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Ancient Rome

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Title: Ancient Rome


1
Ancient Rome
2
Why study Rome?
  • The founders hoped that, in America, we would
    see these virtues of ancient Rome, and they knew
    that under such a constitution the United States
    would grow into an empire. They already spoke of
    a rising empire of America. They hoped that Rome
    of the republic would be our enduring model, but
    they feared, and rightly so, that one day,
    perhaps today, our model would be Rome of the
    Caesars, Rome of the first and second centuries
    A.D. For Rome of the Caesars and the United
    States today are the only two absolute
    superpowers that have existed in history.
  • J. Rufus Fears
  • University of Oklahoma Ph.D., Harvard University

3
Road networks
4
Public monuments
5
Circus Maximus
6
Coliseum
7
Senate - Parliament
8
Emperor
9
Architecture
10
Assassination
11
Law
12
Empire
13
Slaves
14
Army
15
Gladiators
16
Language
inhabit legion linguistics lunatic manual medieva
l neutral normal oratorical paternity plebeian rid
iculous scientific senate sinuous territory vacant
verbatim
  • ambulatory amicable animate annual aquatic auditor
    ium aviation calorie carnivore casual circumferenc
    e colossal consul contemporary corporation deity d
    omination egotist equinox fatuous
    fortify function

17
Historical development
  • Colonization Greeks/Phoenicians/Etruscans/Latins
  • Etruscan domination
  • 509 BCE Defeat of the Etruscans Tarquin the
    Proud, establishment of the Republic
  • 450 BCE 12 Tables Law established
  • 295 BCE Rome conquers the Etrurians, Po Valley
  • 265 146 BCE Challenge to power the Punic Wars
    I,II,III
  • 82 BCE - Consolidation of power Social War,
    Sulla wins, Empire begins
  • 59 BCE - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon,
    elected consul
  • 44 BCE Caesar assassinated
  • 30 - 180 CE expansion of Empire Pax Romana
  • 180 CE Death of Marcus Aurelius
  • 305 CE Death of Diocletian and the beginning of
    the Decline
  • 306 CE Constantine establishes new capital at
    Byzantium empire splits
  • 337 CE Conversion of Constantine
  • 390 CE first sack of Rome - Celts
  • 410 CE second sack of Rome Goths
  • 480 CE last western Roman emperor dies
  • 1607 establishment of first colonial town at
    Jamestown Virginia
  • 1759 End of French-Indian Wars Britain wins
    colonial competition
  • 1776 Declaration of Independance
  • 1865 Challenge to domination Civil War
  • 1896 Spanish American War Monroe Doctrine
  • 1929 1st Great Depression
  • 1963 Assassination of JFK
  • 2009 2nd Great Depression ???

18
Rome
  • Centered at the capital of Rome
  • Language Latin still the official language of
    many institutions and of science

19
Destiny
  • Imperially ruled by a military dictator. Governed
    autocratically and shared power with popularly
    elected representatives as senators.
  • Came to dominate Mediterranean extending north
    and west into Europe as far as France and Germany
    and east to India
  • Roman society and law became the template for all
    civilization to come including most legal
    structures of modern society in N. America and
    Europe

20
Geography
  • Rome centered on the Italian Peninsula in the
    center of the Mediterranean Sea or Mare
    Nostrum. Highly productive and fertile soil
    huge cattle and pasture land available.
  • Ostia Romes port city
  • Tiber river valley Rome is centered in
  • Via Salaria the key road from Ostia to Rome, a
    major salt route

21
Rome is founded
  • 753 BCE city of Rome is founded in the region
    of seven hills where the Tiber is easily bridged
  • Capitoline
  • Aventine
  • Palatine
  • Caelian
  • Oppian
  • Quirinal
  • Viminal

22
Neighbours
  • the Celts that dominate the Po River Valley at
    the foot of the Alps, originally covered most of
    Europe, they are now limited to Briton and
    western France dense population in N. Italy
  • the Magna Graeca Greek colonies covered most of
    S. Italy and spoke Greek, there were many such
    colonies by 800 BCE
  • Etruscans mysterious peoples North of Rome.
    They held great power over Rome in its early days.

23
Origins
  • Originally, Rome was a small hill village
    surrounded by many different groups This taught
    them a kind of people management a that served
    them well later on.
  • At the outset Rome was a monarchy
  • There were 7 kings according to early Roman
    history, the last king was Tarquin the Proud, he
    was overthrown in 507 and the republic was
    established in 509.

