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The Second Industrial Revolution

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The Second Industrial Revolution Chapter 5 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Second Industrial Revolution


1
The Second Industrial Revolution
  • Chapter 5

2
Section 1 The Age of Invention
  • Industrialization
  • During the second half of the 1800s, the U.S.
    changed from a nation of farming to a modern,
    industrial nation.
  • The nations natural resources played a key role
    in that transformation.
  • iron ore, coal, lead, and copper

3
Industrial Innovations
  • Bessemer Process produce steel faster (Henry
    Bessemer and William Kelly)
  • Drakes Folly pump oil at a faster rate (Edwin
    Drake)

4
Refining Processes in the United States
  • Steel Effects on Industry
  • Provided a strong, inexpensive source of building
    material
  • Allowed the expansion of the railroad industry
  • Allowed the construction of sophisticated
    machinery, bridges, tall buildings and so on
  • Oil Effects on Industry
  • Resulted in the production of kerosene for fuel
    or light
  • Allowed the manufacturing of other important
    industrial petroleum products
  • Helped machinery operate

5
Transportation
  • Railroads
  • The single most important factor in the
    nations industrial growth.
  • Compressed-Air Brake (George Westinghouse)
    allowed the locomotive and all cars to stop at
    the same time (improved safety)

6
Transcontinental Railroad
  • First completed railroad that linked the coasts
    together.
  • Central Pacific started in California and moved
    East
  • Chinese workers
  • Union Pacific started in Omaha, Nebraska and
    moved West
  • Irish immigrant workers
  • They were joined together at Promontory Point,
    Utah

7
Map of the Transcontinental Railroad
8
Transportation continued
  • Horseless Carriage
  • Nicolas Joseph Cugnot (1770) 3 wheeled
    carriage with a steam engine.
  • Nikolaus A. Otto (1876) the internal combustion
    engine powered by gasoline.
  • Charles Frank Duryea (1893) 1st practical
    motor car in the U.S.

9
continued
  • Airplanes
  • Orville Wilbur Wright of Dayton, Ohio made the
    first flight near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on
    December 17, 1903.

10
Communications
  • Telegraph (1837) Samuel F.B. Morse
  • Communication over wires with electricity
  • Western Union (1866) leading telegraph company
  • Telegraph companies had offices in train stations

11
continued
  • Telephone (1876) Alexander Graham Bell
  • talking telegraph
  • More than a million telephones at the end of the
    1800s
  • Early telephones required an operator to connect
    calls

12
continued
  • Typewriter (1876) Christopher Sholes
  • Quickly produce legible documents
  • Typing pools job opportunities for women

13
Edison Menlo Park
  • Thomas Edison and his assistants promised a minor
    invention every ten days and a big invention
    every six months or so.
  • Telegraph could send up to 4 messages at once
  • Electrical vote recorder
  • Telegraphic stock ticker
  • Advances in electricity
  • Light bulb (Latimer)
  • Phonograph
  • Early motion picture cameras

14
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15
The Rise of Big Business
  • Section 2

16
A New Capitalist Spirit
  • Horatio Alger Jr. wrote rags to riches stories.
  • The theory of laissez-faire capitalism calls for
    government to keep hands off of business.
  • Karl Marx developed the theory of communism that
    proposed that individuals should not own
    property.
  • Herbert Spencer proposed the idea of social
    darwinism that suggests that society progresses
    through natural competition in which the fittest
    people rise to positions of wealth

17
The Corporation
  • Corporation is owned by shareholders who buy
    shares of stock in the business.
  • A group of companies that is controlled by a
    single group of business leaders is an example of
    a trust. (political cartoon)
  • A trust reduces competition in an industry.
  • When a company holds a monopoly, it completely
    dominates its industry and it has complete
    control over the price and quality of products.

18
Carnegie and Steel
  • Andrew Carnegie made his fortune in the steel
    industry and later gave away millions to
    establish public libraries in communities across
    the country.
  • He used vertical integration in his business.
  • J.P. Morgan bought his steel mill for almost 500
    million.
  • He earned 1.20 a week on his first job and when
    he retired he was the richest man in the world.
  • The true rags to riches story.

19
Rockefeller and Oil
  • John D. Rockefeller was one of the founders of
    Standard Oil Company.
  • He expanded his business using horizontal
    integration in which he attempted to control
    other businesses that were refining oil.

20
The Railroad Giants
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt was a pioneer of the
    railroad industry who eventually controlled more
    than 4,500 miles of railroad track.
  • The adoption of a standard gauge for railway
    tracks improved transportation by making it
    unnecessary for passengers and freight to be
    transferred from train to train each time they
    reached a different line.

21
Continued
  • George Pullman manufactured sleeping cars, dining
    cars, and luxurious cars that made long-distance
    travel by rail comfortable for passengers.
  • Because he was disturbed by the poor conditions
    of city life, He built a planned community next
    to his factory.

22
Mass Marketing
  • Manufacturers used brand names, packaging,
    advertising, and other forms of mass marketing to
    sell their products.
  • Department stores succeeded because they bought
    goods in bulk and therefore could sell them at
    low prices.

23
Labor Strives to Organize
  • Section 3

24
Government and Business
  • Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890
    to outlaw all monopolies and trusts that
    restrained trade.
  • Government usually sided on the side of
    corporations.

25
The New Working Class
  • The jobs were filled largely by the flood of
    immigrants who came to the U.S.
  • Women and children went to work in the factories.
  • Between 1870 and 1890, the number of female
    workers doubled.

26
Working Conditions
  • Working conditions during the late 1800s were
    characterized by long hours and low wages.
  • Children often worked 12-hour shifts (often at
    night) for pennies a day.

27
The Knights of Labor
  • When Uriah Stephens founded the Knights of Labor
    in 1869, it was one of the first national unions.
  • Mary Harris Jones was a union organizer and was
    called the most dangerous woman in America.
  • Under Terence V. Powderly, the union refused to
    support the rights of Chinese workers.

28
The Great Upheaval
  • The Great Upheaval is a name for the intense
    strikes and violent labor confrontations of 1886.
  • Anarchist are people who oppose all government.
  • As a result of the Great Upheaval, many workers
    left the Knights of Labor and joined the American
    Federation of Labor.

29
The Haymarket Riot
  • The Haymarket Riot was a violent labor
    confrontation in Chicago that began when a bomb
    was exploded among police officers, killing 7 and
    wounding 70.
  • Many employers required new employees to sign a
    yellow-dog contract in which they promised not to
    join a union.

30
American Federation of Labor
  • Alarmed by the violence initiated by the unions
    in the 1880s, skilled workers joined the American
    Federation of Labor, a new union founded by
    Samuel Gompers.

31
The Homestead and Pullman Strikes
  • The Homestead Strike took place in 1892 at Andrew
    Carnegies Homestead Steel Works in Pennsylvania.
    (16 deaths)
  • The Pullman Strike took place in 1894 at the
    Pullman Sleeping Car Factory in Illinois.
  • Eugene V. Debs was head of the American Railway
    Union who supported the Pullman strikers.

32
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