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Ancient Rome


Ancient Rome Latifundia Latifundia were large, agricultural estates created from conquered territory (provinces). Wealthy patricians operated the latifundia. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome
Vocabulary Terms- Ancient Rome
  1. Define the following terms republic, patricians,
    consuls, dictator, plebeians, tribunes, veto,
    legion, imperialism, latifudia, census, satirize,
    mosaic, engineering, aqueducts, messiah, clergy,
    bishop, patriarch, popes, heresies, inflation,
  2. Locate and identify on a map - Rome, Carthage,
    Alps, Rhine River, Tiber River, Po River,
    Danube River, Rubicon River, Adriatic Sea,
    Tyrrhenian Sea, Ionian Sea, Sardinia, Corsica,
    and Sicily

Map of the Mediterranean Region
  • Be able to identify and discuss the following
    people, events, places, and ideas
  • Etruscans, Latins, Carthage, Punic Wars,
    Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, Julius Caesar,
    Augustus, Hadrian, Pax Romana, Virgil and the
    Aeneid, Ptolemy, Jesus of Nazareth, apostles,
    Paul, Augustine, Diocletian, Constantine,
    Constantinople, Huns, Germanic tribes (Visigoths,

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Seven Hills of Rome
  • Ancient Rome
  • Geography
  • Advantages
  • Origins of the Roman people and their influences
    on Roman society and culture
  • Latins
  • Greeks
  • Etruscans

The Etruscans
Toga- Etruscans
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Emblem of the Spanish Civil Guard
Roman Society
  • Patricians (from the Latin patres, or father)
  • Plebeians (Latin for multitude)
  • women, children, and slaves ?
  • Roman society was patriarchal.

Roman Virtus
  • pietas
  • fides
  • gravitas
  • dignitas
  • constantia
  • These virtues were taught to young Romans.

  • Chronology
  • The Legendary Founding of Rome is 753 B.C.
  • Period of Monarchy 753 B.C. - 509 B.C.
  • Period of the Republic 509 B.C. c. 27 B.C.
  • Imperial Period c. 27 B.C. - 476 A.D.

Romulus and Remus
Romulus and Remus (2m50s)
  • Period of the Roman Republic (c.509-27 B.C.)
  • The Roman Republic
  • In 509 B.C., the Romans overthrew the last
    Etruscan king and established a republic.
  • republic (res publica)
  • How does a democracy differ from a republic?
  • Composition
  • Senate (300 patricians)
  • Consuls (2 with limited terms and the power to
  • Plebeians?
  • dictators?

  • Cincinnatus

  • Political Rights for the Plebeians
  • What was the difference between patricians and
  • Why were the plebeians important to Rome?
  • 471 B.C., the Council of Plebs was created
  • tribunes
  • 287 B.C., the Council of Plebs could pass laws
    that applied to all
  • Romans
  • Plebeians and the Law?
  • 450 B.C., Twelve Tables
  • (written code of laws)

  • Romes Early Expansion
  • By 338 B.C., Rome subdued all of the Latin states
    in its surrounding area.
  • The Greeks in southern Italy were defeated, and
    the Romans acquired virtually all of Italy by 264

  • Why was Rome successful?
  • Romes early success was a credit to its
    diplomacy and efficient and effective military
  • The Roman Confederation
  • some conquered peoples were
  • given full citizenship most became
  • allies
  • allies administered their own
  • affairs but provided tribute and soldiers
  • to Rome
  • Loyal allies could become Roman citizens

Further Expansion- The Punic Wars
  • Punic Wars
  • The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts
    between Carthage and Rome over control of trade
    in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • First Punic War (264 -241 B.C.)
  • Roman army sent to Sicily
  • Carthage (Punicus)
  • Development of the Roman navy
  • Victory for the Romans
  • Carthage vowed revenge

Rome vs. Carthage
  • Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.)
  • Carthaginian general- Hannibal
  • Attacked Rome by land by crossing the Alps
  • 46,000 men
  • 37 battle elephants
  • Horses
  • Battle at Cannae (216 B.C.)- Roman defeat
  • By 206 B.C. Carthaginians removed from Spain
  • Romes attack on Carthage (Publius Scipio)
  • Battle of Zama (202 B.C.)- Roman victory

  • Third Punic War (146 B.C.)
  • Rome called for the destruction of Carthage
  • Carthage burned
  • Carthaginians sold into slavery
  • Rome dominant in the Mediterranean Sea

The Punic Wars (2m54s)
  • While Rome was engaged in the Punic Wars it also
    expanded eastward
  • Eastern Mediterranean (230-130 B.C.)
  • Mare Nostrum (Latin for our sea)
  • Rapid territorial expansion created political,
    social, and economic problems in the Roman

  • Crisis in the Roman Republic
  • Exploiting the Roman Provinces
  • Non-Italian, conquered territories became
    provinces and were required to pay tribute to
    Rome and accept Roman authority
  • proconsuls, bribery, and graft (corruption)
  • provincial rebellion and the permanent placement
    of soldiers in many provinces

  • Latifundia were large, agricultural estates
    created from conquered territory (provinces).
    Wealthy patricians operated the latifundia.
  • Cheap Land (conquered territory)
  • Cheap Labor (slaves)
  • Cheap Grain
  • Who suffered as a result of the Latifundia?
  • Who made up the backbone of the Roman army?
  • Where did Romans that had been dispossessed of
    their land go?

