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The Industrial Revolution and Britain


The Industrial Revolution and ... 1914 Western Europe ... 140 million in 1750 to 266 million in late 1800s Political and social revolutions of the 1800s, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Industrial Revolution and Britain

The Industrial Revolution and Britain
What is the Industrial Revolution?
  • Began circa 1750-1914
  • Western Europe (esp. Britain) caught up with and
    surpassed China and the rest of the world in
    economic power and productivity
  • Machines began to significantly displace human
    and animal power in methods of producing and
    distributing goods

Reasons for it..
  • Commercial Revolution (1500-1700) brought upon by
    Age of Exploration
  • Effect of Scientific Revolution
  • Increase in population of Europe from 140 million
    in 1750 to 266 million in late 1800s
  • Political and social revolutions of the 1800s,
    which began the rise to power of the middle class

  • Enclosure Acts Laws passed in England in the
    late 1700s to early 1800s that converted public
    lands held in common into parcels of land to be
    sold to private owners.
  • a supply of cheap labor

  • 2. A good supply of coal and iron
  • 3. The availability of large supplies of capital
    from profitable commercial investment in the
    preceding centuries
  • 4. A class of inventive people who possessed
    technological skill and whose independence and
    non-conformity allowed them to take risks

  • 5. Access to raw materials because England was a
    colonial power
  • 6. Had a government, which was sympathetic to
    industrial development and well-established
    financial institutions

Growth of Industrial Society
  • Helped to eliminate Western Europes traditional
    stratification model
  • Middle class were major contributors and primary
    beneficiaries (indifferent to the suffering of
    those of the lower class)
  • 1. Upper bourgeoisie bankers, merchants,
    industrialists who wanted free enterprise and
    high tariffs
  • 2. Lower bourgeoisie Small industrialists,
    merchants, prof. men who wanted stability and
    security from government

Important Inventions in Textiles
  • John Kay 1733 the flying shuttle
  • James Hargreaves 1764 the spinning jenny
  • Richard Arkwright water frame, 1769
  • Samuel Crompton the mule 1779
  • Edmund Cartwright power loom, 1785

Spinning jenny
The mule
Power and Metallurgy
  • Thomas Newcomen steam engine,1712
  • James Watt condensing steam engine, 1765
  • Eli Whitney cotton gin, 1793
  • Robert Fulton, steamboat, 1807
  • George Stephenson, steam locomotive, 1829

The Rocket steam locomotive
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