The Industrial Revolution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Industrial Revolution PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 7c61e1-NDQ0O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Industrial Revolution

Description:

The Industrial Revolution 1700 - 1850 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:80
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 33
Provided by: ValuedGa540
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Industrial Revolution


1
The Industrial Revolution
1700 - 1850
2
1804 - Trevithick - steam locomotive
1769 - Watt - steam engine
1721 - Tull - seed drill
1785 - Cartwright - power loom
1764 -Hargreaves - spinning jenny
1769 -Arkwright -water frame
1793 - Whitney - cotton gin
1733 -Kay - flying shuttle
1779 - Crompton - spinning mule
3
FACTORS AIDING INDUSTRIAL GROWTH
  • CHANGES IN FARMING
  • RISE IN POPULATION
  • GEOGRAPHIC ADVANTAGES
  • NEW INVENTIONS

4
CHANGES IN FARMING
  • 1700 Agricultural revolution begins before
    Industrial Revolution
  • The wealthy buy much of the land
  • Landowners rent fields to tenant farmers
  • Tenant farmers one who farms another's land and
    pays rent, usually in a share of the crops.
  • Landowners began fencing or hedging their land.
    This process is called enclosure.
  • Landowners free to experiment.

5
Scientific Revolution meets Agricultural
Revolution
  • Landowners needed new ways to increase the
    harvest.
  • Jethro Tull was one of the first scientific
    farmers.
  • In 1721, he invented a seed drill.
  • A seed drill allowed well spaced rows at a
    specific depth.

6
Scientific Revolution meets Agricultural
Revolution
Scientific farmers began to use crop rotation.
This is a system of growing a different crop in a
field each year to preserve the fertility of the
land. This practice began in the middle ages but
was perfected by gentleman farmer Viscount
Charles Townshend. Raising livestock was also
improved. Only the best animals were allowed to
breed.
7
RISE IN POPULATION
Better livestock and rising crop production meant
more food. During the 1700s the population of
Europe increased rapidly. The reasons for the
growth were improved health and increased food
supplies. The growth in population increased the
need for food. However, this growth supplied
the extra workers needed in the factories.
8
GEOGRAPHIC ADVANTAGES
  • Great Britain had all of the factors needed to be
    a successful industrialized nation.
  • Abundant natural resources
  • Favorable geography
  • Favorable climate for new ideas
  • Effective banking system
  • Politically stable

9
  • Abundant Natural Resources
  • Industrialized countries needed 3 important
    natural resources
  • Water-power
  • Coal
  • Iron Ore
  • Water and coal supplied the energy for the
    machines.
  • Iron ore was needed to build machines, tools, and
    buildings.

10
Favorable Geography Britain is an island
nation. She had many fine harbors and 6,000
merchant ships. These ships sailed to every part
of the globe. Overseas trade gave Britain access
to raw materials and markets.
11
Favorable Climate For New Ideas The British were
interested in science and technology. They
founded the Royal Society. Royal Society world
famous club for exchanging ideas and
inventions. The wealthy British invested in new
inventions.
12
Effective Banking System Great Britain had the
most highly developed banking system in
Europe. The service of making loans was very
important during this time period. Loaning money
at a reasonable interest rate encouraged people
to invest in new inventions.
13
  • Politically Stable
  • The British lived in a century of peace.
  • Freedom from the expense of war allowed them to
    concentrate their money on new technology.
  • Their government favored economic growth.
  • It passed laws supporting and encouraging new
    investments.

14
Inventions Revolutionized the Textile Industry
  • Britain became a world leader in raising sheep
  • Wool became a major trading product
  • Cotton becomes popular for lighter weight
    clothing
  • Cloth made at home in cottage industries
  • Work was done by hand on spinning wheels and
  • looms

15
One Invention leads to Another
  • Six Major Inventions Change the Cotton Industry
  • John Kay - Flying Shuttle
  • James Hargreaves - Spinning Jenny
  • Richard Arkwright - Water Frame
  • Samuel Crompton - Spinning Mule
  • Edmund Cartwright - Power Loom
  • Eli Whitney - Cotton Gin

16
John Kays Flying Shuttle
  • The Flying Shuttle was invented in 1733
  • The Flying Shuttle was a piece of wood that
    held yarn
  • The shuttle was woven in and out of the yarn
    tied to the
  • loom
  • It allowed the weaver to work twice as fast

17
James Hargreaves Spinning Jenny
  • The Spinning Jenny was invented in 1764.
  • It was a faster spinning wheel.
  • This machine could spin 80 threads at a time.
  • Humans could spin only 1 thread at a time.
  • This machine was hand operated.

18
Richard Arkwrights Water Frame
  • Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in
    1769.
  • This invention used water power from a fast
    flowing
  • stream to drive the spinning wheels.

19
Samuel Cromptons Spinning Mule
  • The Spinning Mule was invented in 1779.
  • This machine combined the Spinning Jenny and
    the
  • water frame.
  • This machine was used to make stronger, finer
    thread.

20
Eli Whitneys Cotton Gin
  • The Cotton Gin was invented in 1793.
  • This machine removed seeds from cotton.
  • Prior to this invention, seeds had to be
    removed by hand.
  • Removing the seeds by hand took a lot of time.
  • The Cotton Gin allowed for the cleaning of 10
    times more cotton per day.

21
Edmund Cartwrights Power Loom
  • The Power Loom was invented in 1785.
  • This new loom made weaving much faster.
  • It ran on waterpower.
  • In 1813, 2000 looms were in use in English
    factories.
  • By 1833, 100,000 looms were in use in England.

22
  • Industry Grows and Spreads
  • To help transport goods faster from place to
    place
  • engineers built
  • Better roads
  • Canals
  • Railroads

23
  • Roads
  • A Scottish engineer, John McAdam, invented a
    better way to build roads.
  • First he layered the roadbed with large rocks.
  • The second phase was to smooth a layer of
    crushed rock over the first layer.
  • This process was called the Macadam surface.

24
  • Canals
  • Canals are human made waterways.
  • Networks of these canals were built in England.
  • Over 4000 miles of inland waterways were
    constructed.
  • They lowered the cost of transporting raw
    materials to the
  • factories.

25
  • Railroads
  • The inventors of the railroad locomotive put
    the steam engine on wheels.
  • 1804 - Richard Trevithick -invented a small
    powerful steam engine which pulled a cart along
    tracks.
  • 1821 - George Stephenson built 1st railroad
    line which was 27 miles long.
  • He called his steam engine the Rocket. It ran
    24 miles per hour.

26
  • Far Reaching Effects of the Railroad
  • The railroads encouraged industrial growth.
  • They were a fast, cheap way to transport raw
    materials and products.
  • The railroads provided new jobs.
  • The railroads boosted agriculture. It was
    easier to transport goods (milk, fruit, etc.)
    to distant cities.
  • Railroads made travel easier.

27
  • Industrial Revolution Changed Lives
  • The Industrial Revolution spread to other
    countries.
  • The growth of factories brought people to the
    cities.
  • The working conditions in factories began to
    improve.
  • The middle class social structure grew.
  • Social tensions began to build between the
    different classes.

28
  • Early looms and spinning wheels ran off of
    water.
  • Every factory had to be built near rushing
    water.
  • These locations were often inconvenient.
  • 1763 - James Watt and Matthew Boulton -
    Scottish entrepreneurs (entrepreneurs organize
    and take risks in business) who improved the
    steam engine by using coal to power it

29
Factories Grew Out of Cottage Industries
  • New machines were too large to be used in
    homes.
  • Wealthy merchants set up machines in large
    buildings.
  • These large buildings became known as
    factories.
  • Factory - a large building where goods are
    made.
  • They ran off of water and were built near
    streams.
  • Cotton cloth became popular.
  • Most English cotton came from America.
  • Cotton production increased - 1791 9000 bales
    1831 987,000 bales

30
2
1
3
Identify
4
6
5
31
2.
8
7
.
9
Identify
11
12
10
14
15
13
32
17
19
16
18
20
Identify
21
24
23
22
About PowerShow.com