24
Republic
  • Republic res publica public institution
  • Commonwealth - rule by the citizenry
  • The Republic begins a long period of slow
    expansion to engulf the plain of Latium.
  • Eventually, the Republic began to run up against
    the Celts in the Po River Valley.

25
Conflicts
  • 390 BCE the Celts move in and sack Rome, they
    take all the hills of the city with the exception
    of the Capitoline.
  • 280 BCE Rome begins to run up against the Greek
    colonies. The Greeks appealed to mainland Greece
    for aid against the Romans. Phyrrus agrees to
    help and sends a fleet. Though they are
    victorious it is a very expensive win and the
    Romans have established themselves as a power in
    the western Mediterranean.

26
Early Roman expansion
  • 753-280 BCE is the 1st stage in Roman expansion
    long and slow.
  • In this period, Rome takes on its defining
    character patriotism, persistence, discipline,
    republicanism.
  • Huge innovation
  • Romans expanded through their innovative
    treatment of conquered people
  • 1) incorporation a degree of citizenship would
    be offered to conquered people
  • 2) alliance even with defeated people. They are
    allowed to maintain a degree of autonomy.

27
Romans
  • Understanding Rome means understanding a name
    first.

28
Quintus Fabius Maximus Cuncator
  • The first name is the given name or praenomen
    there were only 30 different names in Rome and
    only about 10 were used.
  • The second name is the nomen or the clan
    known as the Gens of the family, initially, 7
    Gens rose to power in Rome and formed the nucleus
    of the patrician class.
  • The third name is the cognomen it identifies
    the family branch of the clan this was the most
    important part of the name as it would identify
    the person as a patrician or a plebeian.
  • The final name was the agnomen it was like a
    nickname and would be added later in life to
    commemorate an important event or victory.

29
Religion
  • Each family and clan would have its own religious
    identity with a set of deities and ancestral
    worship these were known as Lares et Penates
  • Rome was intensely patriarchal and each clan
    would have a father who ruled absolutely over the
    rest of the family.

30
Patrician vs. Plebian
  • Early republican Rome was rigidly divided into 2
    groups
  • Plebians 93 of the population
  • Patricians 7 of the population
  • This was a very caste like system with
    intermarriage rare if not impossible

31
Land ownership
  • This class division was enshrined in the
    ownership of land. Since the Senate would have to
    approve major works like swamp drainage, the
    Senate would usually use this power to
    individually own the land drained. This land
    would then be given to other less wealthy farmers
    to rent. This formed a relationship between
    common families and their patrician benefactors.

32
Patron/Client
  • This relationship became known as patron-cliente.
    It was the essential element that held early
    Roman society together.
  • Clientage the bond occurring between plebeian
    families pledging allegiance to patrician
    families in exchange for protection. A naturally
    occurring unwritten rule of voluntary
    subjugation.

33
Patricians
  • Only patricians could hold religious or higher
    office. Education was denied to plebeians and
    the patricians dominated the legal system.
  • They were formed from the legendary 100 families
    that first helped Romulus found Rome.

34
Senate formed
  • When supreme authority was taken from the kings
    it was given to 2 bodies
  • 2 consuls
  • Senate
  • Members were elected for only one year and they
    were not eligible to return to office until 10
    years had passed.

35
Democracy
  • The richest patricians always voted first and
    voted publicly this created a bandwagon effect
    and the initial leader usually won.
  • The senate worked with the consuls and an
    assembly the senate had the most power and ran
    more if everyday life. They decided what would be
    voted on by the assembly

36
SPQR
  • S.P.Q.R. Senatus Populus Que Romanus the
    conquering standard of the Roman army, it asserts
    that these lands have been won on behalf of the
    senate of Rome.
  • This shows how the patrician senator class
    dominates everything in Rome and that resentment
    would soon grow from other non-citizens.

37
Plebian political bodies
  • To counter the influence of the patricians in the
    senate, the plebeians formed their own political
    structure.
  • The plebeians formed a plebeian only political
    body called the concillium. This body would elect
    an advocate called a tribune who would act on
    their behalf and represent their concerns.
  • The term for a tribune was 1 year.

