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World War II

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World War II The Good War at Home and Abroad Ethics and Morality of War The Good War ? Effects of WWII military tactics and culture on later U.S. and world ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War II


1
World War II
  • The Good War at Home and Abroad

2
Background, Causes
  • Leftover strains, economic problems from WWI
  • Failure of democracy in Germany, Italy, USSR
  • Authoritarian govts in Italy, Japan, Germany,
    Spain
  • Rise of Hitler and Nazis, legally gained power,
    support of German people
  • Fascism belief in superior race, party rule,
    extreme nationalism, dictatorship, world
    domination, expansionism (Lebensraum)

3
Lead-up to U.S. Involvement
  • 1930s, Japanese colonialism in Pacific
  • 1930s, Rise of fascism in Europe
  • 1936, Axis formed (Germany, Italy, Japan)
  • 1938, Germany annexed Austria, Czech.
  • 1939, Hitler-Stalin Pact
  • 1939, Hitler invaded Poland
  • June, 1940, France fell
  • Summer-fall, 1940, Battle of Britain (bombing)
  • June, 1941, Hitler invaded USSR (mistake)
  • Dec. 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor, U.S. entered war

4
From Isolationism to War
  • American criticism of WWI, merchants of death
    1935 Neutrality Act
  • cash-and-carry law
  • America First movement

5
From Isolationism to War
  • Charles Lindbergh and others sympathetic to Nazis
  • But FDR and many Americans sympathized with
    Britain and Allies pressure to join war
  • Changed laws to allow trade with allies
  • Lend-lease, Jan. 1941, allowed arming of Allies,
    moving U.S. closer to participation
  • Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1941 united Americans in
    entering and winning war

6
Fighting the War Basics
  • Allies, Big Three (U.S., GB, USSR) France and
    China
  • FDR, Churchill, Stalin Big Three Leaders
  • Strained relations over war aims and strategy
  • Axis (Germany, Italy, Japan)
  • Hitler, Mussolini, Emperor Hirohito/Military
    leaders
  • Two Wars Europe and Pacific
  • War in Europe
  • USSR vs. Germany, 1941, the Eastern Front
  • Allies entered Europe through Africa/Italy first
    (1942/43)
  • Then D-Day invasion at Normandy on French coast
    (1944), push towards Berlin
  • V-E Day, May 8, 1945

7
Fighting the War Basics
  • War in the Pacific naval, air, jungle combat
  • Japanese empire throughout Pacific
  • Midway naval battles U.S. victories in 1942
    halted Japanese advance on Australia and hurt
    Japanese navy
  • Island-hopping towards Japanese islands
  • Guadalcanal, 1942-1943
  • Iwo Jima and Okinawa, 1943
  • Fire-bombing of Tokyo, Spring 1945
  • Predictions of mass slaughter if U.S. invaded
    Japanese homeland
  • August 6 and 9, atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima
    and Nagasaki Japan surrendered shortly after

8
The Big Three
9
Expanded Govt. Power
  • Similar to WWI experience
  • Dollar-a-year men, corp. leaders, guaranteed
    profits
  • Bigness a benefit large bureaucracies and
    businesses favored for high productivity top
    100 comp. from 30 (1940) to 70 (1945)
  • WPB powerful, contracts, conversion, control
  • OPA controlled consumer prices
  • Paying for war taxes, debt, bonds
  • Military drafted 31 million men half failed

10
Idealism of Allies
  • FDRs Four Freedoms
  • Atlantic Charter U.S. and GB war a fight for
    freedom, free trade, collective security,
    national self-determination
  • Music of Popular Front
  • Aaron Copland
  • George Gershwin
  • Woody Guthrie
  • Big Band

11
Four Freedoms
12
Four Freedoms
13
Mobilization at Home Unity and Sacrifice
14
Mobilizing Workers Creating an Arsenal of
Democracy
  • Labor shortage women, blacks entered workforce,
    industrial jobs, moved north
  • Workers continued to join unions during war
  • Gained higher wages and income
  • NWLB handled disputes
  • Labors no-strike pledge for war
  • Tension and strikes disputes over wages vs.
    corp. profits led UMW to strike in 1943

