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AKS 32: Ancient Rome


Ancient Rome Chapter 6 Pages 155-183 The Fall of the Roman Empire Political Reasons Civil war and unrest Division of empire Western emperors can no longer rely on ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AKS 32: Ancient Rome

AKS 32 Ancient Rome
  • Chapter 6
  • Pages 155-183

32a Explain how geographic features cultural
diffusion affected the development of Roman

The Legend 753 B.C. Rome is founded (according to
the legend)
  • Founded by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the
    god Mars
  • Twins abandoned raised by she-wolf
  • Romulus killed Remus and founded city of Rome

Roman Geography
  • Chosen for
  • Fertile soil
  • Strategic location
  • Center of Italian peninsula in center of
    Mediterranean Sea
  • Seven hills on the Tiber River

The First Romans
  • Three Groups
  • Latins
  • Found original settlement of Rome between 1000
    and 500 B.C.
  • Greeks
  • These prosperous and commercially active cities
    brought all of Italy, including Rome, into closer
    contact with Greek civilization
  • Etruscans
  • Native to Northern Italy
  • They had a lot of cultural influence on the
    Latins. (alphabet, architecture, arch, togas,
    and trade)

Romes Religion and Values
  • Both the Greeks and the Etruscans had an
    influence on the development of Roman religion.
  • polytheists who believed in many gods and
  • The Romans took the legends and stories of the
    Greek gods and renamed them for themselves.
  • Values Gravitas
  • Gravitas
  • emphasized discipline, strength, and loyalty. A
    person with these values was said to have the
    important virtue of gravitas, weightiness or
  • The Romans honored strength more than beauty,
    power more than grace, usefulness more that
    elegance, and steadiness more than quickness of
  • The father is the head of the household

32b - compare the origins and structure the Roman
Republic and the Roman Empire 32d - trace the
development of Rome from Republic to Empire

600 B.C. Etruscan becomes king of Rome
  • Kings build Romes first temples and public

Ruins of the Forum, the political center of the
Roman Empire, still stand in present-day Rome
509 B.C. Roman aristocrats overthrow monarchy
  • Established a republic
  • Govt in which citizens elect leaders
  • Citizen adult males who own land
  • Two groups struggled for power
  • Patricians
  • Plebeians

The Roman Republic Patricians Plebeians
  • Patricians
  • Wealthy landowning class that holds most of the
  • Plebeians
  • Artisans, merchants, farmers
  • Can vote, but cant rule
  • Birth alone determined every Romans social and
    political status. Marriage between the patrician
    and plebeian classes were forbidden.

Struggle of Orders
  • Plebeians were barred by law from holding most
    important positions in government(commanding
    armies, serving as high priests, or holding high
  • Thousands of plebeians refused to fight in the
    Roman army unless patricians agreed to certain
    reforms. They gained access to many political
    offices and obtained favorable laws.

The Roman Republic 451 B.C. Officials began
writing the Twelve Tables (Legal Code)
  • Became basis for later Roman law
  • Laws confirm right of all free citizens to
    protection of the law
  • Citizenship is limited to adult male landowners
  • Tables were hung in the Forum

The Roman Republic Government Executive Branch
  • Consuls
  • Two Rulers
  • One leads army, one to direct government
  • Served 1-year term
  • Could not serve again for another 10 years
  • One consul could always overrule, or veto, the
    others decisions
  • Elected by the senate
  • Could appoint a temporary dictator for 6 months
    in times of crisis

The Roman Republic Government
  • Praetors
  • 8 judges chosen for one year by the Centuriate
  • 1 judge oversaw civil court
  • 1 judge oversaw criminal court
  • Other 6 governed the provinces

The Roman Republic Government
  • Others
  • Aediles
  • Plebeians in charge of religious festivals,
    public games, temples, upkeep of city, regulation
    of marketplaces, grain supply
  • Quaestors
  • financial officers
  • Tribunes
  • Elected representatives who protected the rights
    of plebeians and made laws for the common people
    and the republic
  • Censors
  • elected every 5 years to conduct census, enroll
    new citizens, review roll of senate
  • Dictator
  • in times of military emergency appointed by
    consuls limited to 6 months

The Roman Republic Government
  • Senate
  • Chosen from upper class (patricians)
  • Served for life
  • Advised consuls
  • 300 members
  • Responsible for making foreign and domestic policy