38
Plebeians grow in power
  • Through the tribune/concillium system, the
    plebeians gained some significant concessions
    from the senate.
  • 451 BCE the 12 Tables are enacted posted in the
    central square of Roman towns, these public laws
    formed the charter of rights for plebeians.
  • 366 BCE a plebeian becomes consul
  • 300 BCE plebeians gain access to religious
    castes.
  • 287 BCE the patricians give the concillium
    official status, renaming it the concillium
    tribunus

39
The Concillium
  • Anything passed in the concilluim would now
    become law. These votes were called plebiscites.
  • Most of these concessions to the plebeians were
    merely cosmetic, they were meant to pacify the
    people.
  • It was not until 187 BCE that both consuls were
    plebeians.
  • 218 to 152 BCE only 4 plebiscites passed.

40
1 a
  • Rome was strategically located in the middle of
    the Italian Peninsula, saving centurions from
    having to march long distances. Located on the
    west coast, Rome focused on trade with the
    Mediterranean. Rome was located at the mouth of
    the Tiber River, which gave it the ability to
    control Italian trade on the river and throughout
    the Mediterranean.

41
1 b
  • Empire expansion was aided by having access to
    rapid transit and communication, and being
    located strategically at the mouth of a river
    that provided for all Italy. The wealth of the
    Italian peninsula enabled Rome to become wealthy
    and prosperous city-state, capable of using some
    of its wealth to build a great army.

42
2
  • The mountainous nature of the Italian peninsula
    hindered travel by land. Consequently, soldiers
    had greater difficulty marching for long
    distances. The lack of river systems would
    further reduce travel inland. The dry nature of
    the climate of certain areas would make supplying
    water to marching soldiers more difficult as
    well.

43
3
  • The Italian peninsula was three times as large as
    that of Greece, Italia also lacked a good
    coastline for harbours and trade, unlike Greece.
    Rome was strategically located in the middle of
    the Mediterranean Sea, enabling it to control
    trade and traffic.

44
3 cont.
  • Unlike Greece, the rugged mountainous terrain did
    not stop the Romans from uniting the entire
    peninsula. Rome had a more productive farming
    system than Greece but like the Greeks, the
    Romans eventually had to rely on colonization to
    solve the problem of food supply.

45
1
  • The city of Rome probably developed because of
    its proximity to the Tiber River. This made
    transportation a relatively easy and cheap
    undertaking. The mountains provided a natural
    defense system for any settlers. The location on
    the Tiber River allowed for the control of trade
    in the surrounding inland regions.

46
2
  • Aside from the hardened population of Romans,
    Latins also descended from early Indo-European
    settlers and established themselves on the
    Italian peninsula. They were joined by the
    Etruscans, who may have come from Asia Minor. As
    well, the Greeks had established a number of
    colonies to settle their excess population.

47
2 cont
  • Etruscans had a great deal of influence over
    early Rome. They left behind construction
    projects like aqueducts, harbours, roads,
    bridges, and drainage systems. They also left an
    alphabet, metallurgy, and conscription.

48
3
  • The Phoenicians were known for their trading and
    seafaring. It is possible that the Romans may
    have envied their wealth, and wanted to take over
    their extensive trading network. Control of the
    Mediterranean trading system was determined
    through the strait separating Sicily from
    Carthage in North Africa. Controlling this meant
    great wealth.

49
Homework
  • Read pp 156 to 162 do 1-3 p 158 AND 1-3 p 162

50
Republican Expansion Italy
  • Though the plebeians had won important
    concessions from the patricians (12 Tables,
    Tribunes, religious office, consuls, etc.) the
    Conflict of Orders still threatened the republic.
  • The Senate discovered that the one thing that
    would unite plebs and patricians was external
    conflict.
  • Rome began to extend its influence North and
    South

51
Italy comes under control
  • Latium comes under Roman control with the
    destruction of the city of Veii in 396 BCE
  • An invasion of the Gauls in 390 BCE had resulted
    in the sacking of most of the city but also the
    destruction of the Etruscan cities to the north.
    The way was now clear for Roman expansion
  • 338 BCE Latins are crushed
  • 295 BCE Po Valley conquered from the Celts

52
Rome vs. Greeks
  • Rome then turns south to the Greek colonies of
    the Magna Graeca
  • A series of battles vs. Greek King Pyrrhus that
    are lost but the Greeks lose 2/3rds of their
    troops Greeks withdraw to Sicily
  • 265 BCE Rome controls all southern peninsula

