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The Industrial Revolution

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Title: The Industrial Revolution


1
The Industrial Revolution
  • Harris Modern World History

2
Why Did it Start in Britain?
  • The Industrial Revolution began in England and
    took several years to spread to the rest of the
    world. There are 5 reasons why it started in
    England.
  • The Agricultural revolution had taken place in
    the early 1700s. This increased food supply thus
    decreasing the price of food. Now people had
    extra money to spend on manufactured items
  • With more food, the population increased. This
    meant more people were available to work in
    factories.
  • Britain was already a wealthy country so people
    had the money to invest in new factories.
  • Britain had the natural resources of coal and
    iron ore.
  • Britain had many colonies which they could force
    to buy their manufactured items. This created a
    steady demand for goods.

3
The Textile Industry
  • The textile (cloth) industry was the first to
    industrialize.
  • Before the Industrial Revolution, cotton was
    processed into cloth through what was known as
    the putting out system. Raw cotton would be
    shipped in and individuals would come and pick up
    a load. These women would take it home and spin
    it into thread. Then they would return to the
    warehouse where another group of women would pick
    up the thread and take it home to weave into
    cloth.
  • This was also known as a cottage industry.
  • This process was very slow and done mainly in the
    women's spare time.

4
The Textile Industry
  • The first invention in the textile industry was
    the flying shuttle. This invention fit on the
    traditional loom. This sped up weaving to the
    point that the weavers were going much faster
    than the spinners.
  • The next invention was the spinning jenny (1764).
    This was a machine that could do the work of 16
    spinners at one time. Now the thread was being
    spun faster than the weavers could weave.
  • These inventions were followed by the water loom,
    spinning mule, and improvements in the steam
    engines. John Cartwright invented the water loom
    in 1787. James Watt improved the steam engine in
    1782.

5
Coal and Iron
  • Coal and Iron were the key natural resources in
    the industrial revolution.
  • Iron was useful, but had its limits in the early
    stage of the revolution. This is because it was
    full of impurities and therefore was weak.
  • In the 1780s, Henry Cort invented a process
    known as puddling. In this process coke (cooked
    coal) was burned at a high temperature. This
    resulted in most of the impurities being cooked
    off. This produced iron that was strong and could
    withstand high pressure from things like steam.

6
Railroads
  • With the improvements made to the steam engine
    and iron, large amounts of power were now
    available to be used for things. This led to the
    development of the steam locomotive.
  • The first steam locomotive was put to use in
    1804. It was used to carry iron ore and workers
    and went 5mph.
  • In 1830, the first train used for public
    transportation opened in England. It ran from
    Liverpool to Manchester and went so fast it was
    called the Rocket. It had a top speed of 16 mph.
  • By 1850, trains were able to go about 50 mph, and
    England had over 6000 miles of train tracks.
  • Trains made transportation of goods and people
    much faster and cheaper. Thus becoming a key part
    of the industrial revolution.

7
The Revolution Spreads
  • Britain had attempted to prevent the industrial
    revolution from spreading to other countries,
    because the had made so much money from it. To do
    this, they made it illegal for people to sell
    plans to foreigners or take/give plans to someone
    outside of the country.
  • This worked for several years. However by the
    1800s most other countries began to see their
    first factories develop.
  • In the United States, the population went from 5
    million in 1800, to 30 million in 1860. This was
    from the increased wealth produced though
    industrialization.
  • Other European countries also saw similar
    population growth.

8
Changes in Society
  • With the industrial revolution came many changes
    in society.
  • As the population grew and moved from the
    countryside to the cities, several problems
    developed. Most of the cities experienced growth
    that outpaced the abilities of the city planners
    to keep up. This meant that homes and buildings
    were built without proper sewer and drainage
    access.
  • Some cities grew so fast that construction of
    homes and apartments couldnt keep up. This meant
    that living space was very expensive. Both of
    these things contributed to severe overcrowding.
    This overcrowding was not only uncomfortable, but
    dangerous. Many diseases and illnesses were
    rampant in the city.

9
Changes in Society
  • Pollution affected society greatly as well. Trash
    from homes and industrial waste from factories
    led to the overall decline in the health of the
    people.
  • The industrial revolution also made time more
    important. As factories began to work 24 hours a
    day, divided into 8 hour shifts, people couldnt
    depend on the sun to know what time it was.
  • The problems associated with industrialization
    led some intellectuals to call for changes.
    During this period we begin to see socialism
    develop as a way to equal the distribution of
    wealth and benefit the working class.

10
The Second Industrial Revolution
  • The first industrial revolution gave us textiles,
    railroads, iron, and coal. The second industrial
    revolution was led by steel, chemicals,
    electricity, and petroleum.
  • The second industrial revolution was built on the
    foundation of the first. Many of the theories and
    ideas about factories and machines led to new
    developments all over.
  • This is when we begin to see a truly modern
    society take shape.
  • The second industrial revolution saw significant
    contributions from all over the world.

11
New Inventions
  • Thomas Edison Edison is one of the most
    prolific inventers in history, 1,093 in all. His
    most significant invention was the light bulb. He
    also invented the phonograph, motion pictures,
    and a machine to talk to the dead, among many
    others.

12
New Inventions
  • Alexander Graham Bell Invented the telephone in
    February of 1876. Bell submitted his patent on
    the same day that Elisha Gray submitted a patent
    for a similar device. Gray was advised by his
    lawyer to drop his patent because Bell had
    submitted his first. Gray agreed and Bell was
    awarded the patent.

13
New Inventions
  • Guglielmo Marconi Considered the father of the
    radio. He was the first person to send and
    receive radio waves over a significant distance.
    This was significant because it was the first
    time wireless information had been sent. He did
    this in 1895

14
New Inventions
  • Serbian born Nikola Tesla, invented many of the
    most important things dealing with electricity.
    He developed the electric motor, the AC
    electrical grid, and wireless transmission of
    energy.

15
New Inventions
                                                
                                                  
                      
  • Gottlieb Daimler The first person to invent a
    light, portable internal combustion engine. This
    was able to be placed on a frame and could power
    wheels.

16
Organizing the Working Classes
  • As conditions in factories and mines only showed
    minor improvements, there was a growing push by
    the working class to win more rights.
  • Unions This is a very basic level of worker
    organization. Each industry developed a different
    union, however they often joined with each other
    to become more powerful. In most countries,
    unions were originally illegal. Governments saw
    them as interfering with business and therefore a
    risk to the economy.

17
Organizing the Working Classes
  • In 1848, Karl Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto.
    This book, written with Friedrich Engles,
    discussed the idea that all of history is based
    on a class struggle. This struggle takes place
    between the proletariat (working class) and the
    bourgeoisie (middle class managers).
  • Marx argues that the proletariat should unite and
    violently overthrow the bourgeoisie. Once this
    happens, the workers would be in charge of
    everything. Slowly, government and property would
    disappear. Worker collectives would run
    everything and everyone would have the same
    items, society would be classless.
  • Initially, the government would take over
    everything.
  • In a socialist society the government would own
    some means of production.
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