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Aftermath of World War II

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Aftermath of World War II Describe the issues faced by the Allies after World War II ended. Summarize the organization of the United Nations. Analyze how new ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aftermath of World War II


1
Aftermath of World War II
2
Objectives
  • Describe the issues faced by the Allies after
    World War II ended.
  • Summarize the organization of the United Nations.
  • Analyze how new conflicts developed among the
    former Allies after World War II.

3
Terms and People
  • Nuremberg city in Germany where Nazi war crimes
    trials were held
  • United Nations (UN) the body of nations formed
    to promote world peace
  • Cold War state of tension and hostility between
    the United States and its allies and the Soviet
    Union and its allies rarely resulted in direct
    armed conflict
  • Truman Doctrine the policy of limiting
    communism to the areas already under Soviet
    control

4
Terms and People (continued)
  • Marshall Plan massive aid package that funneled
    food and economic assistance to Europe to help
    with rebuilding after World War II
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) a
    military alliance among several North Atlantic
    states to safeguard them from the presumed threat
    of the Soviet Unions communist bloc
  • Warsaw Pact the Soviet Unions military
    alliance with seven satellite nations in Eastern
    Europe

5
What issues arose in the aftermath of World War
II and how did new tensions develop?
As many as 50 million people had been killed in
World War II. After it ended, the Allies faced
difficult decisions about the future. The United
Nations was formed as a peacekeeping and
humanitarian group. The U.S. Marshall Plan
offered aid in rebuilding Europe. But the Soviet
Union and the West quickly developed into
worldwide rivalsthe beginning of the Cold War.

6
Estimated Casualties of World War II
Military Dead Military Wounded Civilian Dead
Allies Allies Allies Allies
Britain 264,000 277,000 93,000
France 213,000 400,000 350,000
China 1,310,000 1,753,000 1,000,000
Soviet Union 7,500,000 14,012,000 15,000,000
United States 292,000 672,000 6,000
Axis Powers Axis Powers Axis Powers Axis Powers
Germany 3,500,000 5,000,000 780,000
Italy 242,000 66,000 153,000
Japan 1,300,000 4,000,000 672,000
7
In 1945, Germany, Japan, China, the Soviet Union,
and other countries were in ruins.
  • Cities, factories, harbors, bridges, and
    railroads were destroyed.
  • More than twenty million refugees wandered
    through Europe.
  • Hunger, disease, and mental illness were rampant.

The Allies needed to help these devastated
countries.
8
  • The full extent of the inhumanity of the
    Holocaust was revealed.
  • At the Nuremberg trials, a number of Nazi leaders
    were tried for war crimes and sentenced to death.
    Similar trials were held in Japan.
  • The Allies built new democratic governments in
    Germany and Japan to promote tolerance and peace.

After the war, the horrors committed by the Axis
powers became apparent to the world.
9
The United Nations was another attempt to promote
peace.
  • In April 1945, delegates from 50 nations met to
    form a United Nations charter.
  • Each nation had one vote. However, the five
    permanent members of the Security Councilthe
    United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain,
    France, and Chinacould veto any decision.
  • The UN was given the authority to back up its
    resolutions with economic sanctions or send a
    peacekeeping military force.

10
Plans for world peace did not go smoothly as
conflicts developed between the former Allies.
The United States and Britain wanted Stalin to
honor his promise to hold free elections in
Soviet-occupied Eastern Europe.
Conflicting ideologies and mutual distrust soon
led to the Cold War.
11
By 1948, pro-Soviet communist governments were
ruling in Eastern Europe, backed by the Red Army.
12
  • The Marshall Plan provided food and economic
    assistance to decimated countries.
  • Truman hoped the Marshall Plan would strengthen
    democratic governments.
  • Stalin refused the aid and forbade Eastern
    European countries to accept aid.

The United States helped relieve postwar hunger
and poverty in Western Europe.
13
Germany became a focus of the Cold War.
  • Western Allies united their zones of control and
    extended the Marshall Plan.
  • The Soviets were furious at Western efforts to
    rebuild the German economy.
  • Stalin held on to East Germany.

14
  • In an effort to drive Western powers out of
    Berlin, Stalin blocked delivery of supplies to
    the parts of the city they controlled in June
    1948.
  • The United States and Britain organized the
    Berlin Airlift to drop food and supplies into
    West Berlin.
  • After more than a year, Stalin was forced to end
    the blockade.

Hungry Berlin residents greet planes delivering
supplies during the Berlin Airlift.
15
As tensions grew, two competing military
alliances took shape.
Twelve countries, including the United States and
nations in Western Europe, formed NATO. Members
pledged to defend one another against Soviet
attack.
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