Ancient Rome - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Ancient Rome PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3ff7da-NzViO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Ancient Rome

Description:

Ancient Rome & its World ... 330 Ancient Greek city of Byzantium Capital of the empire Favorable position Economic (ports, ... deferential society Women s Role ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:467
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 77
Provided by: Soc51
Learn more at: http://www.historyappreciation.com
Category:
Tags: ancient | greek | rome | women

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Ancient Rome


1
Ancient Rome
  • its World

2
Roman Geography
3
(No Transcript)
4
Italian Peninsula 750 BCE
  • Influences
  • Etruscans
  • Greeks
  • Latium region
  • Latins and Sabines.
  • tribal, agrarian

5
Reflections on the Etruscan CivilizationBy
Graziano Baccolini
  • I can never succeed in understanding why Italians
    still fail to recognize the enormous contribution
    that the Etruscan civilization has made to our
    Western civilization. We keep on believing the
    teaching that the Greeks and above all the Romans
    are the peoples to whom the Western world owes
    its origins. All of this is considerably
    exaggerated and based on historical falsehoods.
    However, I have ascertained instead that it is
    the Etruscans, coming from the East, who are the
    true founders of our European culture,

6
Etruscans
  • Settled between 900 - 800 BCE
  • Origins unknown, possibly eastern Mediterranean,
    possibly Asia Minor
  • Brought civilization and urbanization to Italian
    Peninsula
  • Single most important influence on Roman culture
    in its transition to civilization.

7
Chimera
8
Etruscan society Contributions
  • Architecture Engineering
  • Arch used in gates bridges
  • FORUM plan
  • Women play a fairly significant role
  • Alphabet a variation of Greek, foundation for
    Latin (isolate language)
  • Religion
  • anthropomorphic gods
  • divination (augury)
  • Artistic Legacy

9
ROMAN BEGINNINGS.
  • As the Etruscans developed their civilization in
    the North, what events were taking place south
    along the Tiber River?

10
The Forum
  • political and economical center of Rome during
    the Republic
  • It emerged in the 7th century BCE
  • maintained well into the Imperial period
  • reduced to a monumental area

11
Roman Origins
  • Legend and mythology ???
  • Ancient writers such as Livy and Herodotus
  • Archeological evidence
  • Virgils Aeneid
  • Titus Livius , The History of Rome
  • Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome.
  • Romulus murdered Remus
  • Romulus - the first King of Rome

12
(No Transcript)
13
Rise of Roman Power
  • Consolidation of Italian Peninsula
  • (5th C 3rd C BCE)
  • Rome a city state w/ Etruscan Kings - liberated
    509 BCE
  • Continual Battle for control
  • Organization of Governing Body

14
The Roman Legion
15
Roman Republic
  • Structure Society
  • Government
  • Law
  • Family
  • Gender
  • Artistic Legacy as a reflection of values and
    society
  • Foreign Relations

16
Making sense of the Roman Republic
  1. What is meant by republic and is the Roman
    Republic a democratic system? Explain.
  2. Romans are perhaps best remembered for their law
    code, first created during the Republic period.
    What was, and continues to be, so significant
    about this law code?
  3. What aspects of the Roman system do you see as
    being problematic in terms of its future success?

17
Roman Republic
  • 509 BCE Rome is liberated
  • 270 BCE control of entire Peninsula
  • 2 Consuls
  • (Rulers of Rome)
  • Senate
  • (Representative body for patricians)
  • Tribal Assembly
  • (Representative body for plebeians)

DICTATOR During war or conflict
18
Roman RoadsAppian Way
Built Roman Cultural Identity Soldiers spread
throughout Taxation, citizenship in some cases
19
The Twelve Tables, 450 BCE
  • CODE OF LAW
  • Earliest (surviving) piece of literature
  • Created out of the struggle for legal and social
    protection and civil rights between
  • PATRICIANS the privileged class
  • PLEBEIANS the common people
  • Bound both parties to the agreement
  • Magistrates (the 2 consuls) were to enforce
    impartially.

20
The Twelve Tables
  • TABLE I Procedure for courts and trials
  • TABLE II Trials, continued.
  • TABLE III Debt
  • TABLE IV Rights of fathers (paterfamilias) over
    the family
  • TABLE V Legal guardianship and inheritance laws
  • TABLE VI Acquisition and possession
  • TABLE VII Land rights
  • TABLE VIII Torts (Laws of injury)
  • TABLE IX Public law
  • TABLE X Sacred law

Plebeians also won TRIBUNE w/VETO
Power Continued to gain more participation in
government
21
V. 1 "Our ancestors saw fit that "females, by
reason of levity of disposition, shall remain in
guardianship, even when they have attained their
majority." XI. 1 "Marriage shall not take place
between a patrician and a plebeian."What do
these tell us about Roman society?
  • Excerpts from Twelve Tables

22
Insights from the Twelve Tables
  • main bonds which hold the society together and
    allow it to operate are
  • the clan (genos, gens)
  • patronage (patron/client)
  • the inherent (and inherited) right of the
    patricians to leadership (in war, religion, law,
    and government).

