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World War II

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World War II 1939-1945 I. Dictators Rise To Power A. Treaty of Versailles- created depression in Europe and resentment in Germany. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War II


1
World War II
  • 1939-1945

2
I. Dictators Rise To Power
  • A. Treaty of Versailles-
  • created depression in Europe and
    resentment in Germany. Countries were
    economically ruined and people feared
    Communism in the East.

3
I. Dictators Rise To Power
  • B. New Leaders
  • Leaders promised a bright future for their
    people and blamed others.
  • Benito Mussolini-Italy-Fascist Party

4
I. Dictators Rise To Power
  • B. New Leaders
  • Adolf Hitler-Germany-Nazi Party
  • Hitler believed in a "master race" of
    Germans and used secret police and the
    military to control and manipulate the people.

5
I. Dictators Rise To Power
  • B. New Leaders
  • After gaining support, these leaders became
    aggressive.

6
I. Dictators Rise To Power
  • C. Territorial Invasions
  • Japan invaded Manchuria
  • Hitler militarized the Rhineland

7
II. American Position
  • A. Good Neighbor Policy-continued in the face a
    new developments. Many Americans promoted
    isolationism.
  • -Congress passed the Neutrality Acts to keep
    the United States out of armed conflicts.

8
II. American Position
  • B. Roosevelt Challenges Isolationism
  • -Japan continued actions in China and the
    U.S. supported China with arms and funds to
    rebuild.
  • -Roosevelt wanted to "quarantine" the
    aggressors.

9
III. Hitler Marches in Europe
  • A. New Acquisitions
  • -March 11, 1938-Hitler annexed Austria
    saying that he was helping Germans in the
    country.
  • -March 1939-Hitler forced Czechoslovakia to
    agree to annexation.

10
III. Hitler Marches in Europe
  • B. Reactions
  • Munich Pact-Allowed Hitler to invade the
    Sudetenland if he would stop there.
  • Neville Chamberlain proclaimed that we
    had preserved peace in our time.

11
III. Hitler Marches in Europe
  • B. Reactions
  • Appeasement-France and Britain had adopted
    the policy of giving in to Hitler's demands to
    avoid war.
  • Hitler broke his promise and took over all
    of Czechoslovakia.

12
IV. Timeline of Axis Aggression
  • Axis Powers
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • wanted to be the center of the world

13
IV. Timeline of Axis Aggression
  • 1931-1932-Japan invaded and conquered Manchuria
  • 1935-Italy invaded and annexed Ethiopia
  • 1935-1936-Germany violated Treaty of
    Versailles with conscription and
    remilitarizing the Rhineland

14
IV. Timeline of Axis Aggression
  • 1936-1939-Germany and Italy aided Francisco
    Franco in the Spanish Civil War
  • 1937-Japan conquered Chinese coastal areas
  • 1938-Hitler invaded and annexed Austria to
    protect German speaking people

15
IV. Timeline of Axis Aggression
  • 1938-Munich Pact-France and Britain allowed
    Hitler to take the Sudetenland if he would
    demand no more territory. 6 months later,
    he broke his promise and took all of
    Czechoslovakia.
  • 1939-Mussolini invaded and annexed Albania

16
IV. Timeline of Axis Aggression
  • 1939-Germany signed the Non-Aggression Pact
    with Russia saying that Russia would not
    interfere in Poland if Germany wouldn't
    interfere in the Baltic states.
  • Sept. 1, 1939-Germany invaded Poland, France
    Britain declared war on Germany, starting WWII

17
IV. Timeline of Axis Aggression
  • Long Range Causes of WWII
  • 1. Dictatorships
  • 2. Militarism
  • 3. Nationalism
  • 4. Imperialism
  • 5. Failure of Appeasement

18
V. Early Action of the War
  • A. German Successes
  • 1. Germany unleashed blitzkrieg warfare
    (lightning war). Quick and effective
    coordination of all parts of he military.
  • 2. Germany rolled through Poland and easily
    took Denmark Norway to secure naval bases.

19
V. Early Action of the War
  • A. German Successes
  • 3. Germany invaded France through Belgium
    the Netherlands. Nazi armies easily defeated
    the Allies and France surrendered. Germany
    set up a puppet government in the south at
    Vichy and occupied the north.

20
V. Early Action of the War
  • A. German Successes
  • 4. Germany bombed Great Britain for 3 months
    to soften the island's defenses for invasion.
    The British air force claimed victory in
    this Battle of Britain when Hitler chose to
    postpone his invasion of Britain.