The Roman Republic Government Legislative
  • Curiate Assembly
  • Oldest unit of organization
  • Controlled by patricians
  • Became obsolete as a legislative body but
    preserved certain functions as witnessing
    religious affairs

The Roman Republic Government
  • Tribal Assembly
  • Ordinary citizens (plebeians)
  • Served for life
  • Elects 10 Tribunes to speak for their interests
  • By using bribes, the ruling oligarchy of
    patricians and wealthy plebeians maintained
    control over the Assembly, and the Senate
    remained a bastion of aristocratic power

The Roman Republic Government
  • Centuriate Assembly
  • Soldiers only
  • Chose the consuls
  • Oversee civil and criminal courts
  • Served for life
  • Help to make laws

The Roman Republic The Roman Army
  • Roman Legion
  • Military unit of 5,000 infantry (foot soldiers)
  • Supported by cavalry (soldiers on horseback)
  • Century each legion was broken up into smaller
    groups of 80 soldiers
  • Army was powerful
  • This was a key factor in Romes rise to greatness
  • Each citizen was required to serve in the
  • No one could hold public office until they first
    served ten years as a soldier.

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The Roman Republic Roman Power Spreads
  • Conquers Italy
  • Roman defeat Etruscans in the north Greek
    city-states in the south
  • By 265 B.C., Rome controlled the Italian
  • Conquered peoples were treated justly this
    allowed Rome to grow
  • Latin neighbors were treated as full citizens.
  • In territories far from Rome, people were given
    half-citizenship. They enjoyed all the
    privileges of a Roman citizen except the right to
  • Allies of Rome were required to contribute troops
    to the Roman army and could only be allied with
    Rome. They were free to govern their own

The Roman Republic Romes Commercial Network
  • Established a large trade network
  • Their access to the Mediterranean Sea provided
    many trade routes
  • Carthage, a powerful city-state in North Africa,
    rivaled Rome

G/H Warm Up
  1. The planets are named after _______
  2. Who founded the city of Rome?
  3. What did the Romans learn from the Etruscans?
  4. On what river is the city located? Why?
  5. How did the Romans govern conquered people?
  6. Describe the different branches of the Roman
  7. What is a Republic?
  8. Why was the Delian League established?
  9. What was the impact of the Peloponnesian War?
  10. Rome was divided into what two classes?

CP Warm Up
  1. What is a Republic?
  2. Name the 3 groups that settled the Italian
    Peninsular? Where did they settle on the
  3. When is a dictator put in charge of the Roman
    government? How long does he maintain control?
  4. Which body in Roman government represented the
  5. What are the Twelve Tables?

The Roman Republic The Punic Wars
  • Rome vs. Carthage
  • 3 Wars that took place between 264-146 B.C.

The Roman Republic The Punic Wars
  • First Punic War
  • Cause
  • Rome feared Carthages designs on the northern
    Sicilian city of Messana.
  • Rome fearing that Carthage would use Messana
    either to attack them or to interfere with their
    trade. Rome decided that the security of its
    allies required intervention in Sicily.
  • Lasted 23 years
  • Rome defeats Carthage
  • Gains Sicily
  • Forced the Carthagians to pay tribute
  • Rome will later seize Corsica and Sardinia

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Second Punic War (Hannibal
The Roman Republic The Punic Wars
  • Second Punic War
  • Hannibal (Carthaginian General) attacked from the
    north by traveling through Spain, France, and
    through the Alps
  • Made it down into Italian Peninsula, but was
    unable to take Rome
  • Scipio (Roman General) defeated Hannibal in 202

The Battle of Zama
  • Scipio, a great Roman general, attacked Carthage
    and forced Hannibal to run. This ended the
    Second Punic War.
  • This battle is one of the few in history that
    could have changed the course of history. If
    Hannibal had won, Carthage, not Rome would have
    become the greatest empire in the world.

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In between Punic Wars Rome had to deal with the
  • Conflict arose partly because pirates and
    ambitious local lords ignored the weakening
    Hellenistic rulers and threatened regional
  • Roman leaders dispatched armies to protect the
    interests of Roman citizens and merchants.
  • these expeditions led to conflict with the
    Anigonids (rulers of Macedonia) and Seleucids (
    rulers of Syria and Anatolia)
  • Macedonia
  • Philip V of Macedonia who supported Hannibal was
    trying to control all the areas around the Aegean
    Sea and the citizens of Rhodes and Pergamum asked
    for Romes help
  • Mesopatamia and Anatolia
  • Seleucids, rulers of Syria and Anatolia and who
    supported Hannibal after the Battle of Zama, try
    to capture Egypt
  • Egypt is declared protected by Rome
  • 215-148 BC Rome fought five major wars, mostly
    in Macedon and Anatolia, against the Antigonid
    and Seleucid opponents
  • Rome was the victor and controlled the former
    lands of Alexander the Greats empire through
    alliances or direct control.

