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Ancient Rome

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Ancient Rome Early Western Civilization Chapter Three Etruscan Civilization The Etruscans The Etruscans were a group of people who were from northern Italy. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Rome


1
Ancient Rome
  • Early Western Civilization
  • Chapter Three

2
Etruscan Civilization
3
The Etruscans
  • The Etruscans were a group of people who were
    from northern Italy.
  • Italy had been ruled by 7 kings and it is thought
    that the last 3 were Etruscans.
  • The Etruscans greatly influenced the city of
    Rome. They built temples, shops, roads, and
    homes and influenced other aspects of Roman
    culture as well.

4
Etruscan Tomb Painting
5
The Apian Way
6
The Founding of Rome
  • The city of Rome was founded by twin brothers
    Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C.E.
  • According to legend they were from a wealthy
    family and were abandoned by their uncle.
  • A She-wolf took them in and raised them.
  • Romulus killed his brother Remus and took control
    as leader of Rome.

7
The She-Wolf
8
Ancient Rome
9
Social and Political Order
10
Social and Political Order
11
Social and Political Order
  • Although both groups were Roman citizens, their
    rights were different.
  • Both Patricians and Plebians could vote.
  • Both had the right to make legal contracts, and
    marry, but intermarriage between the classes was
    not allowed.
  • Patricians were the only ones allowed to hold
    office.

12
Social and Political Order
  • In the later years of the Republic the Plebians
    became more powerful.
  • They created a new assembly (Council of Plebs) in
    471. New leaders called Tribunes protected the
    Plebians. A new law allowed intermarriage.
  • In 278 B.C.E. the Council received the right to
    pass laws for all Romans.

13
City of Rome During the Republic Period
14
The Roman Conquest of Italy
  • In 509 the last Etruscan monarch was overthrown
    as ruler of Rome and a Republican system of
    government was initiated.

15
Carthage
16
The Punic Wars
  • Punic is the Latin word for Phoencian. The
    Phoencians controlled Carthage in earlier times.
  • The Romans sent an army to Sicily in order to
    intervene in a local dispute. The Carthaginians
    considered this an invasion of their territory.

17
The Punic Wars
  • 241 Carthage gave up all rights to Sicily due to
    Roman dominance in naval strength.
  • Hanibal (a Carthaginian) began the second Punic
    War when he retaliated against Roman attempts to
    get Spain to invade Carthage.
  • Hanibal led an army of 30,000- 40,000 men, 6,000
    horses and elephants across the Alps and defeated
    the Romans.

18
The Punic Wars
  • The Carthaginians, under Hannibal were not
    successful in maintaining control over Roman
    cities.
  • Rome invade Carthage and beat Hannibal and his
    men. A peace treaty was signed in 201 B.C.E.
    Carthage lost Spain.
  • 50 years later Rome went to war again and this
    time Rome destroyed the Carthage in 146 B.C.E.
    and claimed it as a Roman province called Africa.

19
Roman Conquests in the Mediterranean
20
From Republic to Empire
  • Tiberius Gracchus represented interests of Romes
    lower class. He served as Tribune.
  • He wanted to limit the amount of land controlled
    by the Patricians.
  • He was assassinated in 132 B.C.E.
  • His brother Gaius Gracchus continued his
    brothers reforms.

21
Gaius Marius
  • General in the Roman army. He was prominent in
    the late 2nd century B.C.E.
  • Civil War breaks out in Rome and Marius seizes
    Rome in 87 B.C.E. He recruited a private army to
    support him from landless residents.

22
Sulla
  • After Marius dies in 87 B.C.E., Sulla seized
    control of Rome. He institutes a reign of terror
    that lasts about five years.
  • Julius Caesar, Marius nephew, came to power and
    instituted liberal policies and social reform.

23
Julius Caesar Conquers Gaul
24
Roman Fort
25
Roman Britain
26
City of Bath- England
27
Roman North Africa- Lepcis Magna
28
Hadrians Wall
29
Roman Empire 117 A.D.
30
Octavian a.k.a. Augustus Caesar
  • Octavian became the first Roman Emperor in 27
    B.C.E.
  • The Senate gave him the title of Augustus which
    meant revered one.

31
Julius Caesar
  • In 47 B.C.E. he seized power in Rome and was made
    dictator. A short time later, in 44 B.C.E. he
    was given the title dictator for life.
  • He made land reforms and gave land to the poor.
  • He increased the Senate to 900 members and then
    packed it with supporters of his reforms.

32
Julius Caesar
  • He gave people in the provinces who had helped
    him, the status of Roman citizen.
  • He began a number of public works projects and
    military campaigns in the east.
  • He was assassinated by a group of senators in 44
    B.C.E.

33
Augustus (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.)
  • He created a standing army of 150,000 men split
    into legions of around 5,000 men each.
  • Only Roman citizens could be legionaries.
    Subject peoples in the provinces and else where
    could serve under the legionaries.
  • Augustus also created the Praetorian guard which
    were his own personal guards. They numbered
    about 9,000 men.

34
The Pax Romana
  • This is a period of peace and prosperity which
    begins with Augustus and continues for 200 years.
  • Augustus begins the Julio-Claudian line which
    ends with Nero.
  • After Nero there is a civil war and Vespasian
    becomes emperor.

35
Family Life in the Roman Empire
  • The family included all household members who
    lived together.
  • Father of the family ruled the household
  • Women had considerable power in their own
    families and many ran businesses and managed
    estates.
  • Ancestor worship was extremely important to the
    family.

36
Roman Family Life
37
Urban Life- Insula (everyday home)
38
Slavery
  • Slaves made up 1/3 of the Roman population.
  • Working conditions for slaves in the cities were
    somewhat better.
  • Laborers would often be chained together while
    working in the fields.
  • Spartacus uprising in 73 B.C.E. was the largest
    slave revolt, but not the only one.

39
The Colosseum
40
Temple of Jupiter (Lebanon)
41
Pompeii Ruins
42
Villa of the Mysteries- Pompeii
43
Pompeii
  • Etruscan town that was conquered by Rome.
  • At the time of its destruction it had a
    population of 20,000
  • A favorite resort of wealthy Romans and Emperors.

44
Pompeii
45
Bath House
46
Basillica of Maxentius
47
The Pantheon 128 A.D.
  • Commissioned by Emperor Hadrin
  • Started in 118 A.D.
  • It is a clock of sorts. It tells the time by
    rays of light hitting the sculptures inside.

48
Questions
  1. What is the story of how Rome started?
  2. Describe the political and social order in early
    ancient Rome.
  3. What happened in the Punic Wars?
  4. Why was Julius Caesar so important?
  5. Describe Roman Family Life.
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