21
V. Early Action of the War
  • B. U.S. Actions
  • 1. Lend-Lease Act-1941-President could lend or
    lease goods to anyone whose defense was vital
    to the United States.
  • 2. U.S. imposed embargo on Japan and froze all
    Japanese assets in the U.S.

22
V. Early Action of the War
  • C. 2 Mistakes made by the Axis Powers
  • 1. Germany invaded Russia-June 22, 1941- Hitler
    violated the non-aggression pact and invaded
    hoping to control oil and mineral resources.
    Russia proved to be a strong enemy with millions
    of troops. Stalin foiled Hitler's invasion.
  • Known as Operation Barbarossa.

23
V. Early Action of the War
  • C. 2 Mistakes made by the Axis Powers
  • 2. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor-Dec. 7,
    1941-Japanese General Tojo launched a surprise
    attack on the naval base hoping to preserve
    their empire in the Pacific. The Japanese
    underestimated the power of the United States.

24
Pearl Harbor
  • December 7, 1941-Japanese wanted to buy some time
    to strengthen their position. Our fleet in
    Hawaii was a threat to their dominance of the
    Pacific islands.
  • Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto said "I fear
    all we have done is to awaken a
    sleeping giant and fill him with a
    terrible resolve."
  • Japanese reaction "We won a great tactical
    victory at Pearl Harbor and thereby lost the war."

25
Pearl Harbor
  • American Results
  • All together the Japanese sank or severely
    damaged 18 ships, including 8 battleships, 3
    light cruisers, and 3 destroyers. On the
    airfields the Japanese destroyed 161 American
    planes and seriously damaged 102.
  • U.S casualties 2403 dead, 1178 wounded

26
Pearl Harbor
  • American Results
  • 16 Congressional Medals of Honor,
  • 51 Navy Crosses, 53 Silver Crosses,
  • 4 Navy and Marine Corps Medals,
  • 1 Distinguished Flying Cross,
  • 4 Distinguished Service Crosses,
  • 1 Distinguished Service Medal, and
  • 3 Bronze Stars were awarded to the American
    servicemen who distinguished themselves

27
Pearl Harbor
  • American Results
  • Franklin Roosevelt called it a date which will
    live in infamy.

28
VI. War on the Homefront
  • A. Economy
  • 1. Agencies were created to coordinate war
    production in factories.
  • 2. Government regulated prices and rationed
    some supplies.
  • 3. War cost 330 billion-income taxes
    increased and war bonds were sold.

29
WWII Posters
30
VI. War on the Homefront
  • A. Economy
  • 1. Agencies were created to coordinate war
    production in factories.
  • 2. Government regulated prices and rationed
    some supplies.
  • 3. War cost 330 billion-income taxes
    increased and war bonds were sold.

31
VI. War on the Homefront
  • B. Civil Liberties
  • 1. No laws were passed to restrict freedom
    of speech or press.
  • 2. Japanese Americans were feared and forced
    to "relocation" centers, aka interment camps.

32
VII. War Comes to an End
  • A. Victory in Europe
  • 1. Battle of El Alamein-1942-British defeated
    Germans in North Africa leading to full Allied
    invasion of Africa and Italy.
  • 2. Battle of Stalingrad-1942-Russians
    defeated the German army of 300,000.

33
VII. War Comes to an End
  • A. Victory in Europe
  • 3. Operation Overlord-June 6, 1944
    (D- Day)-Cross-channel invasion by the Allies
    into northern France. Allied forces recaptured
    Paris and drove the Germans to Berlin.

34
VII. War Comes to an End
  • A. Victory in Europe
  • Yalta Conference-Feb. 1945, Stalin, Churchill,
    and FDR met to discuss the end of the war. They
    agreed to divide, occupy, and denazify Germany.
    Critics said that too much was given
    to Russia. They were basically
    allowed to control Eastern
    Europe.

35
VII. War Comes to an End
  • The Death of Franklin Roosevelt
  • President Roosevelt died April 12, 1945 from a
    cerebral hemorrhage.
  • Harry Truman becomes president only 82 days after
    being elected VP. FDR was president for 12
    years.

36
VII. War Comes to an End
  • A. Victory in Europe
  • 4. Surrender-Hitler committed suicide and
    Germany surrendered-May 8, 1945-(V-E Day)
  • Potsdam Conference-July 17, 1945-Leaders agreed
    to direction of postwar Germany and all dedicated
    to the unconditional surrender of Japan.