The Roman Republic The Punic Wars
  • Third Punic War
  • Rome destroyed Carthage
  • Salted their fields (to prevent crops from being
    able to grow)
  • Enslaved Carthaginian people

  • What is a Republic?
  • What did the Romans learn form the Etruscans?
  • What was the first important win for the
  • When gaining control of other areas, how did the
    Romans deal with the issue of citizenship?
  • What is a significant result of the Punic Wars?
  • Why are the Twelve Tables significant?
  • Name the river on which the city of Rome was
  • Which part of the government held the most power
    during the Roman Republic?
  • Why did the Greeks create colonies throughout the
  • What was a negative long term effect of the
    Persian Wars?

  • What is a republic?
  • In times of crisis who was placed in charge of
    the republic?
  • Name the river on which the city of Rome was
  • Through what part of government did the
    patricians rule the republic?
  • Name the group of early settlers who established
    colonies in southern Italy and Sicily.
  • Who was the Macedonian King who conquered Greece?
  • What did the Romans learn from the Etruscans?
  • Why are the Twelve Tables important?
  • Who controlled the Roman senate? (hint they are
    upper class citizens)
  • What is a important result of the Punic Wars?

Quick Warm Up
  1. Roman aristocrats or the upper class
  2. Roman commoners or the lower class.
  3. Romulus founded Rome on the _________ River
  4. They colonized the southern portion of the
    Italian peninsula
  5. They settled the northern portion of the Italian
  6. Romes first written and public law code.
  7. This Carthaginian general was defeated in a war
    with Rome.
  8. These wars gave Rome control of the
  9. A type of government where the citizens elect
    their representatives (leaders.)
  10. This person was elected/chosen during times when
    Rome was under an immediate threat and served for
    six months.
  11. These people served for life and were a part of
    the most powerful governing body in the Roman
  12. A type of government where citizens vote on
  13. They served for one year in the Roman government
    and had veto power.
  • Consuls
  • Senators
  • Dictator
  • Patrician
  • Plebian
  • Latins
  • Etruscans
  • Greeks
  • Hannibal
  • Scipio
  • Tiber
  • 12 Tables
  • Punic
  • Peloponnesian
  • Democracy
  • Republic

Collapse of the Roman Republic Economic Collapse
  • Social and Economic Problems
  • The rich depended on the labor of slaves. As a
    result of the First Punic War, 75,000 people were
  • Slaves become 1/3rd of the total population
  • Slaves work as domestic servants, artisans,
    bookkeepers, scribes, administrators, plantation
    workers, miners, prostitutes
  • Gap between rich poor widened as the Roman
    Republic grew
  • Farmers, most former soldiers, lose their land to
    large estates become homeless
  • The once sturdy and independent Roman farmer, who
    had done all that his country had asked of him,
    was becoming part of a vast urban underclass-
    destitute, embittered, and alienated
  • latifundia huge farming estates used strictly
    for the business of cattle raising.
  • proletariat new class of urban, landless, poor.
    The people of this class were the poorest Romans.
    Because they had no work, they became a
    dangerous and discontented mob within the city.

Collapse of the Roman Republic Class struggles
  • Tiberius
  • He was elected as a tribune (tribune elected
    official who speaks on the behalf of the
  • called for the government to limit the size of
    large estates, and distribute the land to the
  • He is later beaten to death by Roman senators on
    election day
  • He was running for reelection.
  • 300 of his followers were also executed and their
    bodies were dumped into the Tiber River.