53
Consolidation
  • The Peninsula Victories consolidated the Romans
    in several ways
  • New land was opened up for ownership by the
    plebeians more soldier farmers for the army.
  • Conquered people were granted citizenship
    improved living standard.
  • 295 91 BCE few conflicts on the peninsula

54
Punic Wars
  • The Roman expansion brought them into conflict
    with the Carthaginian Empire of the Western
    Mediterranean.
  • They had been allies earlier against the Greeks .
    Now with no Greeks, they became enemies.
  • 265 BCE Roman pirates attack and seize Messina
    ask the Senate for aid against the Greeks
  • The Greeks in turn, ask the Carthaginians for
    help against the Romans the First Punic War
    begins.

55
1st Punic War
  • 265 241 BCE
  • Naval power Carthage vs. land power Rome
  • Rome begins by invading and concluding a treaty
    with Syracuse 263 BCE. This makes the war a sea
    conflict.
  • Romans have no navy, but rapidly construct their
    own from a wrecked Carthaginian trireme

56
Roman Navy
  • Romans made 20 fast ships -200 rowers each made
    for ramming
  • 100 other large ships equipped with a gangplank
    called a corvus troops could cross and turn a
    sea fight into an infantry engagement.
  • These inventions win some initial victories but
    not a war.

57
Hamilcar Barca
  • Rome did not win through conquest but eventually
    the Carthaginian General, Hamilcar Barca, had to
    surrender in 241 BCE
  • Carthage could not keep up with Roman naval
    production.
  • Carthage had to pay a huge indemnity
  • Sicily must be abandoned to Rome
  • Annual tribute of 1/10th of their crops
  • Rome gains Sardinia as well
  • Hamilcar and his son swear vengeance on Rome

58
Carthage rebuilds
  • Carthage immediately begins to found a new empire
    in Spain.
  • Rome and Carthage actually traded with each other
    successfully at this time.
  • Both sides knew conflict would be inevitable.

59
Second Punic War
  • The 2nd Punic War broke out in 218 BCE
  • Carthage was led by Hamilcars son Hannibal and
    his son-in-law Hasdrubal.
  • Hannibal leads 38000 troops and 37 war elephants
    over land to invade Italy from the north.
  • The trip is brutal and Hannibal loses almost half
    his numbers.

60
Hannibal victorious
  • Hannibal proves to be a better general than the
    Romans had anticipated .
  • 23,000 troops and 18 elephants survive the
    journey to defeat the Romans at Trebia to seize
    the Po Valley. Romans lost 20,000 men
  • Lake Trasimene 217 BCE Roman General is
    replaced by Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator
  • Cannae 216 BCE Varro is defeated, Maximus
    counterpart.

61
3 things save the Republic
  • Colonies remained loyal to Rome Hannibal had no
    local support
  • Strong social bond between patricians and
    plebeians patron/client bond took over
  • Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Roman
    general launches a counterattack into Spain and
    captures Cathago Nova in 210 BCE intercepts
    Hannibals reinforcements and destroys them.

62
Hannibal is defeated at Zama in 202 BCE
  • Carthage must surrender all colonial holdings
  • Forced to pay huge indemnities
  • Navy had to be suppressed

63
Yet Carthage is allowed to survive
  • Benefits
  • Caused unification of Roman society
  • Kept the plebeians under control
  • Tribute would make some wealthy
  • Drawbacks
  • Potential future threat

64
Delenda est Carthago
  • Eventually, pressure builds to crush Carthage
    once and for all. Roman censor Marcus Porcius
    Cato (Cato the Elder) would end every speech in
    the senate with Carthage must be destroyed

65
Trumped up reasons were given for Romes
re-invasion of Carthage
  • The 50 year peace treaty had expired
  • The indemnity had been paid off
  • Carthage was forced to obtain Roman approval for
    all border disputes Numidia had been raiding
    into Carthage and it retaliated without Roman
    Senate approval.

66
Third Punic War
  • 149 BCE 146 BCE the war was a one-sided
    slaughter. Roman General Scipio Aemilianus
    (grandson of Scipio Africanus)
  • Carthage is utterly destroyed
  • Harbour is dismantled
  • People sold into slavery
  • Salt sown into the surrounding fields
    sterilizes the soil

67
The victory over Carthage is followed by several
other key victories
  • Corinth is destroyed
  • Philip V of Macedon is defeated
  • Seleucid Kingdom is Greece is overthrown
  • In each case the leadership is replaced by
    oligarchs favoured by Rome hated by locals
  • Rome now controls all of the Mediterranean.