37
VII. War Comes to an End
5 Marines and 1 Navy Corpsman raise the flag atop
Mount Suribachi
  • B. Victory in the Pacific
  • 1. Japanese successes were stopped at the
    Battle of the Coral Sea and at the Battle of
    Midway. (1942)
  • 2. Allies used "island-hopping" recapturing
    the Phillipines, Guam, Iwo Jima, etc. The
    Japanese lost 20,000 of their 22,000 soldiers
    defending Iwo Jima. The U.S. casualties were
    26,000 dead or wounded.

38
VII. War Comes to an End
  • B. Victory in the Pacific
  • 3. U.S. dropped 2 atomic bombs 1 on Hiroshima
    and 1 on Nagasaki. The devastation forced the
    surrender of Japan. September 2, 1945 (V-J Day)

39
VII. War Comes to an End
  • Facts about the Atomic Bombs
  • -The Manhattan Project was the government program
    headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer that
    developed the weapons.
  • -The two bombs were known as Little Boy and
    Fat Man

40
VII. War Comes to an End
  • Facts about the Atomic Bombs
  • -The plane that dropped the first bomb,
    Little Boy was named The Enola
    Gay.
  • -The bombs killed over 200,000 people on or just
    after the days of explosion.

41
VII. War Comes to an End
  • Facts about the Atomic Bombs
  • Nagasaki Memorial at the Hypocentre (the center
    of the explosion)

42
VIII. Results of the War
  • A. Changes in Warfare
  • 1. Total war-civilians of countries
    participated in any way possible.
  • 2. Global war-60 nations involved on 3
    continents.
  • 3. Technology-radar, guided missiles, jets,
    atom bombs, new medicines.
  • 4. Airplanes-air combat became essential to
    warfare.

43
VIII. Results of the War
  • B. Economic Costs
  • 1. War cost billions of dollars and ruined
    economies.
  • C. Social Costs
  • 1. 22 million dead 34 million wounded
  • 2. Millions of refugees left their home
    countries
  • 3. Genocide-Hitler's racial policies including
    the extermination of over 6 million Jews in
    concentration camps throughout Europe.

44
VIII. Results of the War
  • The Holocaust
  • Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party sent millions
    of European Jews to concentration camps all over
    the continent.
  • Hitler believed that the Jews were
    untermencsh, (less than human), and blamed
    them for the failures of German society after
    WWI.

45
VIII. Results of the War
  • The Holocaust
  • Prisoners at these camps were mistreated,
    underfed, and diseased.
  • The prisoners were used as forced laborers for
    many German factories.
  • Nazi scientists also used the prisoners for
    experiments and scientific/psychological
    studies.

46
VIII. Results of the War
  • The Holocaust
  • The most notorious of these camps were
  • Dachau, Auschwitz, Bergen Belsen, Sobibor,
    Treblinka, Buchenwald, etc.
  • The Jewish population of Europe was devastated.
    Over 90 of all Jews in Poland, Austria,
    Hungary, Germany, and the Baltic States were
    executed.

47
VIII. Results of the War
  • The Holocaust
  • When Allied armies liberated these camps, they
    found some survivors and thousands of victims.

48
VIII. Results of the War
  • The Holocaust
  • Jews were not the only prisoners or victims.
    Anyone who was subversive or undesirable was
    sent to the camps.
  • These included Poles, Gypsies, handicapped,
    homosexuals, Soviet citizens, religious
    opponents, and political prisoners. Each had
    their own symbol to wear in the camps,
    designating what type of prisoner they were.

49
  • YellowJewish
  • Red
  • political prisoner
  • PinkHomosexual
  • Greencriminal
  • Blackasocial
  • BrownGypsies
  • Purple
  • Religious prisoner
  • Blueimmigrant,
  • forced labor

50
VIII. Results of the War
  • D. Political Costs
  • 1. Colonialism in Africa Asia declined as
    France and Britain lost power.
  • 2. Soviet Union acquired satellite states in
    Eastern Europe.
  • 3. United Nations was founded to keep world
    peace.
  • 4. Germany was divided into Communist East and
    Democratic West.

51
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52
VIII. Results of the War
  • D. Political Costs
  • 5. The United States and the Soviet Union
    emerged as superpowers.
  • 6. The Atomic Age began.

53
VIII. Results of the War
  • The Nuremberg Trials
  • Series of tribunals in which prominent members
    of the Nazi Party were prosecuted for their
    involvement in the war and crimes against
    humanity associated with the
    Holocaust.
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