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Industrial Revolution, Nationalism


Industrial Revolution, Nationalism & Imperialism 1750-1900 Industrial Revolution Agricultural Revolution: [chicken egg dilemma] New techniques in farming [fertilizers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Industrial Revolution, Nationalism

Industrial Revolution, Nationalism Imperialism
  • 1750-1900

Industrial Revolution
  • Agricultural Revolution chicken egg dilemma
  • New techniques in farming fertilizers and the
    use of farm machinery resulted in 2 significant
    changes that aided the industrial revolution
  • Crop yields increased dramatically
  • Fewer workers were required to work in the fields
    thus they sought jobs in the factories
  • Made it possible for nations to sustain larger

Industrial Revolution
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Textile Industry where the revolution began in
  • Cottage Industry
  • Making textiles and goods in individual homes
  • Factory System
  • Workers were forced to go to a central location
    where all production took place
  • Large expensive equipment brought about a need
    for such a system

Industrial Revolution
  • 1st Industrial Revolution was in textiles and
    powered by water.
  • New Inventions rapidly increased production.

Spinning Jenny, James Hargreaves
Steam Engine James Watt
Cotton Gin, Eli Whitney
Industrial Revolution
  • 2nd Industrial Revolution
  • Occurred in the iron and steel industry.
  • Countries with deposits of iron and coal became
    leaders in the 2nd phase.
  • This revolution was powered by steam and coal
    later to be replaced by electrical generators and
    the combustion engine in the 20th century.
  • Sources of Power water, coal steam, coal, oil

Bethlehem Steel
Industrial Revolution
  • Improvement in transportation and communication
    improved efficiency

James Watt, Locomotive
Samuel Morse, Telegraph
John McAdam, roads
Consequences of Industrialization
  • Growth of cities
  • Overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, industrial
  • Demand for local government to improve living
  • Working Conditions
  • Demands for Reform long hours, low wages, lousy
  • Unionization movements
  • Iron law of Wages keep wages low workers are
    productive small families
  • European Population
  • 1750 140m
  • 1800 187m 29?
  • 1850 266m 35?
  • London
  • 1800 1m
  • 1850 2.4m
  • 1900 4m
  • Berlin
  • 1700 30,000
  • 1850 450,000
  • 1900 2 million

Social Consequences of Industrialization
  • Wage Economics people became dependent upon
    wages to survive, no longer self sufficient
  • Cities became crowded, need for police forces and
  • Women left the workforce once married, but both
    children and young girls were exploited often
    earning low wages.
  • Child Labor Laws would slowly eliminate the use
    of child labor
  • British Ten Hour Work Day was instituted to allow
    adults more time with their children

Industrialization and Society
  • Chartism
  • Malthus
  • Utilitarianism
  • Early Socialism
  • Utopian Socialist

Conservatism In Europe
  • Congress of Vienna
  • Allied powers meet in Vienna to carve up
    Napoleons Empire
  • Principle of legitimacy was to return rightful
    monarchs back to their thrones
  • Austrian Foreign Minister Prince von Metternich
    is the key architect of European politics from
    1814 1848.
  • Concert of Europe
  • Allied powers would work in harmony to keep the
    peace in Europe and prevent one power from being
    too dominant.

Europe after 1815
Conservatives hoped to return Europe to the
pre-revolutionary days
Reform Bill in Great Britain
  • Series of Acts that reformed the British
    electoral system
  • Redistricting reduced the number of boroughs
  • Extended Franchise included smaller landowners
    in counties who owned 10 pounds worth of land
  • Voter registration
  • Working Classes and Women were unsatisfied

France in the Aftermath of Napoleon
  • Louis XVIII 1814-24
  • Constitutional monarch but very weak especially
    when he fled during the 100 days.
  • Tried to rule in a centrist fashion and afraid
    his brother would not be so wise
  • Died without heir from complications of obesity
    and gangrene.

France in the Aftermath of Napoleon 1814-1848
  • Charles X 1824-1830
  • Last of the Bourbon kings
  • Unpopular ruler. Liberals despised his autocratic
    policies. Unable to get a favorable majority in
    the parliament Charles issued 4 Ordinances in
    July 1830 dissolving parliament, censoring the
    press, altered the electoral system and called
    for new elections in the streets.
  • Parisians went to the barricades. Charles army
    was unable to regain Paris. Charles abdicated for
    himself and his son in favor of his nephew Henri,
    but the parliament chose Louis Philippe, 4th in
    line as King of the French.