68
The Punic Wars have a huge impact on Roman
society
  • Republic begins to decline power becomes
    centralized in the imperium
  • Rome is now a naval power
  • New treatment of defeated peoples no autonomy,
    huge indemnities, no citizenship
  • Landholders displaced in the Italian Peninsula by
    wealthy landowning class.
  • Huge population increase in Rome Multiethnic,
    multilingual, more stratified
  • A huge rise in the importance and power of the
    army

69
Imperium crisis government
  • Imperium supreme power to command (execute
    laws, decree punishment)
  • This power was shared by the 2 consuls but in
    times of crisis, consuls could name a temporary
    dictator 6 month term

70
Other offices were created
  • Praetors exercised imperium in the city in the
    absence of the consuls
  • Quaestors controlled finances of the city and
    the army
  • Censors assigned individuals to their place in
    society and determined their taxes, filled
    vacancies in the Senate, granted public works
    contracts
  • Patricians would rise through progressively
    higher offices to the position of consul cursus
    honorum

71
Homework
  • Read pages 166 to 168 and do 1 and 2 on page 168.

72
  • Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus believed
    that the widening difference between the rich and
    the poor was unstable and threatened the security
    of Roman society. Land was the key to wealth and
    the rich patrician class had used slave labour
    and cheap imports from conquered regions to drive
    the small landowners from their property.

73
  • These landless plebeians were flocking to Rome
    and were a source of discontent. In Gaius case,
    he was concerned about the treatment of conquered
    peoples and the withholding of citizenship from
    them. Both their reform initiatives failed
    because of obstruction in the Senate.

74
  • A) the wealthy were determined not to relinquish
    their power in the republic. The power struggle
    between Optimates, led by Sulla, and Populares,
    led by Marius, led to a civil war and a series of
    dictatorships. The emergency rule also led to a
    series of dictatorships which weakened the
    republic.

75
  • B) Ruthless power struggle between the army and
    the Senate. The dictatorship of Julius Caesar.
    His subsequent assassination. The flight of
    Caesars assassins ended the claim to legitimacy
    of the Senate. All these factors led to an
    erosion of stability.

76
The Roman Army
  • To grasp the transition from Republic to Empire
    initiated by the Punic Wars, it is essential to
    understand the Roman Army.

77
Republican Army
  • The early republican Army of Rome was a citizen
    soldier army. To be a citizen meant to serve in
    the military. Wealth therefore bought the tools
    of war and along with that came rank.
  • Wealthy soldiers would supply their own horses
    and armour and would command from the rear.
  • Ordinary small farmers would be used as infantry
    front line forces.

78
Marius Reforms of the Army
  • The army would no longer be open only to those
    who were wealthy and owned land any citizen
    could join.
  • Soldiers are no longer divided by equipment and
    experience uniformity
  • Cohort structure established
  • Retirement and pensioning of older soldiers
  • Generals could now conscript their own new
    solders from conquered lands

79
Roman units
  • Contubernium 8 men tent group
  • Century 10 contuberniums 80 to 100 men
    commanded by 2 centurions
  • Cohort 6 centuries
  • Legion 10 cohorts
  • Cavalry would be used to protect the flanks but
    the center of the formation was the infantry.

80
Tactics
  • The primary weapon in the Roman army was
    engineering.
  • Roads, bridges, improvised fortifications, supply
    networks, treatment of casualties most
    important siege works
  • Specialists called immunes were exempt from
    combat to perform these services
  • Superior logistics meant that Rome could mass
    more men and supplies in better condition than
    their opponents.
  • The legion could move over 20 miles per day over
    rough ground and construct identical camps
    nightly.

81
Tactics
  • Selection and preparation of battleground was
    essential high ground improved range, mobility.
    Sun should always be behind you
  • After Marius, cohorts would be assembled in two
    to three lines of various formations, the saw,
    wedge, tortoise, orb, skirmish, etc.
  • Cavalry protected the flanks until the enemy
    broke and ran, then they would run them down
  • When front troops tired, they could retire and
    rest while troops in the rear relieved them.

82
Tactics
  • Surrender or negotiation was always preferable to
    open battle. A desperate enemy would fight to the
    death.
  • Siege was all important Romans developed
    numerous types of battle machines for siege
    warfare but they were too cumbersome to use in
    pitched battle.

