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The Great War: World War I (1914-1918)

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The Great War: World War I (1914-1918) Notes Effects on Germany: 1.) Had to take full responsibility for starting the war and its destruction 2.) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Great War: World War I (1914-1918)


1
The Great War World War I(1914-1918)
2
DayQuest 1/6/14
  • What were the M.A.I.N causes of World War I?

3
Word Association
  • What is the first thing you think of when you see
    World War I?
  • Come up with an example that has not already been
    said.

4
World War I M.A.I.N Causes
  • Militarism (example Anglo-German naval race)
  • Alliances (Triple Alliance and Triple Entente)
  • Alliances change during war (Example Italy)
  • Imperialism (example Scramble for Africa)
  • A scramble for the Balkans
  • Nationalism (nationalism in Serbia)
  • Want to break free from Austria-Hungary

5
Notes
  • Militarism when a nation chooses to maintain a
    strong military (led to arms race)
  • Anglo-German naval race made Britain nervous
  • Triple Alliance
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
  • Triple Entente
  • Great Britain, France, and Russia

6
World War I Immediate Causes
  • Assassination of Austria-Hungary Archduke Franz
    Ferdinand (June 28th 1914) in Sarajevo, Bosnia

7
Why was Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated?
  • Shot by Gavrilo Princip, a 19-year-old Serbian
    nationalist. (Black Hand member)
  • Wanted to free Serbia from Austria-Hungary.
  • What B of nationalism does this represent?

8
Notes
  • Serbia wanted to break free from Austria-Hungary
  • Black Hand military secret society composed of
    Serbians that wanted independence

9
Word War I Combatants (Major Players)
  • Central Powers
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
  • Allies
  • Britain (UK)
  • France
  • Russia
  • Japan
  • United States (after 1917)

10
Review
  • List the members of the Central Powers and the
    Allied Powers.
  • Central Powers
  • Allied Powers

11
World War I Style of Warfare
  • Trench warfare
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vFvYIIuxh2kY

12
DayQuest (1/7/14)
  • What were three new technologies used during
    World War I?

13
World War I Style of Warfare
  • Chemical Warfare (Poison gas)
  • Mustard Gas
  • (harass disable enemy, pollute the battlefield)

14
World War I Style of Warfare
  • Application of new technology to war
  • Machine gun
  • Tank
  • Submarine
  • Airplane

15
Videos
  • WWI Tanks
  • http//videos.howstuffworks.com/military-channel/7
    048-top-ten-tanks-the-ww1-tank-video.htm
  • Dogfight Video
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vlnW_M5Qb7mw

16
DayQuest 1/8/14
  • What were three difficulties that World War I
    soldiers faced in the trenches?

17
World War I Style of Warfare
  • Major fighting on the Western and Eastern Fronts
  • Militarism
  • Alliances

18
Map Activity
  • Complete the map activity of Europe in 1914 and
    answer the corresponding questions.

19
World War I Nature of the War
  • Destruction strategies used when combined with
    the technology led to incredibly destructive
    battles on both the Eastern and Western fronts
    (and elsewhere) in terms of human toll,
    infrastructure, and agricultural land

20
Video
  • Joyeux Noel - Christmas Peace
  • The Christmas Truce 1914

21
World War I Nature of the War
  • How do you think the war influenced government
    involvement in the economy and society?
  • How do you think the war influenced women?

22
Notes
  • Increased government involvement war required
    governments to become more involved in the
    economy and society than they had previously been
  • Women women took on new jobs when the men left
    to fight on the fronts. Demanded suffrage (right
    to vote) in exchange for role they played in the
    war.