23
Recap
  • What strategies/methods did the Romans implement
    in their takeover of the Italian Peninsula?
  • Why would it be correct to say that the
    Mediterranean Sea was the most significant
    geographic feature in the development of the
    Roman Empire?
  • How did Roman expansion influence their
    relationship with their neighbors?

24
Carthaginians
25
218BCE after 1st Punic War
26
Punic Wars
  • Roman Carthaginian Rivalry
  • 264 BCE- 146 BCE

1st Punic War 2nd Punic War 3rd Punic War
Roman victory Sardinia Corsica Sicily Hannibal invades Rome Romans invade Carthage Romans defeat Hannibal at Zama Romans invaded Carthage Sold survivors into slavery Salted the earth
Rome establishes provinces in North Africa
27
Hannibals RouteSecond Punic War, 218BCE
28
Siege of Carthage
29
100BCE After 3rd Punic War
30
(No Transcript)
31
Evaluating the Success of the Republic
  • In what ways was the Roman Republic a success?
  • In what ways was the Roman Republic a failure?
  • How could the creation of an empire essentially
    bring about an end to the government of the
    republic?

32
Roman Empire
  • Civil War Transition

33
From Republic to Empire
  • Civil War Emerged from the spoils chaos of
    conquest
  • Excess wealth from cheap labor and markets
  • Sizeable slave population
  • Corruption greed
  • Widening gap between rich poor
  • Calls for reform
  • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus (Tribunes)
  • the poor should be given grain and small plots of
    free land.
  • Assassinated

34
Political Turmoil
  • Civil War gave rise to professional armies,
    instead of citizen soldiers
  • Loyal to commanders, not senate or consuls
  • Competition among
  • old Republicans who believed Senate should hold
    the power
  • Popular leaders (reformers, commanders)
  • ENTER. JULIUS CAESAR Consul Commander

35
Julius Caesar Veni, vidi, vici
  • Conquered Gaul 59 BCE
  • Crossed the Rubicon
  • Marched on Rome disregarded Senate Pompeys
    orders
  • Ruled as a dictator
  • maintained Senate which had no real power
  • Reforms
  • Public works, increased citizenship, created
    jobs, calendar

36
Beware the Ides of March
Senators feared Caesar's growing power
37
What should be the legacy of Julius Caesar?
  • Provide examples in support of your decision

38
Julius Caesar was a reformer who was working in
the best interest of the Roman people when his
life was cut short by assassins.
Julius Caesar was a dictator who intended to use
his popularity to usurp the power of the Senate
and establish a monarchy to benefit himself and
his family.
Julius Caesars true objectives will never be
known, but given the available evidence I believe
his legacy is best described as having pitted
Roman against Roman and ultimately destroying the
Roman Republic.
Julius Caesars true objectives will never be
known, but given the available evidence I believe
his legacy is best described as having laid
the foundation for the great Roman Empire.
39
(No Transcript)
40
AD 337 At its Peak
41
Civil War Again!
  • Caesars supporters joined forces to capture
    murderers
  • Caesars chief general Marc Antony
  • Caesars grandnephew Octavian
  • Power struggle ensued between Antony Octavian
  • The Age of Empire had begun.

42
Antony Cleopatra
43
Roman Empire
  • 31BCE Octavian defeated Antony Cleopatra
  • 27 BCE Senate bestowed title Augustus
  • Religious connotation, divine, semi-divine
  • Monarchy disguised as republic
  • Preserved traditional offices
  • New standing army loyal to emperor
  • Ruled for 45 years
  • Initiated Pax Romana

Augustus of Prima Porta
44
AD 14 At the time of Octavian Augustus Death
45
Pax Romana
  • ROMAN PEACE
  • Wealth brought greater Urban development of Rome
  • Circus Maximus, The Coliseum, Aqueducts
  • Development of Cities (Paris, London, Lyon,
    Toledo)
  • Interdependence
  • Specialization of Agriculture
  • Facilitation of Trade and Communication
  • Postal Service, Roads
  • Roman law (added to and adapted 12 Tables)
  • Innocent until proven guilty
  • Right to face accusers in court of law

46
Mare Nostrum
47
Roman Roads
North African road almost 3,000 miles
All Roads Lead to Rome
48
(No Transcript)
49
Coliseum Circus Maximus
50
Aqueducts
51
Engineering an Empire
52
How had life changed for people during Pax Romana?
  • Consider