  • Gaius Gracchus
  • Ten years later after his brothers death Gaius
    was elected tribune
  • Pushed laws weakening the Senate and had programs
    dealing with unemployment.
  • Promised full citizenship to all Italians.
  • Aided the poor by reintroducing his brothers
    plan for land distribution
  • enabled the poor to buy grain from the state at
    less than half the market price.
  • Senate was displeased
  • Offers a large reward for his death
  • Gaius is eventually killed.
  • By killing the Gracchi, the Senate had
    substituted violence for reason and made murder a
    means of coping with troublesome opposition.
  • The Roman Republic was on a downward spiral. The
    poor felt disenfranchised, the Senate was
    corrupt, and the Tribal Assembly, the voice of
    the common man, demonstrated a weakness for

Collapse of the Roman Republic Rise of Generals
and Professional Army
  • Military became disloyal and less disciplined
  • Soldiers were recruited from the poor and showed
    loyalty only to their generals
  • These leaders now used the armies for their own
    political advancements. It was now possible for
    rival politicians, each supported by their own
    army to win power by force or arms.

Collapse of the Roman Republic Civil War btwn
Marius and Sulla
  • Marius
  • saved Rome from Germanic tribes and was reelected
    consul 5 times in a row.
  • Professional army- After Marius, soldiers did not
    fight for the republic, but instead for the
    military leader.
  • Sulla
  • He was Marius rival.
  • Was given a coveted position of defending the
    empire against barbarians
  • Marius with his influence over the Senate tries
    to take Sullas appointment
  • Civil War
  • The two fight then Sulla leaves to defend the
    borders. Marius ruled Rome in his absence and
    died before Sullas return.
  • Sullas Rule
  • Sulla became dictator and restored the Senates
    right to veto acts of the Assembly,
  • limited the power of the tribunes and the
  • to prevent any march on Rome, reduced the
    military authority of provincial governors.
  • Marius and Sullas pattern of using the army to
    gain political power influenced Roman history

Collapse of the Roman Republic 59 B.C. Julius
Caesar Elected Consul
32e - identify the ideas and impact of important
individuals to include Julius Caesar
  • First Triumvirate (group of 3 rulers)
  • Caesar, Pompey, Crassus
  • Pompey and Crassus won fame from putting down the
    slave revolt of Spartacus
  • Ruled for 10 years
  • Military victories in Gaul gave Caesar increasing
    power popularity with Romans
  • Pompey feared Caesars growing power challenged
  • Caesar defeated Pompeys armies in Greece, Asia,
    Spain, Egypt

Collapse of the Roman Republic 44 B.C. Julius
Caesar Named Dictator for Life
32e - identify the ideas and impact of important
individuals to include Julius Caesar
  • Governed as an absolute ruler
  • Reforms
  • Granted citizenship to many people in the
  • Expanded senate
  • Created jobs for the poor
  • Construction of new public buildings
  • Started new colonies where people without land
    could own property
  • Increased pay for soldiers
  • Created the Julian calendar

Collapse of the Roman Republic March 15, 44 B.C.
Caesar Assassinated
32e - identify the ideas and impact of important
individuals to include Julius Caesar
  • Some nobles senators feared Caesars growing
  • Group of senators, led by Marcus Brutus Gaius
    Cassius, stabbed him to death in the senate
  • March 15 is also known as the Ides of March
  • His assassination is the basis for the
    Shakespearean play Julius Caesar

The Roman Empire Beginning 43 B.C. Caesars
Supporters Take Control
  • Second Triumvirate
  • Octavian (Caesars grandnephew adopted son),
    Mark Antony, and Lepidus

The Roman Empire Beginning Alliance Crumbles
  • Octavian forced Lepidus to retire
  • Octavian Mark Antony became rivals
  • Antony met Cleopatra in Egypt while leading
    troops against Romes enemies in Anatolia
  • They fell in love with each other

The Roman Empire Beginning Alliance Crumbles
  • Octavian accused Antony of trying to rule Rome
    from Egypt civil war erupted
  • Antony Cleopatra combined forces to fight

The Roman Empire Beginning 31 B.C. Battle of
32e - identify the ideas and impact of important
individuals to include Augustus Caesar
  • Naval battle
  • Octavian defeated Antony Cleopatra
  • Later, Antony Cleopatra committed suicide
  • Octavian became unchallenged ruler of Rome
  • Octavian accepted title of Augustus exalted
  • Became the first emperor of Rome

How was the Roman Empire different from the Roman
  • Roman Republic
  • Ruled by Senate
  • Roman Empire
  • Ruled by Emperor

  1. What was the Pax Romana?
  2. Why did the republic decline?
  3. Who was the first emperor of Rome?
  4. Who assumed leadership of the government in times
    of crisis? What was his term?
  5. How did Julius Caesar gain power?
  6. Which social class had control of the senate?
  7. Through what body were the Plebeians represented
    in the Roman Government?
  8. What is a republic?
  9. What were Caesar's reforms?
  10. What position did Caesar hold before his
    assassination? (he was appointed to it)