23
World War I Final Years of the War
  • The United States joined the war (1917)
  • Russia pulled out of war due to the Russian
    Revolution (1917)
  • Central powers launched a major offensive in the
    summer of 1918, but it eventually failed
  • Armistice Germany agreed to a cease fire,
    November 11, 1918
  • Preparations were made for the Paris Peace
    Conference

24
DayQuest 1/9/14
  • What were two events that caused the U.S. to
    enter WWI?

25
U.S. Entry into WWI
  • Sinking of Lusitania
  • Sinking of a British passenger ship that carried
    U.S. citizens by German U-boats(submarines)
  • Angered many Americans and increased public
    support for U.S. entry into the war against
    Central powers

26
Sinking of the Lusitania
  • Of the 1,959 people on board, 1,198 died,
    including 128 Americans.

27
U.S. Entry into WWI
  • Zimmerman Telegram
  • Telegram from Germany to Mexico asking them to
    support Germany and invade the United States. In
    exchange, Germany offered New Mexico, Texas, and
    Arizona
  • U.S. took this as a direct threat to national
    security and decided to enter the war and oppose
    Germany

28
WWI Questions
  • List examples of propaganda that brought the U.S.
    into the war.
  • Why do you think these were effective?

29
DayQuest 1/10/14
  • What were the four major provisions in the Treaty
    of Versailles (1919)?

30
World War I Paris Peace Conference
  • Held in Paris and led by the Big Four
  • Georges Clemenceau (France)
  • David Lloyd George (Britain)
  • Woodrow Wilson (U.S.)
  • Vittorio Orlando (Italy)

31
World War I Paris Peace Conference
  • Wilson brought his Fourteen Points to Paris a
    plan to prevent war in the future
  • Called for self-determination of peoples
    (nationalism)
  • Called for freedom of the seas
  • Called for an end to secret treaties
  • Called for a return of Alsace-Lorraine to France
    and an independent Poland
  • Called for a League of Nations countries would
    work together to prevent war

32
World War I Treaty of Versailles (1919)
  • Background
  • Most important treaty at Paris Peace Conference
  • Between victor states (but not the U.S.) and
    Germany
  • Germany not allowed to participate in
    negotiations forced to sign treaty of Versailles
    under threat of returning to war

33
World War I Treaty of Versailles (1919)
  • Major Provisions
  • War guilt clause Germany had to bear moral
    responsibility for starting the war and causing
    all the death and destruction (Article 231)
  • Reparations Germany forced to pay reparations
    (payments in money)
  • Germany demilitarized (no navy and an army no
    larger than 100,000 people)
  • Germany lost its colonies to mandates held by
    victor powers

34
Notes
  • Effects on Germany
  • 1.) Had to take full responsibility for starting
    the war and its destruction
  • 2.) Had to pay reparations (Money)
  • 3.) Had to cut their arms (No navy and army no
    bigger than 100,000)
  • 4.)Lost colonies

35
World War I Treaty of Versailles (1919)
  • League of Nations created (rough draft of
    United Nations)
  • Germany not allowed to be a member (eventually
    allowed to join in the 1920s)
  • U.S. chooses not to join

36
Notes
  • League of Nations organization created to
    maintain peace and prevent another World War.

37
  • Who is the nation represented on the left?
  • Do you think that the peace terms at the
    conclusion of WWI were fair?

38
DayQuest 1/13/14
  • What were three major effects of WWI?

39
World War I Consequences and Results
  • 9.5 million people dead (the so-called Lost
    Generation)
  • Poem In Flanders Field
  • Believed to be written by Lieutenant Colonel John
    McCrae

40
World War I Consequences and Results
  • Four Empires destroyed
  • German
  • Russian
  • Ottoman
  • Austrian
  • New states created in Eastern Europe (see maps)

41
Europe Pre WWI
42
Europe Post WWI
43
Map Question
  • List nine new nations created as a result of
    World War I.

44
World War I Consequences and Results
  • Contributed to economic instability after World
    War I
  • German inflation of 1923-1924
  • Great Depression (1929-1939)
  • Contributed to the rise in totalitarian states
    after World War I
  • Fascist Italy (Mussolini)
  • Fascist Nazi Germany (Hitler)
  • Fascist Spain (Franco)
  • Eventually leads to World War II

45
World War I Consequences and Results
  • Contributed to rise of nationalism in European
    colonies
  • Women gained the right to vote in Britain,
    France, Germany, and the United States
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