  • Reformers and Generals
  • Reform Attempts
  • The Gracchi Brothers (133 B.C.- 121 B.C.)
  • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
  • Reform-minded aristocrats the senate had
  • them killed
  • Politics and the Military- Shift in Loyalty
  • General Gaius Marius (elected consul 107 B.C.)
  • Marius gave army jobs to Romes poor and promised
    them land
  • Formation of a professional army loyal to their
  • General Lucius Cornelius Sulla (seized Rome in 82
  • Civil War (82 B.C.-31 B.C.)
  • Sulla seized power militarily

  • The Collapse of the Republic
  • Civil War (82-31 B.C.)
  • The First Triumvirate
  • Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar (60 B.C.)
  • Crassus was killed (53 B.C.) and the Senate
    selected Pompey to rule Rome
  • J. Caesar refused to give up his military command
    when the senate demanded it
  • Instead, Caesar used his army to defeat Pompey in
    battle and seize power in Rome
  • Became dictator in 47 B.C.
  • Instituted programs to benefit the poor
  • Increased the size of the senate
  • A group of senators assassinated him in 44 B.C.

  • The Second Triumvirate formed after Caesars
  • Octavian (Caesars adopted son), Marc Antony,
    and Lepidus
  • In 31 B.C., Octavian defeated Antony at the
    Battle of Actium, thus began the Age of Augustus
  • The Roman senate gave Octavian the title of
    Augustus, the revered one

  • The Roman Empire
  • Augustus Caesar-The Age of Augustus 27 B.C.- 14
  • Augustus standing army
  • Battles with the Germania
  • Pax Romana, Roman Peace
  • Nero
  • The Early Empire 14 A.D. - 180 A.D.
  • Augustus successors- Tiberius, Caligula,
    Claudius, and Nero
  • The Soldier Emperors, the so-called Good
    Emperors Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus
    Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
  • commercial expansion, massive engineering feats,
    and more conquests
  • Death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 A.D., end of the
    Pax Romana

Marcus Aurelius
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  • Rome and Religion
  • The traditional Roman religion
  • Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, and Mars- based on the
    Greek gods
  • Emperors considered to be gods
  • Romans believed that their success at empire
    building meant the gods favored them
  • The Romans were tolerant of other religions
    provided that all recognize the Roman state
    religion also. Problem?
  • Judaism is the Roman Empire
  • In the first century B.C., Judea became a Roman
  • Judaism and monotheism (Rome made an exception)
  • high taxes and corruption
  • Zealots/rebellion against Rome in 66 A.D.
  • Destruction of the Jewish temple in Jerusalem in
    70 A.D.
  • Diaspora

  • Christianity from Judaism
  • Jesus of Nazareth (c.4 B.C.-29 A.D.)
  • Jewish teachings
  • The Disciples
  • The New Testament and the Gospels
  • Saul of Tarsus (Paul)
  • The Rise of Christianity
  • Reasons for Christianitys growth
  • More personal than the Roman religions and
    offered eternal life and salvation (popularity of
    eastern mystery cults)
  • Offered immortality through the sacrificial death
    of a savior-god
  • Fulfilled the human need to belong
  • Christianity prospered in the fourth century A.D.
  • Constantine became the first Christian emperor of
  • Edict of Milan (313 A.D.) Christianity tolerated
    in the empire
  • Under Theodosius (395 A.D.), Christianity became
    the state religion of Rome

The Growth of Christianity
The Growth of Christianity
The Growth of Christianity
Christianity John Greens Crash Course (11m37s)
  • The Decline of the Empire
  • Political instability following the death of
    Marcus Aurelius in 180 A.D.
  • 192-284 A.D. the army installed 28 emperors most
    of them were killed
  • Other Significant Problems
  • foreign invasion
  • (Germanic tribes and Persians)
  • disease
  • civil war
  • economic problems
  • Rome began to hire Germanic warriors to serve

    as auxiliary troops in the army.

  • Reform Efforts
  • Diocletian (284-305 A.D.)
  • Enlarged the army
  • Divided the empire into two administrative
  • Administering the vast territories of the empire
    had drained Romes treasury
  • Strict price and wage controls for the empire
  • Edict of Prices- wages were set and so was the
    maximum prices for goods
  • Farmers who rented were bound to the land for

  • Constantine (312-337 A.D.)
  • Economic policies
  • Established a new capital at Byzantium (330 A.D.)
  • Byzantium, renamed Constantinople, became the
    center of the Roman Empire in the East (The
    Byzantine empire)
  • After Constantines rule, Rome had two capitals,
    Rome in the west and Constantinople in the east.
  • Constantine was the first Roman emperor to
    accept Christianity

  • Theodosius the Great (r.337-395 A.D.)
  • 395 A.D.- Divided the Roman empire into two
    separate empire.
  • Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire)
  • Greek, commercial, Orthodox Christianity
  • Roman Empire (Western Roman Empire)
  • Latin, agricultural, Catholic Christianity

  • The Fall of the Roman Empire
  • The Barbarian Invasions
  • Germanic tribes- Visigoths, Ostrogoths,
  • Vandals, Franks, Angles, Saxon
  • Why did they invade Rome?
  • Warmer climates and better land
  • Many wanted a share of Romes wealth
  • The migration of the Asiatic Huns
  • forced the Germanic tribes to press into
  • the empire
  • Peter Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire A
  • History of Rome and the Barbarians (2006)
  • Visigoths defeated a Roman army at Adrianople in
    378 A.D.
  • 410 A.D. the Visigoths sacked Rome
  • 455 A.D. the Vandals attacked Rome
  • 476 A.D. the last emperor of the western Roman
    empire, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed

The Huns
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  • Romes Fall in West
  • The eastern Roman empire, the Byzantine Empire,
    continued to flourish for 1000 years until the
    fifteenth century A.D.
  • The western Roman empire no longer existed as a
    political entity. Instead, it was dismantled and
    became a region of numerous German kingdoms.
  • The medieval society that followed the fall of
    Rome blended elements of Roman society (law,
    Latin, Church) with those of the Germanic
    societies (leadership, customs)