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22
Problems of WWII War as Crucible
  • War challenged nation and people to define
    themselves ideals, who belonged, goals
  • Problems of race and racism
  • Inclusion or exclusion of immigrants
  • Economic and social equality equal sacrifice
    for war effort?
  • War goals and methods do they fit with national
    ideals?
  • Long-term effects of war on society

23
Good War, Race War?
  • Rationale for WWII as Good War
  • As framed by FDR, WWII was a fight for freedom,
    against tyranny
  • A war against fascism, racial superiority
  • Continuation and completion of New Deal
  • Fight for economic and racial liberalism at home
    and abroad
  • Holocaust made war even more just fascism was
    evil, based on racial superiority and cleansing

24
A War of Possibilities Racial and Economic
Liberalism
  • Economic Liberalism Social and economic
    equality (The Four Freedoms)
  • Equality of sacrifice in wartime (fair wages and
    profits)
  • Racial Equality Incorporation of blacks and
    immigrants into nation the right to fight, to
    be patriotic, to join the nation
  • Racial Equality Ability of all Americans to
    serve country and gain benefits of service

25
Racial Liberalism During War
26
WWII Civil Rights Realities
  • Fight for equality at home and in war effort
  • Black newspapers and organizations Double V
    campaign war against fascism abroad AND racism
    at home
  • FEPC created in 1941 after A. Philip Randolphs
    threat of March on Washington equal opportunity
  • U.S. armed forces segregated throughout war, even
    in other countries
  • War as hothouse for civil rights
  • Disappointments of wartime experience led to
    black mobilization of 1950s and 1960s
  • Women reluctant to return home after war-work,
    fought 1950s domestic culture
  • Gays became less isolated, found others, organized

27
WWII Civil Rights Realities
  • Tendency towards suspicion and conformity on the
    home front
  • Private Snafu films
  • Problems of racism at home and abroad
  • Conflict between war aims and realities of racism
    in U.S. society and military
  • Discrimination against black Americans
    segregated armed forces, workplaces, lower pay
  • Japanese internment
  • Anti-Hispanic attacks in Los Angeles led to zoot
    suit riots
  • Racial war against Japanese

28
Double Victory over Racism
Band, The Ink Spots, supported Double V campaign
29
Legacy of Wartime Racism
  • Why no black soldiers in Saving Private Ryan?
  • Structural and legal
  • racism had long-term
  • effects
  • Segregated armed
  • forces, bases
  • Unable to prove
  • heroism/loyalty
  • Discouraged from
  • using G.I. Bill
  • G.I. housing loan
  • discrimination redlined black neighborhoods
  • Desegregated armed forces, in 1948 wars with
    black soldiers on front lines losses,
    dishonorable wars

30
Race War in the Pacific
  • War against Japanese diff. than war against
    Germans racism on both sides
  • History of white anti-Asian racism in U.S. and
    abroad (Chinese/Japanese exclusion, Filipino war)
  • Japanese internment within U.S.
  • Japs portrayed as particularly sneaky (rats)
    and bloodthirsty
  • Racial aspect, along w/ nature of jungle combat,
    led to atrocities on both sides
  • Take no prisoners
  • Taking of souvenirs (body parts, skulls)
  • Would U.S. have used atomic bomb against the
    Germans?

31
Anti-Japanese Propaganda
32
Anti-Japanese Propaganda
33
Anti-Japanese Propaganda
34
Ethics and Morality of War
  • The Good War?
  • Effects of WWII military tactics and culture on
    later U.S. and world history?
  • German and Japanese war machines, atrocities on
    civilians
  • Nazis, Guernica, bombing of London, Holocaust
  • Japanese, Rape of Nanking, kamikaze, enslavement
  • Methods of war
  • mass mechanized war
  • targeting of civilians
  • inciting terror and demoralization
  • U.S. bombing of non-military civilian German
    targets Dresden (Vonneguts Slaughterhouse Five)
  • U.S. intentional firebombing of Tokyo ¼ of city
    burned
  • U.S. use of atomic bombs

35
Summary Questions
  • Why did U.S. join WWII?
  • How did it win the war?
  • What was life like on the home front?
  • What ideals did U.S. support and oppose during
    the war?
  • Did WWII remake U.S. society?
  • Did the U.S. live up to its ideals during WWII?
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