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Industrial Revolution

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Title: Industrial Revolution Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: DISD Created Date: 2/6/2004 12:57:13 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Industrial Revolution


1
The Industrial Revolution
Mr. Craddock January 21, 2010
2
Why Did Industrialization Begin in England First?
3
The Factors of Production
  • Land- Not only includes land but also
  • Natural resources-
  • Flowing Rivers for the power needed to power
    the early machinery
  • Coal needed to power the factories, and later to
    provide power for machinery
  • Iron Ore used to make the machines and later used
    to make steel products
  • Labor- The workers needed for the factories to
  • Capital- The money need to invest in the growth
    of industry

4
The Enclosure Movement
5
FOUNDATIONS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • James Watt's steam engine, 1765
  • Burned coal, which drove a piston, which turned a
    wheel
  • Widespread use by 1800 meant increased
    productivity, cheaper prices
  • Iron and steel also important industries, with
    continual refinement
  • Coke (purified coal) replaced charcoal as
    principal fuel
  • Bessemer converter (1856) made cheaper, stronger
    steel
  • Transportation improved with steam engines and
    improved steel
  • George Stephenson invented the first
    steam-powered locomotive, 1815
  • Steamships began to replace sailing ships in the
    mid-nineteenth century
  • Railroads and steamships lowered transportation
    costs
  • Created dense transportation networks

6
New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
7
John Kays Flying Shuttle
8
The Power Loom
9
Richard ArkwrightPioneer of the Factory System
The Water Frame
10
Factory Production
  • Concentrates production in oneplace materials,
    labor.
  • Located near sources of power rather than labor
    or markets.
  • Requires a lot of capital investmentfactory,
    machines, etc. morethan skilled labor.
  • Only 10 of English industry in 1850.

11
Textile FactoryWorkers in England
1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers
1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers
1850 224, 000 looms gt1 million workers
12
The Factory System
  • Rigid schedule.
  • 12-14 hour day.
  • Dangerous conditions.
  • Mind-numbing monotony.

13
Textile FactoryWorkers in England
14
FOUNDATIONS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • Coal critical to the early industrialization of
    Britain
  • Shift from wood to coal in 18TH century
    deforestation caused wood shortages
  • Abundant, accessible coal reserves in Britain
  • Overseas colonies provided raw materials, capital
  • Plantations in the Americas provided sugar and
    cotton
  • Colonies also became markets for British
    manufactured goods
  • Grain, timber, and beef shipped from United
    States to Britain after 1830
  • Profits from sugar funded banks, provided
    investment capital
  • Demand for cheap cotton spurred mechanization of
    cotton industry
  • Eli Whitney invented cotton gin, allowing huge
    amounts of cotton to be processed
  • John Kay invented the flying shuttle, 1733
  • Samuel Compton invented the spinning "mule," 1779
  • Edmund Cartwright invented a water-driven power
    loom, 1785

15
James Watts Steam Engine
16
An Early Steam Locomotive
17
Coalfields Industrial Areas
Metals, Woolens, Canals
18
Coal Mining in Britain1800-1914
1800 1 ton of coal 50,000 miners
1850 30 tons 200,000 miners
1880 160 million tons 500,000 miners
1914 292 million tons 1,200,000 miners
19
Child Labor in the Mines
Child hurriers
20
Mine Forge 1840-1880
  • Coal more powerful than water
  • Iron more powerful than wood
  • Innovations make steel feasible Puddling
    1820 pig iron Hot blast 1829
    cheaper, purer steel Bessemer process
    1856 strong, flexible steel

21
SPREAD OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • British industrial monopoly
  • 1750 to 1800
  • Forbade immigration of skilled workers
  • Belgium, France
  • Moved toward industrialization by mid-nineteenth
    century
  • Belgium was first as it most resembled England,
    closest ports
  • Germany
  • Coal and iron ore deposits led to heavy industry,
    arms, shipping
  • Built railroads to move German army around,
    benefiting commerce
  • Rails required steel, coal
  • Eventually developed chemicals, electrical
    industries

