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Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity

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Title: Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity


1
Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity
  • Chapter 5

2
The Roman World Takes Shape
  • Section 1

3
Roman Civilization Arises in Italy
  • Italian peninsula is centrally located in the
    Mediterranean Sea, and the city of Rome sits
    toward the center of Italy.

4
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5
Unifying the lands of Italy
  • Italy was much easier to unify than Greece
  • Not broken up into small, isolated valleys
  • Apennine mountains are less rugged than the
    mountains of Greece
  • Has broad fertile plains in the north and west.

6
Early Peoples Settle Italy
  • By 800 B.C. the Latins migrated to Italy.
  • The Latins settled along the Tiber River.
  • Etruscans lived north of Rome and ruled much of
    central Italy
  • Romans adopted the Etruscan alphabet,
    engineering, and gods and goddesses.

7
The Romans Establish a Republic
  • 509 B.C. marks the beginning of the Roman state
    when the Romans drove out their Etruscan ruler.
  • Form of government was called a res publica or
    that which belongs to the people.
  • People chose some of the officials
  • Prevent any individual from gaining too much
    power.

8
Structuring the Republic
  • Senate was the most powerful governing body.
  • 300 members were patricians.
  • Senators served for life.
  • Senators nominated two consuls from the patrician
    class whose job was to supervise the business of
    government and command the armies.
  • -Consuls only served one term to limit power.

9
Structuring the Republic
  • In the event of war, the senate might choose a
    dictator, or ruler who has complete control over
    a government.
  • Ruled for 6 months
  • Organize an army and lead them to victory just
    like Cincinnatus

10
Plebeians fight for their rights
  • Plebeians the farmers, merchants, artisans, and
    traders who made up the bulk of the population.
  • Plebeians elected tribunes to protect their
    interests.
  • The tribunes could veto those laws that they felt
    were harmful to plebeians
  • Forced the government to write down the Roman
    laws on twelve tablets.

11
Laws on Twelve Tablets
12
The role of women changes over time
  • Roman women played a larger role in society than
    did Greek women.
  • They could own property
  • Ran businesses
  • Patrician women went to public events with their
    husbands
  • Some had political influence
  • Most women however worked at home, raising
    families, spinning, and weaving.

13
Romans Educate Children
  • Upper and lower class children learned to read
    and write
  • Children memorized major events and developments
    in Roman history
  • Rhetoric was an important subject for boys who
    wanted to pursue political careers.

14
Mars and Jupiter
15
Citizen-soldiers make up the Roman army
  • Loyal and well-trained army.
  • Basic military unit was the legion, each of which
    included 5,000 men.
  • Originally men fought without being paid and had
    to provide their own weapons
  • Eventually they received a small stipend but
    their main compensation was always a share of the
    spoils of victory.

16
Roman Legion
17
Rome is just with conquered lands
  • Treated its defeated enemies with justice
  • Conquered people had to acknowledge Roman
    leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers for
    the Roman army.

18
From Republic to Empire
  • Section 2

19
Rome grows through conquest
  • Romes conquest of the Italian peninsula brought
    it into conflict with Carthage, a city-state on
    the northern coast of Africa.

20
Rome fights Carthage in the Punic Wars
  • In the first Punic War Rome defeated Carthage and
    won the islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia.

21
2nd Punic War
  • In the 2nd Punic War Carthage sought revenge.
  • Carthage General Hannibal led an army with dozens
    of war elephants and men
  • Was winning battles all across Italy
  • Failed to capture Rome itself.
  • Romans will eventually defeat Hannibal

22
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23
3rd Punic War
  • Rome completely destroyed Carthage.
  • Survivors were killed or sold into slavery.
  • The Romans were not masters of the Western
    Mediterranean.

