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Lecture 1a Causes of World War II From a World Perspective

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Lecture 1a Causes of World War II From a World Perspective (A review of Last Year s History) Before WWI The Harshness of the Treaty of Versailles Embittered ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lecture 1a Causes of World War II From a World Perspective


1
Lecture 1a Causes of World War II From a
World Perspective
  • (A review of Last Years History)

2
Harsh Punishment of Germany
  • German Surrender Terms ? The Treaty of Versailles
  • required to admit total blame for starting WWI
  • To pay for the total cost of WWI, including homes
    and factories destroyed ammunition uniforms
    and pensions for Allied soldiers. When the treaty
    was signed, estimates for reparations were as
    high as 30 billion (1918 dollars)
  • limit the size of their army and turn their naval
    fleet over to the Allies.
  • Germany lost all of its colonies and even some of
    its border lands

3
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4
Other Territorial Changes
  • Austria-Hungary, Germanys chief ally in WWI,
    was divided into four independent nations
    Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia
  • Five other independent nations were established
    along Germanys border with the Soviet Union to
    prevent the spread of communism Poland, Finland,
    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
  • Everyone (WWI allies and WWI Central Powers) was
    freaked out by Communism, which called for an end
    to private wealth

5
Before WWI
After WWI
6
International Organizations Established
  • Two international peacekeeping organizations
    were established by the treaty the League of
    Nations and the World Court.
  • League member countries were obligated to assist
    one another in stopping international aggression.
  • The World Court was set up to mediate disputes
    between countries.

7
The Harshness of the Treaty of Versailles
Embittered European Relations for a Generation
  • In 1923 France invaded part of Germany to force
    payment of reparations
  • In 1932 Germany turned to Hitler and the Nazi
    party based on the partys promise to violate the
    terms of the Treaty of Versailles and to return
    honor to Germany
  • In the mid 30s Hitler began to act on his
    aggressive promises
  • Remilitarized
  • Invaded Austria and then other countries
  • Mussolini, the Italian dictator who Hitlers
    modeled himself on, became the follower, copying
    Hitlers aggressive policies
  • Attacked Ethiopia

8
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9
Totalitarianism ? Fascism v Communism
  • Totalitarianism
  • A government that seeks total control over all
    aspects of life
  • Uses technology to ensure this
  • Has a great and radical goal for the country
  • Fascist Totalitarianism v Communism
    Totalitarianism
  • Fascist
  • Germany and Italy
  • Based on superiority of nation and race
  • Goal ? purify race and expand
  • Communist
  • Russian/Soviet
  • Based on the superiority of the working class
  • Goal ? destroy class and expand
  • In practice, the societies created by each were
    similar
  • Propaganda and censorship
  • Dictatorship
  • Aggressiveness
  • No natural rights

10
Lecture 1b Causes of World War II From a U.S.
Perspective
11
U.S. Reaction to Treaty of Versailles
12
America Returns to Isolationism
  • Do we remember why?
  • Congress feared losing its power to declare war
    to the League of Nations.
  • Americans feared being pulled into another
    European/World War.

13
Trouble Brewed in Europe, Especially in the 30s,
but the U.S. mostly ignored it
14
Why Ignore the Rise of Fascism in Europe?
  • In the 1930s, the U.S. had a few other issues
    going on
  • GREAT DEPRESSION!!!
  • Dust bowl
  • Fight over New Deal
  • Etc.

15
Without the Aid of the U.S., the WWI allies
(Britain and France) followed a policy of
Appeasement
  • Appeasement- giving in to a bully to avoid a
    fight
  • Dont forget, the Great Depression had spread to
    England and France, too

16
The U.S. Could Not Stay Completely Isolated ?
Growing Troubles with Japan
  • Japan was the most advanced non-western (think
    non-European or non-white) nation in the
    world
  • They were growing tired of being mistreated by
    the west
  • Example ? no racial equality clause in Treaty of
    Versailles
  • Japan dreamed of building a Pacific Empire to
    become a first rate power
  • The U.S. viewed the Pacific as their Sphere of
    Influence (think ? Open Door Policy)
  • Japan, inspired by the boldness and successes of
    the Germans and Italians, shifted towards
    Totalitarianism/ Fascism