The Roman Empire Pax Romana (Roman Peace)
  • Rome enjoyed 200 years of peace and prosperity

32f - analyze the contributions of Roman culture
to include government, law, gender, mathematics,
and science

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The Roman Empire Economy
  • Agriculture most important industry
  • 90 of Romans farmed
  • Had a vast trading network
  • Elaborate system of roads linked the empire to
    Persia, Russia, beyond
  • Common coinage (denarius) throughout the empire
    made trade easier

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The Roman Empire Government Law
32e - identify the ideas and impact of important
individuals to include Augustus Caesar
  • Headed by the emperor
  • Augustus glorified Rome with beautiful public
  • Set up a civil service to carry out day-to-day

The Roman Empire Values
  • Discipline
  • Strength
  • Loyalty
  • Practicality (common sense, or realism)
  • Usefulness

The Roman Empire Role of Women
  • Expected to stay at home, complete chores, take
    care of children
  • Could come and go as they pleased
  • Could make business arrangements, own property
    and draw up wills without the consent of their
  • Could obtain a divorce just as easily as her
    husband, but he kept the kids.
  • Wealthy women had slaves, planned dinner parties
  • Were educated
  • Could not go to secondary school
  • Poor women did much of the work because they
    could not afford slaves
  • Women were not nearly as respected as men

The Roman Empire Math and Science Engineering
and Architecture
  • Greek Etruscan influences
  • Mostly seen in engineering accomplishments, such
  • roads,
  • aqueducts,
  • bridges, dams, mining projects,
  • sanitation,
  • public baths, etc.

The Roman Empire Social Structure
  • Large differences in wealth and status separated
    the social classes
  • Rich live well
  • Most people are poor receive grain from the
  • 150 holidays and events in the Colosseum were
    held to control the masses
  • Slaves were numerous important
  • Entertainment value (gladiators)

The Roman Empire Religion
32g - describe polytheism in the Roman world
  • Polytheistic
  • Honored powerful gods goddesses, like Jupiter,
    Juno, Minerva, through rituals
  • Emperor worship was part of the official religion
  • Christians Jews did not worship the emperor and
    were therefore persecuted (more to come on this

The Roman Empire Entertainment
  • Rich gave lavish banquets
  • Masses attended free games and gladiator contests
    at the Colosseum
  • Watched races at the Circus Maximus

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  • Marcus Aurelias was the last emperor of the Pax
  • His death will signal the beginning of decline
    for the Roman Empire

32g describe diffusion of Christianity in the
Roman world
  • What was the Pax Romana?
  • Who was the last emperor of the Pax Romana?
  • Who was a part of the first triumvirate?
  • What were Caesars reforms?
  • What title did he hold before his death?
  • How did Caesar gain power?
  • The most serious political and social tensions in
    Rome during the last years of the republic and
    the first years of the empire focused on
  • The design of the Roman aqueducts made
    significant use of the architectural structure
  • How did geography effect the development of
  • What is Hellenism?

The Rise of Christianity Around 6-4 B.C. Jesus is
  • Jesus
  • Jew born in Bethlehem
  • Raised in Nazareth
  • Baptized by the prophet known as John the Baptist
  • Jesus became a carpenter

The Rise of Christianity 6 A.D. Rome conquers
  • Judea home of the Jews
  • Many Jews believe a Messiah, or savior, will
    eventually set them free from Roman rule

The Rise of Christianity Around 26 A.D. Jesus
begins public ministry
  • Age 30
  • Spent 3 years preaching monotheism the Ten
  • Does good works reportedly performed miracles
  • Healing the sick, blind, raising people from
    the dead
  • Stressed personal relationship with God love
    for friends enemies

The Rise of Christianity The Movement Grows
  • Apostles
  • 12 men who became disciples (or pupils) of Jesus
  • Jesus ignores wealth status
  • His message appealed to the poor

The Rise of Christianity A.D. 29 The Death of
  • Differing Views
  • Many Jews viewed Jesus as the Messiah
  • Other Jews viewed him as a heretic

The Rise of Christianity A.D. 29 The Death of
  • Pontius Pilate
  • Accused Jesus of challenging the authority of
  • Ordered Jesus to be crucified (nailed to a cross
    to die the common method of execution during
    Roman times)

