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The Industrial Revolution

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Title: The Industrial Revolution Author: heing Last modified by: McDugall, Meaghan Created Date: 1/30/2006 7:40:22 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Industrial Revolution


1
The Industrial Revolution
  • T.S. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts

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An Early Steam Locomotive
6
The Impact of the Railroad
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What was life like in a factory town?
  • Crowded housing
  • Ex Manchester 2 toilets for 250 people
  • Coal burning produces terrible air
    pollutionsulphur and soot
  • Lack of sanitary conditions
  • 6/10 children died before age 5

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Manchester England
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London- Artist Representation
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London- Artist Representation
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London- Artist Representation
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London- Artist Representation
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London- Artist Representation
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London- Artist Representation
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What was life like in a factory?
  • Jobs divided into simple tasks
  • Mass Production
  • Mechanization
  • Describe the working conditions!
  • Long hours, noise, lack of ventilation, poor
    sanitation, inadequate food,

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FACTORIES AND ASSEMBLY LINES
  • Made manufacturing more efficient and thus
    increased profits
  • Created jobs for people but these jobs were often
    very labor intensive and done in poor conditions
  • Women and children worked alongside men
  • Women had to do double duty as moms and workers
  • Children as young as five worked 16 hour days in
    deplorable conditions

17
London- Artist Representation

  Source The Lancet, British medical journal,
founded and edited by Thomas Wakley, medical
reformer, 1843.
AVERAGE AGE AT DEATH AVERAGE AGE AT DEATH AVERAGE AGE AT DEATH AVERAGE AGE AT DEATH
   Gentry/Professional Farmer/Trader  Labor/Artisan
 Rural Districts      
 Rutland  52  41  38
 Bath 55 37 25
       
 Industrial Distracts      
 Leeds 44 27 19
 Manchester 38 20 17
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Family Life
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Evidence of Textile Workers in Wilson's Mill,
Nottingham
  • "I work at Mr. Wilson's mill. I think the
    youngest child is about 7. I daresay there are 20
    under 9 years. It is about half past five by our
    clock at home when we go in....We come out at
    seven by the mill. We never stop to take our
    meals, except at dinner.

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Evidence of Textile Workers in Wilson's Mill,
Nottingham
  • William Crookes is overlooker in our room. He is
    cross-tempered sometimes. He does not beat me he
    beats the little children if they do not do their
    work right....I have sometimes seen the little
    children drop asleep or so, but not lately. If
    they are catched asleep they get the strap. They
    are always very tired at night....I can read a
    little I can't write. I used to go to school
    before I went to the mill I have since I am
    sixteen."

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Punishment
  • Robert Blincoe was interviewed by John Brown in
    1828.
  • The blacksmith had the task of riveting irons
    upon any of the apprentices, whom the master
    ordered. These irons were very much like the
    irons usually put upon felons. Even young women,
    if they suspected of intending to run away, had
    irons riveted on their ankles, and reaching by
    long links and rings up to the hips, and in these
    they were compelled to walk to and fro from the
    mill to work and to sleep.

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Table 1 Age Distribution in Cotton Factories (Manchester and Stockport Cotton Factories, 1818-9)   Table 1 Age Distribution in Cotton Factories (Manchester and Stockport Cotton Factories, 1818-9)   Table 1 Age Distribution in Cotton Factories (Manchester and Stockport Cotton Factories, 1818-9)   Table 1 Age Distribution in Cotton Factories (Manchester and Stockport Cotton Factories, 1818-9)   Table 1 Age Distribution in Cotton Factories (Manchester and Stockport Cotton Factories, 1818-9)  
  Starting Age in Factories Starting Age in Factories
Age Group
under 10 49..9
10-13 27..9
14-17 10..3
18-20 4.1
21 over 7.8
sample size 7142 7142
26
Factory Food
  • (3) Sarah Carpenter was interviewed by The Ashton
    Chronicle on 23rd June, 1849.Our common food
    was oatcake. It was thick and coarse. This
    oatcake was put into cans. Boiled milk and water
    was poured into it. This was our breakfast and
    supper. Our dinner was potato pie with boiled
    bacon it, a bit here and a bit there, so thick
    with fat we could scarce eat it, though we were
    hungry enough to eat anything. Tea we never saw,
    nor butter. We had cheese and brown bread once a
    year. We were only allowed three meals a day
    though we got up at five in the morning and
    worked till nine at night.

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Accidents Happen!
A report commissioned by the House of Commons in
1832 said that "there are factories, no means
few in number, nor confined to the smaller mills,
in which serious accidents are continually
occurring, and in which, notwithstanding,
dangerous parts of the machinery are allowed to
remain unfenced."
28
Evidence of Textile Workers in Wilson's Mill,
Nottingham
  • "I have three children working in Wilson's mill
    one 11, one 13, and the other 14. They work
    regular hours there. We don't complain. If they
    go to drop the hours, I don't know what poor
    people will do. We have hard work to live as it
    is. ...My husband is of the same mind about
    it...last summer my husband was 6 weeks ill we
    pledged almost all our things to live the things
    are not all out of pawn yet. ...We complain of
    nothing but short wages...My children have been
    in the mill three years. I have no complaint to
    make of their being beaten...I would rather they
    were beaten than fined."

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GENDER ISSUES
  • CHANGES
  • Poor women had to work in factories and still
    take care of family needs
  • Wealthy women stayed home and had less power
    outside the home in industrial age
  • Middle Class women became involved in reform
    movements (abolition, suffrage)
  • CONTINUITIES
  • Women still had family responsibilities
  • Society still very patriarchal

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EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • Rapid urbanization (factory jobs were in cities)
  • Rough living conditions in crowded cities
  • Industrialized nations were the strongest and
    took advantage of non-industrialized nations
  • Middle class is born and even more specialization
    of labor develops

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The Need for Reform.What happened to Laissez
Faire??
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