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The Industrial Revolution

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Title: The Industrial Revolution Author: A.student Last modified by: Jonathan Stewart Created Date: 10/31/2005 4:33:26 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Industrial Revolution


1
The Industrial Revolution
2
  • SSWH15 Describe the impact of industrialization,
    the rise of nationalism, and the major
    characteristics of worldwide imperialism.
  • Objectives Explain the beginnings of
    industrialization. Describe the key inventions
    that furthered the Industrial Revolution.
  • Identify transportation improvements.
  • Trace the impact of railroads on Industry.

3
  • EQ How did industrialization (that began in
    Britain) pave the way for modern industrial
    societies?
  • Vocabulary Industrial Revolution, enclosure,
    crop rotation, industrialization, factors of
    production, factory, entrepreneur

4
Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
  • Began in Great Britain in the 1780s.
  • Wealthy landowners enclosed their land with
    fences of hedges creating enclosures.
  • Using new farming techniques, such as crop
    rotation, and tenant farmers the landowners
    produced more food than ever before.
  • An increasing population boosted the demand for
    goods and as many lost their land they flocked to
    cities to find work in new factories.

5
  • Factors of production, such as coal and iron ore,
    along with land, labor and capital, became vital
    to industrialization.
  • Coal and steam replaced wind and water as new
    sources of energy and power to drive labor-saving
    machines.
  • The world saw a movement from an economy based on
    farming and handicrafts to an economy based on
    manufacturing by machines and industrial
    factories.

6
  • Increased production led to food surpluses,
    population increases, and more jobs.
  • The steam engine developed by James Watt, was
    crucial to Britains Industrial Revolution.
  • Improvements in iron making led to the mass
    production of railroads. (Henry Bessemer)
  • The Rocket was the name of the first locomotive
    built by George Stephenson.

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  • SSWH15 Describe the impact of industrialization,
    the rise of nationalism, and the major
    characteristics of worldwide imperialism.
  • Describe industrialization in the United States
    and Europe.
  • Identify the effects of industrialization on the
    rest of the world.

13
  • EQ How did the Industrial Revolution set the
    stage for the growth of modern cities and a
    global economy?
  • Vocabulary stock, corporation

14
The Factory System
  • a manufacturing system based on the concentration
    of industry into specializedand often
    largeestablishments)
  • replaced the domestic system
  • - signaled the onset of mass
  • production in which
  • standardized parts could
  • be assembled by relatively
  • unskilled workmen into
  • complete finished products.

15
  • The invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney
    and the power loom by Edmund Cartwright led to
    the factory system.
  • Since the new textile machinery was too large and
    costly for most workers to use in their homes,
    industrialists gradually moved cloth production
    out of cottages (domestic system) and into large
    buildings (factory system) near waterways.

16
  • Building large businesses required a great deal
    of money. To raise the money, entrepreneurs sold
    shares of stock, or certain rights of ownership,
    in the company.
  • A corporation is a business owned by stockholders
    who share in the profits of the corporation, but
    are not personally responsible for its debts.

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The Spread of Industrialization
  • Governments encouraged industrial development by
    setting up schools to train workers.
  • Between 1850 and 1860 the Industrial Revolution
    made its way across the Atlantic to North
    America.
  • In both Europe and America, roads and canals were
    built to link east and west and the steamboat and
    railroads made transportation easier.

19
Social Impact
  • The reduction of disease and warfare led to an
    increase in population across Europe.
  • This increased population led to an
    over-dependence on certain crops such as the
    potato in Ireland. (1845-1851)
  • The rapid growth of cities in the first half of
    the 19th century led to pitiful living conditions.

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New Social Classes
  • The rise of industrial capitalism produced a new
    middle-class group--- the industrial
    middle-class. (bourgeois)
  • Included lawyers, doctors, teachers, government
    officials.
  • Sought to separate themselves from the working
    classes.

24
  • Industrial workers, who made up the working
    class, faced wretched working conditions.
  • Conditions in cotton mills and coal mines led to
    the deaths of many workers.
  • Both children and women worked in large numbers
    in the working class.

25
Unions
  • The Factory Acts limited the work hours of
    children and women and led to a new pattern of
    work for women based from the home.
  • By the late 1800s and early 1900s working
    conditions began to improve with the creation of
    labor unions.

26
Unions
  • To discourage workers from joining unions,
    factory owners created a list which prevented
    workers from getting jobs throughout the
    industry.
  • When union leaders and factory owners reached an
    agreement, they practiced collective bargaining.

27
  • 1802 Factory Act
  • The first Factory Act ever passed by the British
    Parliament was called "The Factory Health and
    Morals Act, 1802" and applied principally, though
    not exclusively, to apprentices in cotton and
    woollen mills. The preamble runs as
    follows "Whereas it hath of late become a
    practice in cotton and woollen mills and
    factories, to employ a great number of male and
    female apprentices, and other persons, in the
    same building, in consequence of which certain
    regulations are now necessary to preserve the
    health and morals of such apprentices." The
    regulations, briefly stated, were the following

28
  1. The master or mistress of the factory must
    observe the law.
  2. All rooms in a factory are to be lime-washed
    twice a year and duly ventilated.
  3. Every apprentice is to be supplied with two
    complete suits of clothing with suitable linen,
    stockings, hats and shoes.
  4. The hours of work of apprentices are not to
    exceed twelve a day, nor commence before six in
    the morning, nor conclude before nine at night.

29
  • (5)They are to be instructed every working day
    during the first four years of apprenticeship in
    reading, writing and arithmetic.
  • (6)Male and female apprentices are to be provided
    with separate sleeping apartments, and not more
    than two to sleep in one bed.
  • (7) On Sunday they are to be instructed in the
    principles of the Christian religion.

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