17
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18
Causes of WWII
What were the causes of WWII?
Treaty of Versailles
Aggression
Appeasement
19
German bitterness over the loss of WWI and the
harsh punishments of the treaty
Treaty of Versailles
Aggression
Totalitarian leaders tried to deal with the
problems of the 1920s and 1930s by seeking
conquest and revenge
Appeasement
Democratic nations decided not to challenge
Totalitarian Aggression, hoping to deal with
other problems and avoid another terrible world
war.
20
Hansen Name ___________________ U.S.
History Period __________________ Causes
of World War II
  • Lecture 1a ? From a World Perspective
  • ___________ of Germany
  • German Surrender Terms ? The Treaty of Versailles
  • required to admit total __________________________
  • To _______________________ , including homes and
    factories destroyed ammunition uniforms and
    pensions for Allied soldiers. When the treaty was
    signed, estimates for ___________ were as high as
    _____________ (1918 dollars)
  • ____________________________________________
    ____________________________________________
  • Germany lost all of its colonies and even
    ___________ ______________________________________
    ______
  • Other Territorial Changes
  • _____________________ , Germanys chief ally in
    WWI, was divided into four independent nations
    Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, and
    ________________________
  • Five other independent nations were established
    along Germanys border ___________________________
    ____ to prevent __________________________________
    __ Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and
    Lithuania
  • Everyone (__________ and ____________________)
    was freaked out by Communism, which called for
    ____ ____________________________________________
  • International Organizations Established
  • Two international ________________________________
    ___ by the treaty the League of Nations and the
    World Court.
  • League member countries were ____________________
    ___ ______________________________________________
    ___.
  • The World Court was set up ______________________
    __ between countries.
  • The Harshness of the Treaty of Versailles
    Embittered European Relations for a Generation
  • In 1923 France ___________________________________
    _ ________________________________________________
    _
  • In 1932 Germany turned to ________________________
    ___ on the partys promise to ____________________
    _ of the Treaty of Versailles and
    ____________________ to Germany
  • In the mid 30s Hitler began to act on his
    aggressive promises
  • Mussolini, the Italian dictator who Hitlers
    modeled himself on, ______________________________
    ____ ___________________________________________
  • Attacked _______________
  • Totalitarianism ? Communism v Fascism
  • Totalitarianism
  • A government that seeks __________________
    _________________________________________
  • Uses technology to ensure this
  • Has a great and radical ______________________
  • Fascist Totalitarianism v Communism
    Totalitarianism
  • Fascist
  • _________________________________
  • Based on superiority of ________________
  • Goal ? ____________________________
  • Communist
  • ________________________________
  • Based on the superiority of _____________
    ___________________________________
  • Goal ? ____________________________
  • In practice, the societies created by each were
    similar
  • _________________________________
  • Dictatorship

21
  • Without the Aid of the U.S., the WWI allies
    (Britain and France) followed a policy of
    Appeasement
  • Appeasement- ____________________________________
    ________________________________________________
  • Dont forget, the Great Depression had
    ________________ _________________________________
    _______________
  • The U.S. Could Not Stay Completely Isolated ?
    ______________ ________________________
  • Japan was the _________________________________
    (think non-European or non-white)
    ___________________
  • They were growing tired of being
    ______________________
  • Example ? ________________________________ in
    Treaty of Versailles
  • Japan dreamed of building a ______________________
    ____ _____________________________________________
    ____
  • The U.S. viewed the Pacific as their
    __________________ ______________ (think ?
    __________________________)
  • Japan, inspired by the ___________________________
    ____ _____________________ , shifted towards
    ______________ _______________________________
  • Causes of World War II
  • Treaty of Versailles - ___________________________
    __________ _______________________________________
    __________
  • Aggression - _____________________________________
    ______ ___________________________________________
    ______
  • Appeasement - ____________________________________
    ______ ___________________________________________
    ______
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