24
Ruling the Mediterranean
  • Romans were committed to Imperialism
    Establishing control over foreign lands and
    peoples..
  • Controlled the Hellenistic rulers who had divided
    the empire of Alexander the Great.
  • Controlled Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia
    Minor

25
The Impact at Home
  • Conquest of trade routes brought riches to Rome.
  • Wealthy Romans bought up huge estates called
    latifundia.
  • Forced people to work on the latifundia.
  • Gap between rich and poor widened and angry mobs
    began to riot.

26
Making Attempts at Reform
  • Two Patrician brothers names Tiberius and Gaius
    Gracchus were the first to bring reform.
  • Tiberius wanted the state to distribute land to
    poor farmers
  • Gaius Gracchus wanted to use public funds to buy
    grain to feed the poor

27
The Roman Republic Declines
  • Rome plunged into a series of civil wars
  • Slave uprisings

28
Julius Caesar the Dictator
  • In 58 B.C., Caesar set out with his army to make
    new conquests. After 9 years of fighting, he
    completed the conquest of Gaul
  • Some people in the Senate wanted Caesar to
    disband his army, but he fought on.
  • I came, I saw, I conquered he said after
    announcing one victory.

29
Julius Caesar
30
Caesar Makes Reforms
  • He launched a program of public works to employ
    the jobless and gave public land to the poor.
  • Granted Roman citizenship to more people
  • Introduced a new calendar based on that of the
    Egyptians.

31
Caesar Killed, War Follows
  • Caesars enemies worried that he planned to make
    himself King of Rome so they planned to kill him.
  • In 44 B.C. Caesar arrived in the senate and his
    enemies stabbed him to death.
  • This brought on a new round of Civil Wars.
  • Octavian and Mark Anthony joined forces to hunt
    down the murderers.

32
The Roman Empire Begins
  • The senate gave Octavian the title of Augustus,
    or Exalted One, and declared him princeps, or
    first citizen.
  • Augustus exercised absolute power and named his
    successor just as a king would do.

33
Augustus Builds a Stable Government
  • The senate had little power compared to the
    emperor.
  • High level jobs were open to men of talent.
  • Made the tax system fair by ordering a census of
    the empire so their would be records of all who
    should be taxed.
  • Set up a postal service
  • Issued new coins to make trade easier.
  • Put the jobless to work.

34
Emperors Vary
  • Not all Augustuss successors were great rulers.
  • Hadrian codified Roman law, making it the same
    for all provinces.

35
Pax Romana Brings Prosperity
  • Roman Peace200 year span.
  • Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and
    stability.
  • Roman legions maintained and protected the roads
  • Trade flowed freely

36
The Distraction of Entertainment
  • Circus Maximus, Romes largest racecourse.
  • Gladiator contests
  • Battled one another

37
The Roman Achievement
  • Section 3

38
Romans Write Literature, History, and Philosophy
  • Borrowed many ideas from the Greeks
  • Also adopted Hellenistic achievements.
  • The blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and roman
    traditions produced what is known as Greco-Roman
    civilization.

39
Poets Write with Respect and humor
  • Many Romans spoke Greek and imitated Greek styles
    in poetry.
  • The poet Virgil tried to show that Romes past
    was as heroic as that of Greece.
  • Other poets used verse to satire, or make fun of,
    Roman society.

40
Historians Tell the Story of Rome
  • Livy and Tacitus were best known as Roman
    historians
  • Livy sought to arouse patriotic feeling by
    recalling Romes historic past.
  • Tacitus wrote bitterly about Augustus who felt
    had destroyed Roman liberty.

41
Creating Expressive Art
  • Roman artists depicted scenes from Roman
    literature and daily life in spended mosaics.
  • Mosaics a picture made from chips of colored
    stone or glass.

42
Advancing Architecture
  • Immense palaces, temples, and stadiums stood as
    mighty monuments to Roman power and dignity.
  • Improved on existing structural devices such as
    columns and arches.
  • Used concrete to create a round dome as a roof
    for large projects.