The Rise of Christianity A.D. 29 The Death of
  • Post-Death
  • His body disappeared from the tomb in which it
    was placed
  • This convinced Christians that he was Christos,
    or savior
  • Apostles believed Christians today believe that
    Jesus rose from the dead 3 days after his death
    (resurrection), walked on earth, spoke to the
    apostles and others, and then ascended into Heaven

The Rise of Christianity The Apostle Peter
  • First apostle
  • Jesus referred to him as the rock upon which
    the Christian Church would be built

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The Rise of Christianity Christianity Grows
  • Followers began to spread Christianity
  • New religion based on Jesus teachings
  • The Pax Romana and the ease of trading help with
    the spread of the new religion.

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The Rise of Christianity The Apostle Paul
  • Spent his life teaching interpreting
  • Common languages of Greek Latin help to spread
    the message
  • Paul stressed that Jesus is the Son of God who
    died for peoples sins
  • Paul declared Christianity open to all converts

The Rise of Christianity Jewish Rebellion
  • Jews rebelled against Rome
  • Romans stormed Jerusalem and destroyed Temple
  • Rebellions in A.D. 66, 70, and 132 failed
  • Jews were driven from the homeland
  • Diaspora (from Greek word meaning dispersal)
  • Centuries of Jewish exile

The Rise of Christianity Persecution of the
  • Christians refused to worship Roman gods
  • They became enemies of Roman rule
  • Roman rulers used Christians as scapegoats for
    hard times
  • As the Pax Romana crumbled, Christians were
    crucified, burned, and killed in the arena

The Rise of Christianity Christianity Expands
  • Christianitys Appeal
  • Embraces all people
  • Gives hope to the powerless
  • Appeals to those repelled by extravagances of
    Roman life
  • Offers a personal relationship with a loving God
  • Promises eternal life after death
  • Christianity will become very attractive to
    the poor, slaves, and women

The Rise of Christianity A.D. 312 Emperor
Constantine battles for control of Rome
  • Has vision of a cross (Christian symbol)
  • Places the cross on his soldiers shields
  • Wins the battle believes the Christian God
    helped him win
  • Ends the persecution of Christians and
  • Legalizes Christianity with the Edict of Milan

The Rise of Christianity A.D. 380 Emperor
  • Made Christianity the official religion of the
    Roman Empire

The Rise of Christianity The Early Church
  • Priests direct a single church
  • Bishops supervise numerous churches
  • Apostle Peter first bishop of Rome
  • Clergy trace their authority to him
  • Pope
  • The father, or head, of the Christian Church
  • Rome center of church (Vatican City)

The Rise of Christianity A Single Voice
  • Church leaders compile the standard Christian
    beliefs in the New Testament
  • The New Testament was added to the Hebrew Bible
    (also called the Old Testament)
  • A.D. 325
  • Constantine calls church leaders to Nicaea in
  • Wrote the Nicene Creed, which defined the basic
    beliefs of the church.

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The Rise of Christianity Fathers of the Church
  • Early writers scholars of teachings are called
    Fathers of the Church
  • Augustine, bishop in North Africa, is one of the
    most important
  • Stressed receiving sacraments to obtain Gods
  • Wrote the famous book, The City of God

Warm Up
  • Where was Jesus from?
  • Who legalized Christianity and ended the
    persecution of its followers?
  • Christianity has its roots or start in what other
  • What is the Edict of Milan?
  • What is an important result of the Punic Wars?
  • Who makes Christianity the official religion of
  • Why is Christianity appealing? To whom is it most
  • Why were Christians and Jews considered enemies
    of the Roman Empire?
  • What power did Roman consuls have over one
  • Before Christianity, the official religion of the
    Romans was similar to whose religion?
  • What led to the decline of the Roman Republic?
  • What helped the spread of Christianity?
  • What document defined the basic beliefs of the
    Christian church?

32h - analyze the changes and continuities from
origins to the fall of the Greek and Roman
Classical Civilizations 32i - analyze the factors
that led to the collapse of the Western Roman
  • Reasons for the collapse of the Western Roman
  • M Military
  • E Economic
  • P Political
  • S Social

The Fall of the Roman Empire A.D. 180 Emperor
Marcus Aurelius Dies
  • Pax Romana ended with his death
  • Subsequent emperors were unable to govern the
    giant empire

The Fall of the Roman Empire The Economy Weakens
  • