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The Industrial Revolution


Title: The Industrialization Revolution Author: mckeowm Last modified by: Deuce Created Date: 8/28/2001 11:06:23 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution
Traditional Farming Methods
  1. List all of the MACHINES in the picture.
  2. How many POWER SOURCES are in the picture?
  3. What SOCIAL CLASSES are represented here?
  4. Using the picture, write a sentence describing
    life before industrialization.

Farming in the Middle Ages
  • Villages feed themselves ( subsistence farming)
  • One of three fields left fallow (empty) to regain
  • Animals grazed in common pastures
  • Disadvantages
  • Land use is inefficient
  • Farmers did not experiment with new farming

A Medieval Village Video
I. The Agricultural Revolution
  • Improvements in farming methods in the 1700s
    boost crop yields and lead to enclosed lands
  • Scientific Farming keeping records of out put
  • Jethro Tull seed drill 1721
  • Charles Townshend Crop rotation
  • Robert Bakewell Livestock breeding.

Enclosure Movement
  • Wealthy landowners fenced in pastures began
    experimenting with new farming techniques
  • Villages lost common lands and political power
  • Peasants became poorer

Make a Prediction
  • Q. What will be the cause and effect of the
    technological advances in agriculture?
  • More Food nutrition, healthier, population
  • Work done by machines less of a need for farmers.
  • Many small farmers lose their land, move to the
    city and become workers.

II. Ideal Conditions for Britain
  1. Factors of Production- Land, Labor, and Capital
  2. Natural Resources water, coal and iron.
  3. Geography many harbors, 6000 merchant ships.
  4. Science and Technology
  5. Banking loans and investment
  6. Political Stability free from Napoleonic Wars

III. The Product
  • Britain leads the way
  • Raw Wool
  • Linen
  • Cotton High demand but too expensive.

IV. The Inventions and Inventors
  • John Kay The Flying Shuttle
  • Weaver can work twice as fast.

B. James Hargreaves
  • The Spinning Jenny
  • 6 8 threads at one time.

C. Richard Arkwright
  • The Waterframe 1769
  • Needed fast flowing streams to drive spinning

D. Samuel Crompton
  • Spinning Jenny the water frame Spinning Mule
  • Bulky and expensive.
  • Set up in large buildings Factories.

F. Eli Whitney
  • Cotton Gin
  • Makes slavery profitable
  • 1791 9000 bales produced.
  • 1831 987,000 bales produced.
  • Video

  • What are the benefits so far in the new machines?
  • How are they powered?
  • How is this a limitation?
  • How would you improve them?

  • British Coal production increasing in 1700s
  • Problem dig deep and hit water
  • Solution Newcomen Steam engine drove pump
  • James Watt (1736-1819) found ways to dramatically
    increase efficiency of steam power
  • Steam power perfect for running jennies and looms
  • A solution to problem in weaving was found in
    technical innovation developed for mining

A Newcomen Pump
G. James Watt
  • 1765 efficient steam engine.
  • Teams up with Mathew Bolton
  • Entrepreneurs organizes, manages and takes risks
    in business.
  • Video

Effects of the Steam Engine
  • Steam power, used where coal exists, increased
    textile production
  • Improved mining
  • Increased mining of metals, which fueled other

Need for Iron Coal
  • Iron needed for farming tools, new factory
    machines, railways
  • Smelting makes iron more pure, requires carbon
  • Carbon, from coal, needed to smelt iron
  • Steam engines powered by coal
  • Video

Effects of Iron Coal
  • Britain produced more iron than all other
    countries of the world combined
  • Coal powered Britains enormous Navy
  • The Sun Never Sets on The British Empire.
  • Video

British EmpireAt its peak controlled one sixth
of humanity
Interchangeable Parts
  • Interchangeable Parts All parts are made to an
    exact standard so they may be interchanged. If
    one part breaks no problem!!

Other Inventors/Inventions
  • Orville Wilbur Wright- airplane
  • Elias Howe- sewing machine
  • Louis Daguerre- photography
  • Henry Bessemer- purified steel
  • Alfred Nobel- dynamite
  • Alessandro Volta- battery
  • Michael Faraday- electric motor
  • Thomas Edison- light bulb

Still More Inventions Inventors
  • Nikolas Otto- gasoline powered combustion engine
  • Karl Benz- automobile
  • Henry Ford- 1st auto in U.S.A.
  • Samuel Morse- telegraph
  • Alexander Graham Bell- telephone
  • Giglielmo Marconi- radio
  • Inventions too numerous to mention all of them

V. Transportation
  • Railroads
  • 1804 Richard Trevithick first steam locomotive.
  • George Stephenson the rocket 25m.p.h. Liverpool
    Manchester Railway
  • Video

A. Railroads
  • 3. Effects
  • Encouraged industrial growth
  • New jobs
  • Boost to agriculture
  • Travel to countryside.

The Impact of the Railroad
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  • Society During the Industrial Revolution
  • A. Urbanization-The movement of people from the
    country to the city.
  • European cities of 100,000 inhabitants rose from
    22 to 44
  • B. Social Classes during the Industrial
  • Upper class elite, 5(owned most of the
    countrys wealth)
  • Middle classes, 15 (women worked at home raising
  • Lower classes, 80 (lived mostly in tenement
    housing-tightly packed apartment like housing)

Why Flock to the City?
  1. Country Life is harsh.
  2. Regular wages
  3. The weather is not a factor.
  4. Country Work
  5. Dawn to dusk
  6. Family Work unit.
  7. City Work
  8. Work by whistle
  9. 14 hours a day/six days a week.
  10. Same work no changes
  11. Factories badly lit and dirty.
  12. Coal mines Damp, dark, breath coal dust.

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
  • Capitalismsystem of privately owned businesses
    seeking profits
  • Laissez faireeconomic policy of not interfering
    with businesses
  • Job of the government is to protect your rights,
    not interfere with business
  • Adam Smithdefender of free markets, author of
    The Wealth of Nations
  • Believes economic liberty guarantees economic
  • Economic natural lawsself-interest, competition,
    supply and demand

Five Elements of Capitalism
  • Private Ownership
  • Equal opportunity for citizens to own business
  • Free Enterprise
  • Freedom to produce and consume
  • Supply and Demand
  • Inversely proportional High supply low demand
    low Price
  • Competition
  • Needed to secure highest quality
  • good at reasonable price
  • Profit Motive
  • Individuals make the money

What were the negative effects of Capitalism?
I. Changing the way of Life
  • Poor City Dweller
  • Lacked adequate housing
  • Filthy
  • Overcrowded slums
  • Unsafe conditions
  • Video

Urban Living Conditions
  • Factory owners rushed to build housing
  • Back to back row houses
  • Several people in very small spaces
  • Poor sanitation
  • High disease rates
  • Crime
  • Massive pollution

Urban Living Conditions
Average Age at Death for Different Classes
Rutland 52 41 38
Truro 40 33 28
Derby 49 38 21
Manchester 38 20 17
Bethnal Green 45 26 16
Liverpool 35 22 15
Rutland agricultural area in central England
Truro tin mining center
Social Consequences Cont.
  • Living Working Conditions
  • Drab blackened w/ soot
  • Housing packed in short supply
  • Lived in 1 rooms life poor
  • 1000s children running around w/ no last name
  • Treatment of Workers
  • Jobs only for unskilled workers
  • Low wages-too low to support families
  • Worked long hrs up to 14/day
  • Jobs tedious oppressive
  • Few Holidays
  • Unemployment greatest fear layoffs often
  • Workers not organized-couldnt improve selves
  • Had to bargain individually employers no
    sympathy (competing w/ other industries)

  • Working Conditions
  • Long Hours- Most factory workers labored between
    12-16 hours a day, 6 to 7 days a week.
  • Unsafe Conditions-Miners worked in unsafe
    conditions in which death and injury were
  • Child Labor-Although a necessity for some
    families, eventually child labor was limited to
    12 hours a day in England. Children were beaten
    if they didnt work hard enough.
  • Video

Textile FactoryWorkers in England
1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers
1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers
1850 224, 000 looms gt1 million workers
D. Children
  • Begin work as young as Six.
  • 14 16 hour days.
  • Pay was less than 25 cents a week.

(No Transcript)
1. Scavengers
  • Picked up lint on the floor under the machines.

David Rowland testimony before the House of
Commons Committee on 10th July, 1832.
  • Question At what age did you commence working in
    a cotton mill?
  • Answer Just when I had turned six.
  • Question What employment had you in a mill in
    the first instance?
  • Answer That of a scavenger.

David Rowland testimony before the House of
Commons Committee on 10th July, 1832.
  • Question Will you explain the nature of the work
    that a scavenger has to do?
  • Answer The scavenger has to take the brush and
    sweep under the wheels, and to be under the
    direction of the spinners and the piecers
    generally. I frequently had to be under the
    wheels, and in consequence of the perpetual
    motion of the machinery, I was liable to
    accidents constantly. I was very frequently
    obliged to lie flat, to avoid being run over or

2. Piecers
  • Reuniting broken threads from the machines

William Dodds Testimony
  • At the age of six I became a piecer. The
    continual friction of the hand in rubbing the
    piecing upon the coarse wrapper wears off the
    skin, and causes the finger to bleed. The
    position in which the piecer stands to his work
    is in a sliding direction, constantly keeping
    his right side towards the frame. In this
    position he continues during the day, with his
    hands, feet, and eyes constantly in motion. It
    will be easily seen, that the chief weight of his
    body rests upon his right knee, which is almost
    always the first joint to give way.

William Dodds Testimony
  • I have frequently worked at the frame till I
    could scarcely get home, and in this state have
    been stopped by people in the streets who noticed
    me shuffling along, and advised me to work no
    more in the factories but I was not my own
    master. During the day, I frequently counted the
    clock, and calculated how many hours I had still
    to remain at work my evenings were spent in
    preparing for the following day - in rubbing my
    knees, ankles, elbows, and wrists with oil, etc.
    I went to bed, to cry myself to sleep, and pray
    that the Lord would take me to himself before

Robert Blincoes Testimony
  • The blacksmith had the task of riveting irons
    upon any of the apprentices, whom the master
    ordered. These irons were very much like the
    irons usually put upon felons. Even young women,
    if they suspected of intending to run away, had
    irons riveted on their ankles, and reaching by
    long links and rings up to the hips, and in these
    they were compelled to walk to and fro from the
    mill to work and to sleep.

4. Injuries
  • Loss of legs, arms fingers. Crippled for life.
  • No workmen's compensation.

Robert Blincoes Testimony 1828
  • A girl named Mary Richards, who was not quite ten
    years of age, attended a drawing frame, below
    which, and about a foot from the floor, was a
    horizontal shaft, by which the frames above were
    turned. It happened one evening, when her apron
    was caught by the shaft. In an instant the poor
    girl was drawn by an irresistible force and
    dashed on the floor. She uttered the most
    heart-rending shrieks! Her bones of her arms,
    legs, thighs, etc. successively snap asunder,
    crushed, seemingly, to atoms, as the machinery
    whirled her round, and drew tighter

Robert Blincoes Testimony 1828
  • and tighter her body within the works, her
    blood was scattered over the frame and streamed
    upon the floor, her head appeared dashed to
    pieces - at last, her mangled body was jammed in
    so fast, between the shafts and the floor, that
    the water being low and the wheels off the gear,
    it stopped the main shaft. When she was
    extricated, every bone was found broken - her
    head dreadfully crushed. She was carried off
    quite lifeless.

Dr. Smiths Testimony on female health in the
  • Question Are not the females less capable of
    sustaining this long labour than males.
  • Dr. Samuel Smith Yes. In the female the pelvis
    is considerably wider than the male. When having
    to sustain the upright posture for long periods,
    the pelvis is prevented from being properly
    developed and, in many of those instances,
    instead of forming an oval aperture, it forms a
    triangular one, the part supporting the spine
    being pressed downwards, and the parts receiving
    the heads of the thigh-bones being pressed

Dr. Smiths Testimony on female health in the
  • When they are expecting to become mothers,
    sometimes because of the development of the bones
    of the pelvis, there is not actually space for
    the exit of the child which is within the womb.
    Under these circumstances, it is often the
    painful duty of the surgeon to destroy the life
    of the child in order that he may preserve the
    more valuable one of the mother. I believe if
    horses in this country were put to the same
    period of labour that factory children are, in a
    very few years the animal would be almost extinct
    among us.

  • Given the previous testimony on working
    conditions of children, what surprised you the

II. Reforms
  • Unions organized to raise wages and improve
    working conditions.
  • Become legal and established. Skilled workers
    carpenters and spinners unionize first.
  • Collective bargaining negotiations.
  • Strike refuse to work

E. Factory Act of 1833
  • Illegal to hire children under nine.
  • Ages nine to 13 only 8hrs/day.
  • Ages 14 18 up to 12 hrs/day.
  • Mine Act of 1842
  • Similar to the Factory Act of 1833

  • Unionsassociations formed by laborers to work
    for change
  • Unions negotiate for better pay, conditions with
  • Sometimes they strikecall a work stoppageto
    pressure owners
  • Skilled workers are first to form unions
  • Movement in Britain, U.S. must fight for right to
    form unions
  • Union goals were higher wages, shorter hours,
    improved conditions

Child Labor
  • As concerns about the welfare of children rose in
    mid 1800s, Parliament held investigations into
    working conditions.
  • New laws and new labor unions improved conditions.

IV. Industrialization in the United States
  • The United States offers conditions favorable to
    the growth of industry.
  • Samuel Slater teams up with Moses Brown. Result
    spread of the American Textile industry.
  • U.S. Industry fueled by the growth of railroads.
  • The Industrial Revolution will translate into a
    victory for the Union in the Civil War.
  • By 1900, the U.S. becomes the industrial leader
    of the world in steel production and oil

Cotton Gin
  • Cotton Gin A machine that separates the seeds
    from raw cotton fibers.

Effects of Cotton Gin
  • Profit per pound of cotton skyrocketed.
  • Many plantations depended on it as only major
  • New plantations developed I Alabama, Mississippi,
    Louisiana, and finally Texas.
  • Slaves expanded from 700,000 to 1.5 million.

The Industrial Revolution
Economic Effects
Social Effects
  • New inventions and development of factories
  • Rapidly growing industry in the 1800s
  • Increased production and higher demand for raw
  • Growth of worldwide trade
  • Population explosion and a large labor force
  • Exploitation of mineral resources
  • Highly developed banking and investment system
  • Advances in transportation, agriculture, and
  • Long hours worked by children in factories
  • Increase in population of cities
  • Poor city planning
  • Loss of family stability
  • Expansion of middle class
  • Harsh conditions for laborers
  • Workers progress vs. laissez-faire economic
  • Improved standard of living
  • Creation of new jobs
  • Encouragement of technological progress

Political Effects
  • Child labor laws to end abuses
  • Reformers urging equal distribution of wealth
    (i.e. Karl Marx)
  • Trade unions
  • Social reform movements, such as utilitarianism,
    utopianism, socialism, and Marxism
  • Reform bills in Parliament

Effects of The Industrial Rev.
  • Wealth gap widens non-industrialized countries
    fall further behind
  • European nations, U.S., Japan exploit colonies
    for resources
  • Imperialism spreads due to need for raw
    materials, markets
  • Europe and U.S. gain economic power
  • African and Asian economies lag, based on
    agriculture, crafts
  • Rise of middle class strengthens democracy, calls
    for social reform

More Effects
  • Produced goods for the masses
  • Fortunes made
  • age of unrestrained capitalism
  • Raw materials came from colonies.
  • Colonies were guaranteed markets
  • Spawned abuses of labor
  • women, children chained to machines
  • Rich became richer dominated world
  • Inequity of wealth
  • led to Socialism, Communism in Europe
  • Video

(No Transcript)
Reforming theIndustrial World
  • The Industrial Revolution leads to economic,
    social, and political reforms.
  • Capitalism, Socialism, and Communism

  • Capitalismsystem of privately owned businesses
    seeking profits
  • Laissez faireeconomic policy of not interfering
    with businesses
  • Job of the government is to protect your rights,
    not interfere with business
  • Adam Smithdefender of free markets, author of
    The Wealth of Nations
  • Believes economic liberty guarantees economic
  • Economic natural lawsself-interest, competition,
    supply and demand

Five Elements of Capitalism
  • Private Ownership
  • Equal opportunity for citizens to own business
  • Free Enterprise
  • Freedom to produce and consume
  • Supply and Demand
  • Inversely proportional High supply low demand
    low Price
  • Competition
  • Needed to secure highest quality
  • good at reasonable price
  • Profit Motive
  • Individuals make the money

  • Socialism-factors of production owned by and
    operated for the people
  • Socialists think government control can end
    poverty, bring equality
  • Social Democrats achieve through democratic
    reforms (Welfarism)
  • Marxists achieve through Revolution

  • Karl MarxGerman journalist proposes a radical
    form of socialism, Marxism
  • Friedrich EngelsGerman whose father owns a
    Manchester textile Mill
  • Marx and Engels believe society is divided into
    warring classes
  • Capitalism helps haves, the employers known as
    the bourgeoisie
  • Hurts have-nots, the workers known as the
  • Marx, Engels predict the workers will overthrow
    the owners
  • Write their ideas in a book The Communist

  • Marx believes that capitalism will eventually
    destroy itself
  • Inequality would cause workers to revolt, seize
    factories and mills
  • Communismsociety where people own, share the
    means of production
  • Marxs ideas later take root in Russia, China,
    Cuba, (Vietnam and North Korea)
  • Time has shown that society not controlled by
    economic forces alone
  • No Religion in Communism

Five Elements of Communism
  • Economic Determinism
  • Govt determines what is produced
  • Class Struggle
  • The Haves vs. Have-Nots
  • Surplus Value Theory
  • The goal of money will always abuse workers
  • Proletariat Rule
  • Workers will control the society
  • Individual Contributions
  • Each person must contribute to the society with
    their individual skills

What is Communism?
  • Marx and Engels studied the history of the
    worlds economies.
  • This means the way that power, industry and
    finance are controlled.
  • They saw the way countries developed in stages.

Explain these please!
Primitive Communism
What is Communism?
This is how humans first lived together in
small tribes. Primitive means not very advanced
e.g. hunting and gathering. Communism means that
everything was shared amongst the tribe food,
jobs, belongings. No-one owned land. Eventually a
group comes to power this leads to Feudalism
Primitive Communism
What is Communism?
Under feudalism, a king or emperor or chief
becomes the ruler over all the people.
He gives land and privileges to nobles who rule
the people for him.
The people are kept uneducated and told that god
chose the king to rule. The church helps the king
this way.
As trade develops, some people get richer. This
leads to Capitalism..
Primitive Communism
What is Communism?
The capitalists get more power to serve their own
The business owners or capitalists get richer
while the workers do all the hard work.
Capitalism creates a huge working-class of people
who soon get angry at the way they are treated.
They organise in unions and demand changes. This
will lead to a revolution and Socialism
What is Communism?
Because nothing is made for profit, all people
benefit from education and health.
The workers take control of the country to
produce things for everyone.
These ideas spread across the world to create
In the Socialist revolution all the rulers
kings, churches, capitalists are got rid of.
What is Communism?
The remaining capitalists put up a bitter fight,
but the will of the people will always win.
All human activity goes towards benefiting each
other allowing all to live their lives to the
As everyone now works together, war is a thing of
the past armies are not needed. Sharing means
no police are needed. Everything is provided by
the people so money becomes a thing of the past.
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