  • Liberalism was a political philosophy that felt
    people should be free from government
  • Felt government should be run by a constitution
    but NOT in favor of universal male suffrage.
  • Only men of property should have the right to
  • Believed in the ideals of the Enlightenment
  • Middle Class industrialists were the primary
    supporters of this view point which dominated the
    mid to late 1800s

Adam Smith
Louis Philippe, Bourgeois King of the French
Reign of the Bourgeois King
  • Louis Philippe 1830-1848
  • King of the French, tricolor flag restored
  • Promoted Liberal, bourgeois interests at the
    expense of working class interests
  • Overthrown in the revolution of 1848 when he
    refused to grant changes to working conditions in

Rise of Socialism
  • Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx 1848
  • Called for workers to seize control of the
    factors of production meaning the factories,
    the mines, etc
  • Marx believed the workers proletariat needed to
    seize political control from the upper middle
    class factory owners bourgeoisie
  • Socialist Political parties would gain strength
    and popularity throughout Europe in the late
    1800s early 1900s.

1848 Year of Revolution
  • Revolution in France
  • Socialists under the leadership of Louis Blanc
    demanded inclusion in a new provisional
  • Workshops were created to provide work relief for
    the unemployed
  • New Elections resulted in a Conservative and
    Moderate majority in the National Assembly
    showing the provinces did not trust Paris
  • New socialist revolts were put down by the
  • 1848 Austria and Prussia face growing revolts
  • Hungarians revolt against Austrian rule, Russian
    troops help Austria put down the revolts.
    Hungarians would not gain autonomy until 1867.
  • Austrian Emperor Ferdinand is forced to abdicate,
    replaced by his nephew 18 year old Franz Joseph.
    Prince Metternich resigns and flees to Innsbruck
  • German Congress in Frankfurt offers Prussian King
    the crown of a united Germany, He rejects it.
    Revolution in Prussia forces the king to grant a

2nd French Republic Empire
  • 1848 2nd Republic
  • Louis Napoleon, Napoleons nephew is elected
    President in 1848 with 75 of the vote.
  • Allowed to serve only one 4 year term.
  • 1852 he seizes power in a coup on Dec 2, 1851 and
    creates the 2nd Empire crowning himself Napoleon
  • Used a plebiscite to give his action legitimacy
  • 2nd Empire 1852-70
  • Made many changes that benefited socialists and
    industrialists. Beautified Paris and made it the
    city it is today. Was very popular until his

Napoleon III
Napoleon III Foreign Policy
  • As Emperor he needed a wife and heir. Chose a
    woman he loved rather than an arranged marriage.
    Eugenie de Monitjo of Spain.
  • Crimean War 1854-56. Ended the Concert of Europe
    when he joined Britain in fighting Russia.
  • Unification of Italy
  • Asia Policy
  • Mission to Japan
  • Second Opium War 1860 occupation of China
  • French Indochina
  • Mexico 1866
  • Maximilian Hapsburg

Russia in the Aftermath of Napoleon
  • Tsar Alexander I 1801-1825 repressed liberalism
    and nationalism. Russian military officers
    however were exposed to the ideals of the French
  • Alexander died unexpectedly without an heir. His
    brother Constantine had a morganatic marriage, so
    his younger brother Nicholas was considered heir.
  • Decembrist Revolt, officers who favored
    Constantine revolted and Nicholas had it brutally
    put down.
  • Nicholas I ruled as autocrat from 1825-1855

  • Believe a nation is composed of people who share
    a common language and cultural heritage
  • Most powerful ideology of the 19th and 20th
  • Used by both Liberals and Monarchists to achieve
    their objectives
  • Often combined with Liberalism to achieve its
  • 1821 Greece, then 1830 Serbia gain independence
    from the Ottoman empire
  • 1820-30s Latin American gains independence from
  • 1830 Belgium gains independence from the

Execution of Karl Sand
Nationalism Italy
  • Nationalism
  • feelings of devotion and loyalty to ones country
    or ethnic group
  • Italy was dominated by Austria and France
  • Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
  • PM Camillo Cavour sided with France Britain in
    the Crimean War in exchange for French support
    for Italian Unification
  • Giuseppe Garibaldis Red Shirts invaded S. Italy
  • Unification of Italy 1850-1870

