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Industrial Revolution

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Industrial Revolution & It s Consequences 1750-1850 Chapter 21 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Industrial Revolution


1
Industrial Revolution Its Consequences
  • 1750-1850
  • Chapter 21

2
The Agricultural Revolution
  • Agricultural Revolution chicken egg dilemma
  • New techniques in farming fertilizers and the
    use of farm machinery resulted in 2 significant
    changes that aided the industrial revolution
  • Jethro Tulls Seed Drill
  • Charles Townsends crop rotation
  • Enclosure Method

3
The Agricultural Revolution
  • Consequences
  • Fewer workers were required to work in the fields
    thus they sought jobs in the factories
  • Made it possible for nations to sustain larger
    populations
  • Crop yields improved significantly
  • Population Explosion
  • England and Wales increased from 6 million in
    1750 to 10 million in 1800
  • Frances population increased from 18 million in
    1715 to 26 million in 1789

4
Industrial Revolution
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Textile Industry where the revolution began in
    England
  • Cottage Industry
  • Making textiles and goods in individual homes
  • Factory System
  • Workers were forced to go to a central location
    where all production took place
  • Large expensive equipment brought about a need
    for such a system

5
Industrial Revolution
  • Impact on Women
  • Reduced many women to working in the cottage
    industry, thus their work was associated with the
    home.

6
Industrial Revolution
  • 1st Industrial Revolution was in textiles and
    powered by water.
  • New Inventions rapidly increased production.

Spinning Jenny, James Hargreaves
Steam Engine James Watt
Cotton Gin, Eli Whitney
7
Industrial Revolution
  • Improvement in transportation and communication
    improved efficiency

James Watt, Locomotive
Samuel Morse, Telegraph
John McAdam, roads
Canals
8
Consequences of Industrialization
  • Growth of cities
  • Overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, industrial
    pollution
  • Demand for local government to improve living
    conditions
  • Working Conditions
  • Demands for Reform long hours, low wages, lousy
    conditions
  • Unionization movements
  • Iron law of Wages keep wages low workers are
    productive small families
  • European Population
  • 1750 140m
  • 1800 187m 29?
  • 1850 266m 35?
  • London
  • 1800 1m
  • 1850 2.4m
  • 1900 4m
  • Berlin
  • 1700 30,000
  • 1850 450,000
  • 1900 2 million

9
The 2nd Industrial Revolution
  • 2nd Industrial Revolution
  • Occurred in the iron and steel industry as well
    as railroads
  • Countries with deposits of iron and coal became
    leaders in the 2nd phase.
  • This revolution was powered by steam and coal
    later to be replaced by electrical generators and
    the combustion engine in the 20th century.
  • Sources of Power water, coal steam, coal, oil
    electricity.

Bethlehem Steel
10
The Great Exhibition London 1851
  • Organized by Prince Albert
  • Designed to celebrate progress in industry and
    commerce
  • Showcased the products of many countries from
    around the world

11
Industrialization and Society
  • New Ideas
  • Malthus on Population believed that geometric
    growth in population would eventually outstrip
    food supply
  • David Ricardos Iron Law of Wages used to low
    wages to keep population growth to a minimum
  • Rapid Urbanization led to the creation of
  • Police forces
  • Fire Departments
  • Prison reform which involved keeping prisoners
    isolated and giving them time for self
    contemplation

12
Industrialization and Society
  • Impact on Women Children
  • Both were exploited in factories and paid low
    wages.
  • Married women were forced out of factories
  • Many young women resorted to or were forced into
    prostitution in order to supplement their wages.
  • Child Labor laws eventually removed kids from the
    workplace
  • 10 Work day instituted in Britain

13
Industrialization and Society
  • Chartism 1830s English attempt to mix political
    and economic reforms. 1st in Europe but failed
    for lack of cohesion
  • Called for
  • Universal Male suffrage
  • Annual elections to House of Commons
  • Secret ballot
  • Equal electoral districts
  • Abolition of property qualifications
  • Payment of salaries to House of Commons

14
Socialism on the Rise
  • Socialists sought to challenged the individualism
    of capitalism with a system that benefitted the
    community as whole
  • Socialists varied in their beliefs from utopian
    societies to egalitarian societies.
  • In short, socialists fought to improve wages,
    working conditions, and redistribute wealth via
    the political process.

15
Rise of Communism
  • Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx Friedrich
    Engles1848
  • Called for workers to seize control of the
    factors of production meaning the factories,
    the mines, etc
  • Marx believed the workers proletariat needed to
    seize political control from the upper middle
    class factory owners bourgeoisie

16
Demise of the Bourgeois King
  • Louis Philippe 1830-1848
  • King of the French, tricolor flag restored
  • Promoted Liberal, bourgeois interests at the
    expense of working class interests
  • February 1848 Revolution occurred when he refused
    to grant changes to working conditions in France.
  • Parisian workers went to the barricade
  • Louis Philippe fled to England

17
The 2nd French Republic
  • New Government
  • Socialists under the leadership of Louis Blanc
    demanded inclusion in a new provisional
    government.
  • Workshops were created to provide work relief for
    the unemployed
  • New Elections resulted in a Conservative and
    Moderate majority in the National Assembly
    showing the provinces did not trust Paris
    radicals.
  • New socialist revolts were put down by the
    military
  • Elections for President are called for

Louis Blanc
18
2nd French Republic Empire
  • 1848 2nd Republic
  • Louis Napoleon, Napoleons nephew is elected
    President in 1848 with 75 of the vote.
  • Allowed to serve only one 4 year term.
  • 1852 he seizes power in a coup on Dec 2, 1851 and
    creates the 2nd Empire crowning himself Napoleon
    III.
  • Used a plebiscite to give his action legitimacy

Napoleon III
19
Revolution in the German Confederation
  • Congress in Frankfurt 1848 meets to discuss
    German unity
  • Offers the crown of a unified Germany to Prussian
    King Frederick William IV
  • He refuses it because it does not come from the
    princes
  • King of Prussia goes back on a promise of a
    Constitution once he regains military control

Frederick William IV
20
Revolution in Austria 1848-49
  • Hungarian Louis Kossuth inspired students in
    Vienna to revolt.
  • King Ferdinand abdicated in favor of his 18 year
    old son, Franz Josef
  • Metternich fled Vienna and resigned.
  • Revolts spread throughout the empire but calls
    for Hungarian independence were the loudest.

Emperor Franz Josef
21
Hungarian Revolt 1848-1849
  • Lajos Louis Kossuth became the President of an
    independent Hungary
  • Hungarian military won several battles against
    Austrian forces
  • Tsar Nicholas I sent troops in to destroy the
    Hungarians

Lajos Kossuth
22
Hungarian Revolt 1848-1849
  • Russian Intervention
  • Kossuth resigns and flees to America
  • 13 Martrys of Arad
  • Hungarian generals are executed.
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