83
Onager
84
Ballista
85
Tower
86
Scorpio
87
The Ideal Soldier
  • The ideal of the farmer-soldier was glorified,
    but as war became a constant in Roman life, men
    began to not return to the plough after the
    battles ended.
  • War became a better source of income through
    booty and plunder.
  • After the destruction of the farms surrounding
    Rome during the Punic Wars, rich citizens take
    them over and form massive estates worked by
    slaves - latifundia

88
Imperial Army
  • Soldiers become professionals and through war a
    new social ladder becomes available.
  • After the battle of Cannae, Rome suspends the
    Constitution and allows consuls to rule for a
    second or third term. The office is quickly
    dominated by military commanders.
  • Soldiers now swear allegiance to the emperor or
    general rather than the senate and the republic

89
Imperial Army
  • Foot soldiers become less and less important as
    cavalry and specialized troops are needed against
    exotic foreign fighters.
  • 212 CE - Citizenship is extended to all peoples
    in conquered provinces, no longer a benefit to be
    in the army.
  • Legions created from foreign fighters
  • The backbone of the army, the farmer-soldier,
    rapidly disappears - after long campaigns their
    farms back home were sold from under them.

90
Power of Military
  • Alliance and incorporation of newly conquered
    lands gives way to direct control from Rome.
  • New territories are treated as provinces and the
    military commanders can sell the rights to tax
    the region to rich syndicates of citizens who are
    then allowed to tax at their own discretion with
    the enforcement of the army. tax farming

91
Praetorian Guard
  • By the time of Augustus, there were 28 legions.
    This grew to 35 as the empire expanded.
  • The most prestigious of these were the 9
    Praetorian Guard cohorts.
  • Paid three times more than regular troops, these
    hand-picked soldiers were the personal guard of
    the emperor and acted like the secret police of
    the imperial domus expanded to 12 cohorts by
    Caligula
  • These soldiers became a source of imperial power
    themselves, at times naming the successor for a
    hefty fee.

92
Standards
  • The standard was the visual representation of
    each legion and was used to gather and
    communicate position during the chaos of battle.
  • Pole topped with the name and number of the
    legion as well as various symbols representing
    significant victories and engagements the legion
    had been in.
  • The position of standard bearer aquifer- was
    of high esteem and the soldier was marked by
    wearing a lion skin over his armour. To lose the
    standard in battle was considered one of the
    highest shames.
  • Recovering the silver eagle - aquila - from the
    legion standard was often the focus of entire
    campaigns.

93
Standards
  • Standards - revered as sacred objects. They had
    their own tents in the center of camps and were
    used in religious ceremonies.
  • The importance of standards shows the loyalty
    each legion had to its leader. This loyalty to
    rank became essential in the formation of empire
    that would form after Augustus.

94
For tomorrow
  • Read pp170 to 171 The Decline and Fall of the
    Roman Empire
  • Do questions 1 and 2 on p 171
  • Read Perspectives on the Past p 172 to 173
  • You must write 3 things that are similar to the
    United States today and 3 things that different!

95
1. Where did the first breaches in the defense in
the Roman Empire occur? How did the Romans handle
them?
  • The first breaches came from the Parthians in the
    east. Rome responded by conquering Armenia and
    Mesopotamia. Hadrian created buffer states that
    would be ruled by kings friendly to Rome.

96
2. Evaluate the effectiveness of the
administrative changes that Diocletian introduced
during his rule.
  • Diocletians decision to divide the empire into
    two along the Danube River was an attempt to ease
    control over the vast area. Diocletian would rule
    the east while Maximian would rule the west.
  • Succession broke down after the co-emperors
    abdicated in 305 CE and 18 years of civil war
    followed.
  • Not effective!

97
Decline of the Roman Empire
  • U.S.
  • Rome
  • Politics many bloody disputes over succession.
    Civil war common, military control, corruption.
  • Economics running the vast empire was too
    expensive. Overtaxed the middle classes and
    devalues currency.
  • Defense as power decreases, concern over
    invasion increases Huns, Visigoths, Alemanni,
    Vandals.
  • ?????
  • ?????
  • ?????