Nationalism Germany
  • Unification of Germany 1866-71
  • Prussian King Wilhem I
  • Chancellor Otto von Bismarck
  • Architect of unification
  • Greater Germany
  • A unified Germany including the Austrian Empire
  • Lesser Germany
  • A unified Germany without Austria

German Unification Bismarcks Blood Iron
  • Austro-Prussian War of 1866
  • Prussia defeated Austria in 6 weeks eliminated
    Austria from interfering in German affairs
  • United Northern Germany with Prussia
  • Franco-Prussian War of 1870
  • Ems Telegram doctored by Bismarck to insult
  • Prussia defeated France and resulted in German
  • Germany is unified in Jan 1871
  • Germany takes Alsace-Lorraine from France

The Unification of Germany 1862-1871
Nationalism The Balkans
  • Europes Powder Keg
  • Ottoman Domination Collapse
  • Albania Bosnian conversions to Islam
  • The Sick Man of Europe
  • Greek Independence 1831
  • Russia Defender of Slavs and Eastern Orthodoxy
  • 1877 Russo-Ottoman War

Balkans 1878-1914
Nationalism The Balkans
  • Russia and Pan-Slavism
  • Russia considered itself the defender of Slavic
    speaking peoples
  • Russo-Turkish War of 1877
  • Russia defeated the Ottoman Turks
  • Congress of Berlin 1878
  • European powers feared Russian power sought to
    contain at this conference
  • Romania Serbia gain independence
  • Bulgaria is autonomous
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina administered by

Balkans 1878-1914
  • Reasons for Imperialism
  • Economic resources markets
  • Strategic bases for refueling
  • Prestige
  • White Mans Burden
  • Africa
  • Only 2 independent nations by 1900 Ethiopia and
  • Asia
  • French Indochina Vietnam
  • British Hong Kong, Singapore
  • Spheres of Influence in China

  • Emergence of Japan
  • US Commodore Perrys visit in 1853 opened Japans
    eyes to modern technology
  • Meiji Restoration 1867
  • Restored the monarchy and ended feudalism in
  • Began a period of rapid modernization
  • Sino-Japanese War 1895
  • Seized Korea and Formosa Taiwan from China
  • Russo-Japanese War 1905
  • 1st time an Asia nation defeated a European

Imperialism Germany
  • Imperial Conflict
  • Wilhelm II, nephew of Queen Victoria. Birth
    defect left him with a slightly deformed left
    arm. He always seemed to overcompensate for it.
  • Germany was an economic and military powerhouse
    but a small empire. Wilhelm wanted to change
  • Bismarcks advice to Kaiser Wilhelm II was to not
    pursue an Empire and maintain an alliance with
    Russia but Wilhelm ignored him and fired Bismarck
    in 1890
  • Wilhelm IIs pursuit of an Empire and expansion
    of the Germany Navy led him into conflict with
    Britain and France

Hapsburg Austria
  • Franz Josef Elizabeth
  • The Hapsburg Curse
  • Eldest daughter died at Age 2
  • Son Rudolf heir to throne supposedly committed
    suicide at age 30 in 1889
  • Elisabeth assassinated in 1898
  • Franz Ferdinand Fran Josefs nephew and heir
    after Rudolfs death is assassinated in 1914

Nationalism Austria-Hungary
  • Dual Monarchy
  • 1867 Became the Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Ethnic tension
  • Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainians, Slovenes,
    Croats, and Serbs all demanding autonomy or
  • Triple Monarchy?
  • Franz-Ferdinand heir to the throne proposed a
    triple monarchy and self government for slavs.
  • Serbs saw this as a threat

Europe 1877
The Alliance System
  • Triple Alliance
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Italy
  • Triple Entente
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Russia

The Powder Keg Explodes
  • The Balkan Wars 1912-1913
  • 1st Balkan War
  • Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece vs the
    Ottoman empire
  • 2nd Balkan War
  • Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottoman Empire vs
  • Assassination 1914
  • Sarajevo, Bosnia Austrian Archduke Franz
    Ferdinand is assassinated by Serbian terrorists
    and triggers WWI
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