22
SPREAD OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • The United States
  • Slow to start few laborers, little capital
  • Cotton and Textiles began revolution
  • British craftsmen started cotton textile industry
    in New England, 1820s
  • Southern cotton was going to England, diverted to
    New England factories
  • New England most resembled Old England conditions
  • Civil War led to explosion of steel, iron,
    armaments, clothing, food production
  • Rail networks developed in 1860s
  • Integrated various regions of United States
  • Facilitated export markets, development of ports
  • Developed electrical, transportation industries

23
RESULTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
24
Economic Results
  • Factory system- factory replaced home (the
    domestic system) as center of production
  • Factory system- Workers brought together in one
    location to build a product

25
Economic Results
  • Mass production
  • Division of labor--one worker performs only one
    operation
  • Standardization-- interchangeable parts- Eli
    Whitney and the cotton gin
  • Assembly line--product moves along moving belt to
    workers- Henry Ford used it to build the first
    mass produced automobile, the Ford Model T (You
    can have it in any color you want so long as it
    is black.)

26
Economic Results
  • Mass production (contd.)
  • Advantages
  • Efficient use of workers and machines
  • Economical use of raw materials
  • Faster output of more goods at lower cost
  • Disadvantages
  • Workers perform monotonous, repetitious tasks
  • Creativity is stifled
  • Similar products push society into uniformity

27
Economic Results
  • Modern capitalism
  • Entrepreneurs devised system for financing,
    production, and trade
  • Adam Smith led push to end mercantilism
    (government restrictions on production and trade)
  • Wrote The Wealth of Nations- called for
    governments not to regulate business practices-
    Laissez-faire
  • Free Market economics would bring about
    competition and self-regulation
  • Promoted economic self-interest

28
Economic Results
  • Modern capitalism (contd.)
  • Laissez-faire included(s)
  • Private ownership
  • Free enterprise
  • Profit motive
  • Competition
  • Market economy
  • Late 19th century growth of big business and
    international economic interdependence
  • Higher living standards began to occur as
    government intervention and regulations took
    place

29
Social Results
  • Labor discontent
  • Wages-low
  • Hours-long
  • Children (5) and women held industrial jobs
  • Factories-unsanitary/unsafe
  • Technological unemployment

30
Social Results
  • Growth of cities
  • Jobs lured people to cities
  • Eventually social and cultural opportunities
    began to appear for the wealthy
  • Better transportation allowed easier movement of
    people and goods
  • Cities suffered from poor sanitation,
    overcrowding, and pollution

31
Industrial Staffordshire
32
Problems of Pollution
The Silent Highwayman - 1858
33
The New Industrial City
34
The Life of the New Urban Poor A Dickensian
Nightmare!
35
Upstairs/Downstairs Life
36
Socialism
  • Early types
  • Utopian Socialists
  • Capitalists would voluntarily end capitalism when
    they saw merits of socialism
  • Scientific Socialists
  • Capitalism would destroy itself
  • Karl Marx, a German economist, wrote The
    Communist Manifesto
  • Said working class, which was being exploited,
    would rise up and overthrow the present system

37
The Luddites 1811-1816
Attacks on the frames power looms.
Ned Ludd a mythical figure supposed to live in
Sherwood Forest
38
The Luddites
39
Political Results
  • Growth of democracy
  • Rise of middle classes
  • Grew in number and wealth
  • Desired political influence
  • Battle for democracy led to
  • Extension of suffrage
  • Rise of new political parties
  • Mass media informed citizenry

40
Government Response
  • Abolition of slavery in the coloniesin 1832 to
    raise wages in Britain.
  • Sadler Commission- to look intoworking
    conditions
  • Factory Act 1833 child labor under the age of
    9 was stopped
  • New Poor Law 1834 indoor relief.
  • Poor houses.
  • Reform Bill 1832 broadens thevote for the
    middle class. Working class did not receive vote
    until 1860s.
  • Women did not receive suffrage until after WWI

41
Political Results
  • Strengthened nationalism
  • Mass media
  • Transportation
  • Impetus to imperialism
  • Need for large quantities of raw materials
  • Need for mass markets
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