98
Roman Religion
  • Roman religion was modelled on Greek and Latin
    predecessors
  • Specific gods would govern every aspect of daily
    life polytheistic and anthropomorphic

99
Roman Gods
  • Jupiter master of the gods, main god of the
    Romans, held thunder in his hands
  • Juno wife of Jupiter, goddess of women and
    fertility
  • Mars God of war
  • Venus Goddess of beauty and love
  • Minerva goddess of wisdom, learning, and crafts
    symbol was the owl
  • Neptune god of the sea
  • Vulcan blacksmith of the gods, commanded
    volcanoes
  • Bacchus god of wine and partying
  • Vesta goddess of the home most important
    temple in Rome

100
Household Spirits
  • Each house had its own protecting spirits
  • Lares ancestors of the family
  • Penates kind spirits who guarded the pantry

101
Roman Gods
  • Romans believed that their gods were all powerful
    but not infallible they would exhibit anger,
    jealousy, and pettiness.
  • When the empire came into contact with other
    cultures, often their gods were absorbed without
    difficulty appeared more attractive.

102
Augustus religious reform
  • In 17 BCE he celebrated 3 days of new
    celebrations marking a new age
  • He assumed the office of pontifex maximus chief
    priest of Rome
  • Restored temples and revived cults that had died
    out during the Civil Wars
  • Promoted religious participation by all citizens
  • Named new festival dates
  • Restored the traditions of paterfamilias
    traditional family order

103
Goals were twofold
  • 1- Restoring Roman morality, piety, sacred order,
    and faith after the violence and aggression of
    the Civil Wars
  • 2- Promotion of his own cult Augustus modelled
    his cult after a state religion, throughout the
    empire, worship of Augustus was worshipping Rome
    itself.
  • These stabilizing reforms resulted in a 150 year
    period of peace and prosperity known as the Pax
    Romana

104
Pax Romana
  • This period saw the expansion of Roman culture,
    architecture and ideas throughout the empire.
  • Augustus used conquered lands to pension 32 of
    his 60 legions leaving 28 at a full time
    professional army - Romanization throughout the
    empire.
  • This also had the effect of disseminating other
    non-Roman religious ideas

105
Non Roman Deities
  • By the 1st century CE several cults gain
    popularity
  • Anatolian Cybele mother-goddess cult imported
    from Turkey
  • Isis Egyptian goddess of motherhood and
    procreation
  • Mithras Persian god of light and truth, popular
    among soldiers
  • Rome tolerated the existence of these cults -
    could co-exist with the state gods and the
    worship of the emperor.

106
Judea
  • Jews had always violently resisted polytheistic
    influences. Pompey had conquered Judea in 63 BCE
    but carefully did not interfere in Jewish
    religious life.
  • Judea was left as a puppet kingdom and was
    allowed to continue its independant religious
    worship

107
2 religious groups in Judea
  • Sadducees worked with Rome as long as they were
    allowed to worship at the temple
  • Hasidism rejected all compromise with Rome,
    most prominent sect was the Pharisees practised
    strict dietary and custom rules to distinguish
    themselves from non-Jews they led insular lives
    awaiting the prophesied messiah who would deliver
    them from Roman rule

108
6 BCE birth of Joshua ben Joseph also called
Jesus of Nazareth
  • Born in Galilee a stronghold of Hasidism
  • Preached love of peace, God, and neighbour
  • Imagery of tolerance of suffering for an
    anticipated elevated state
  • Future rewards for pious behaviour in the present
  • Similar to many Jewish religious thinkers of the
    time but Jesus was non-political and made claims
    to be the messiah

109
Text based religion
  • All that is known about Jesus and his early
    followers comes from early Greek texts 100 200
    CE
  • Accounts of Jesus life and words gospels
  • Letters to religious communities epistles
  • Historical narratives and visionary writings

110
The Bible
  • 4 of the 50 total gospels along with 21 epistles,
    an account of the early community (Acts), and 1
    book of revelations gradually came to be accepted
    as the definitive text of the faith
  • Combined with the Jewish Scripture these books
    formed the Bible.
  • Emphasised the story of Jesus as fulfilling
    Jewish tradition

111
Death of Jesus
  • Jesus preached for 3 years in Judea
  • Drew large crowds and excited some to demand
    independence from Rome
  • Some rejected his teachings as blasphemy and saw
    him as a threat to the religious status quo
  • His preachings became a focal point for
    discontent and controversy
  • Jesus was ordered executed by crucifixion by the
    Roman procurator Pontius Pilate in 30 CE in order
    to preserve order

