms or in
    forced labor camps.
  • Schools and factories closed-economy slowed

76
Out of Control
  • Mao attempts to restore order
  • Schools and colleges reopened
  • Red Guards sent to country side to be re-educated
  • 1969-Mao announces it is over
  • 100,000s of people killed, tortured, humiliated
    or imprisoned
  • Sept. 9, 1976-Mao dies
  • Struggle for power after his death-Deng Xiaoping
    will take control in 1978

77
Deng Xiaioping
  • Reformer
  • Four Modernizations agriculture, industry,
    science and defense.
  • Allowed for private ownership of property
  • Farmers didnt own land but could sell surplus
  • Entrepreneurs could set up businesses
  • Factories given more freedom but were expected to
    be efficient
  • Created surge of growth-but created divide
    between rural farmers and Chinas city dwellers

78
(No Transcript)
79
Spring 1989
  • Students began demonstration in Tiananmen Square
    in Beijing- demanding more freedom and rights
  • Brought on by Deng Xiaopings economic
    liberalization and democratic movements in Europe
  • Goal Democratic Movement
  • June 1989 Deng cracked down against protestors
  • Machine guns fired into crowds, tanks charged
    into square
  • Exact number of deaths unknown

80
(No Transcript)
81
(No Transcript)
82
So why was China different than Europe?
  • There had long been an underground in Europe,
    dissidents new in China
  • Europe workers rebelling, China elite students
    rebelling
  • Differences in leaders Gorbachev and Deng
About PowerShow.com