53
Roman Society
  • What aspects stayed the same as the Republic and
    what changed?
  • Growth of New Social Classes
  • Merchants, contractors, engineers, landowners
  • Pater Familias
  • Father of the family patriarchal, deferential
    society
  • Womens Role
  • Domestic affairs, inheritance influence grew
    over time
  • Slavery
  • 1/3rd of Population growth of slave population
  • revolts

54
73 BCE Spartacus Revolt
55
Politics Religion
  • Polytheism to Monotheism

56
Belief Systems of the Early Roman Empire
  • Polytheistic spirits (unlike Greece) Pantheon of
    deities (like Greece)
  • Jupiter principle god
  • Rituals, Sacrifices, Priests Priestess
  • Tolerant, blended with other local religions
  • Religions of Salvation (saved for a better
    afterlife)
  • Cult of Isis
  • Jewish Community problematic to Roman Emperor
    Because of monotheistic nature
  • Jewish War 66 70AD
  • Emergence of Christian Jewish Sect- followers of
    Jesus of Nazareth

57
Early Christian Beliefs Practices
  • Monotheistic
  • Jesus of Nazareth Savior son of God
  • Salvation equally accessible to all
  • Eternal life - Salvation
  • Rich, poor, men, women
  • High moral standards of conduct
  • Faith ahead of personal family interests
  • Regional variations according to bishops
  • Role of women, ordination, account of Jesus life
    impact

challenges to traditional Roman society
58
Spread of Christianity
59
(No Transcript)
60
How are Roman officials likely to respond to the
growth of the Christian sect?Why might
Christianity become more of a concern for the
Romans than the Jewish sect?
61
Christian relationship with Early Roman Empire
  • Missionary Component
  • St Paul of Tarsus traveled throughout
    Mediterranean bringing converts to Christian
    Community
  • Appealed to lower classes, women, urban
    populations
  • Sizeable Christian population by 300 CE
  • ProblemRefused to honor Roman deities or
    recognize Emperor as having an element of
    divinity
  • Sporadic campaigns by Empire to persecute
    eliminate Christians

62
Back to Politics
  • What changes were taking place in the Empire by
    the 3rd Century?
  • What were some of the problems the Empire might
    be experiencing?

63
Later Empire Fundamental Political Changes
  • Accession of Diocletian to the throne in A.D.
    284.
  • Roles of consul, tribune, senate lost any
    remaining significance, and were practically
    abolished.
  • 292, Diocletian created a Tetrarchy
  • A co-Augustus in the West
  • Two lesser rulers (Caesars)
  • Each emperor ruled in his own territory
  • defending the frontiers
  • suppressing revolts

64
Emperor Constantine
  • Ruled 306 to 337
  • ruled the Western Empire
  • proclaimed emperor by the legions of Gaul
  • Battle of the Milvian Bridge
  • Ended the civil wars of the Tetrarchy
  • 323 Constantine became sole Emperor of the whole
    Roman world

65
Constantines Conversion
  • Vision in battle -Constantine had soldiers wear
    crucifix symbol into battle
  • 313 - Edict of Milan granted by Constantine
  • religious freedom throughout the Roman Empire
  • restitution of property confiscated from
    Christians.
  • Constantine's profession of Christianity deprived
    it of much of its independence
  • used the church as an instrument of imperial
    policy
  • imposed upon the church his imperial ideology

66
Constantinople
  • Dedicated on May 11, 330
  • Ancient Greek city of Byzantium
  • Capital of the empire
  • Favorable position
  • Economic (ports, trade)
  • Political (eastern fronts)
  • Christian Capital
  • Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom)

67
(No Transcript)
68
(No Transcript)
69
Hagia Sophia
70
Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Not one specific cause
  • Internal Decay
  • External pressures
  • Timing consistent with Fall of Asian Empires
  • Crises of Late Antiquity


71
Internal Decay
  • Disease epidemics
  • small pox, measles
  • Economic drain
  • Centralization unmanageable
  • Rise of regional self sufficiency
  • Political turmoil
  • succession crises
  • Widening gap between rich and poor

72
External pressures
  • Germanic invasions
  • Late 4th Century Huns
  • Attila the Hun
  • Aggressive westward migration
  • Invaded Hungary, Balkans, Northern Italy
  • Pressure on other Germanic groups
  • Visigoths, Franks, Vandals
  • Invaded Roman territories
  • Rome sacked 410
  • 476 Imperial Authority came to an end

73
(No Transcript)
74
(No Transcript)
75
Crisis of Late Antiquity
76
Sources
  • http//www.unrv.com/empire/founding.php
  • http//www.csun.edu/hcfll004/12tables.html
  • http//sights.seindal.dk/sight/4_Forum_Romanum.htm
    l
  • http//history-world.org/christianity20conversion
    _of_constantine.htm
  • http//www.earlychurch.org.uk/constantine.php
About PowerShow.com