43
Pantheon
44
Romans apply Science and Mathematics for
practical use
  • Romans excelled in engineering
  • Built roads, bridges, and harbors
  • Built aqueducts that carried water from the hills
    into roman cities

45
Science and math
  • Ptolemy proposed his theory that the Earth was
    the center of the universe, a mistaken idea!!!
  • Applied geography to make maps and medical
    knowledge to help doctors improve public health
  • Collected information into encyclopedias.

46
New Law Codes Protect the Empire
  • The principles of Roman law would become the
    basis for legal systems throughout the world.
  • Developed civil law
  • Innocent until proven guilty
  • Without a reasonable doubt or clearer than
    daylight
  • Judges interpreted the laws and made fair
    judgments

47
The Rise of Christianity
  • Section 4

48
Early Empire includes diverse religions
  • Various religious beliefs existed in Rome.
  • Jupiter, Mars, Juno, and other traditions
    remained important.
  • Rome tolerated diversity as long as Romans
    honored Roman gods and acknowledged the divine
    spirit of the emperor.

49
Division Arise in Judea
  • By 63 B.C. the Romans had conquered Judea
  • The Romans excused Jews from worshiping roman
    gods.
  • While most Jews were reluctantly willing to live
    under Roman rule, other called Zealots were not.
  • They called on Jews to revolt against Rome and
    establish an independent state.
  • Some Jews believed that a messiah, or anointed
    king send by god, would soon appear to lead their
    people to freedom.

50
A Jewish Rebellion Defeated
  • In A.D. 66, discontent flared into rebellion.
  • Roman forces crushed the rebels, captured
    Jerusalem, and destroyed the Jewish temple.
  • Because of this destruction, thousands of Jews
    decided to leave Judea.

51
Jesus Proclaims His Teachings
  • As turmoil engulfed the Jews a new religion,
    Christianity, arose around them.
  • We know about the life of Jesus through the
    accounts of four followers
  • Matthew
  • Mark
  • Luke
  • John

52
Jesus Begins Teaching
  • Born in 4B.C. in Bethlehem
  • Jesus grew up in Nazareth and worshiped God.
  • At the age of 30 he began preaching the gospel to
    villages near the Sea of Galilee.
  • He recruited 12 disciples to help him with his
    mission. Became know as apostles.

53
Jesus Teaches New Beliefs
  • Belief in one God and the 10 commandments.
  • Jesus called himself, the son of God
  • Emphasized gods love and taught the need for
    justice, morality, and service to others.

54
Condemned to Death
  • Some people regarded Jesus as a dangerous
    troublemaker.
  • Jewish Priests thought he was challenging their
    leadership.
  • Was arrested by the Romans, tried, and condemned
    to death by crucifixion.
  • Jesus had risen from the dead

55
The Message of Christianity Spreads
  • Those Jews that believed Jesus was the messiah
    would be called Christians.
  • Peter and Paul played a huge role in establishing
    Christianity all across Rome.

56
Paul Spread Christianity
  • Paul had never met Jesus but joined the
    Christians and decided to spread Jesus
    teachings.
  • Paul journeyed around the Mediterranean and set
    up churches.

57
Christians Are Oppressed
  • Romes tolerant attitude toward religion was not
    extended to Christianity.
  • Christians had to meet in secret to avoid
    persecution.
  • Martyrs people who suffer or die for their
    beliefs.

58
Rome Accepts Christianity
  • The Roman Emperor Constantine finally ended the
    persecution of Christians with the Edict of Milan.

59
Joining the Church
  • Had to be baptized, or blessed with holy water.
  • Seen as equals and addressed each other and
    brother and sister.
  • Each Sunday Christians gathered for ceremony of
    thanksgiving to God.

60
Structuring Clergy
  • Only men to become members of the Christian
    clergy.
  • Every diocese had its own priest. Over the
    priest presided a bishop.
  • The Bishops of the most important cities gained
    greater authority and took on the name patriarch.
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