112
Christ to Christianity
  • Soon after his death, his followers had claimed
    he had risen from the dead and formed another
    sect of Judaism Christianity
  • Purification rite of initiation immersion in
    flowing water
  • Ritual meal bread and wine

113
Paul of Tarsus
  • one of the earliest converts to Christianity
  • Key individual in the spread of the early church
  • Founded the earliest churches throughout the
    eastern Roman empire.
  • Systematized Christian thought opened
    membership to non-Jews

114
Repression and Growth
  • Judaism not problematic for Rome non
    aggressive, inherited religion, not converting
  • Christianity aggressive and successful, based
    on new conversions, could not tolerate
    polytheistic state religion.
  • Christianity experiences extreme repression
    those who would not sacrifice to the emperor on
    demand were killed. 
  • Suppression serves to spread new religion more
    rapidly more violent the repression, more the
    religion spread.

115
The Church
  • As the number of Christians increased, the
    organization of the sect grew hierarchical
    structure develops
  • Leaders of Christians in each major city became
    Bishops assisted by priests, deacons and
    deaconesses.

116
Religious Schism
  • Once the Church expands, it is challenged by
    outside ideas and influences
  • Split develops
  • Montanists Christians should be celibate and
    fast until the imminent Second Coming
  • Gnostics Christ was a divine being in human
    form who imparted secret wisdom to the people
  • Arians Jesus was divine but mortal - human

117
One True Faith
  • Bishops responsible for defending the faith
    from these schisms leaders of the communities
    directly founded by the apostles became leaders
    among bishops patriarchates
  • Alexandria
  • Antioch
  • Corinth
  • Rome

118
Council of Nicaea
  • The early period of the Christian Church comes to
    an end with the Council of Nicaea complete
    assembly of all bishops.
  • They codify the One True Faith and all others are
    suppressed
  • Agree and publish the Nicene Creed

119
How would this conflict with Roman religious
customs?
  • The Nicene Creed (CE 381)
  • I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker
    of heaven and earth, and of all things visible
    and invisible.
  • And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten
    Son of God, begotten of the Father before all
    worlds God of God, Light of Light, very God of
    very God begotten, not made, being of one
    substance with the Father, by whom all things
    were made.
  • Who, for us men and for our salvation, came down
    from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit
    of the virgin Mary, and was made man and was
    crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate He
    suffered and was buried and the third day He
    rose again, according to the Scriptures and
    ascended into heaven, and sits on the right hand
    of the Father and He shall come again, with
    glory, to judge the quick and the dead whose
    kingdom shall have no end.
  • And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and
    Giver of Life who proceeds from the Father and
    the Son who with the Father and the Son together
    is worshipped and glorified who spoke by the
    prophets.
  • And I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic
    Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the
    remission of sins and I look for the
    resurrection of the dead, and the life of the
    world to come. Amen.

120
The Fall of Rome
  • After Marcus Aurelius Rome tailspin
  • Early Rome Principate rule through the people
  • Late Rome Dominate rule through brute force
  • Inflation was huge bribery
  • 3 Fortune Rule
  • 1 to pay the bribes
  • 1 to pay the jury that investigates it
  • 1 to live on

121
The Fall of Rome
  • Early army a great career, advancement through
    performance and loyalty, service guarantees
    citizenship
  • Late army peasant conscripts, raided Roman
    cities, no loyalty
  • Leads to numerous barbarian raids 211 284 CE
  • Decline of imperium
  • 2nd C 80 years 4 emperors
  • 3rd C 73 years 21 emperors, 17 assassinated,
    1 captured

122
The Fall of Rome
  • Empire splitting East flourishes, west declines
    fending off Gothic raids
  • Germanic tribes move into Italy, pushed by the
    Huns
  • Vandals sack Rome from Spain
  • Angles/Saxons invade over the North Sea
  • Ostrogoths move into Northern Italy led by
    Theodoric c 500CE
  • Lombards move into southern France c 600 CE
  • Franks 450 CE, North of Rhine, Merovingian
    Kings, first established by Clovis c 450 CE

123
The Last Emperor
  • Rolumus Augustus
  • deposed by Germanic Barbarians in 476 CE
  • Only a teenager
  • Odoacer, leader of a tribe of Germanic settlers
    in the Italian peninsula becomes King of Rome
  • Eastern half of the empire would last until 1453
    CE!!
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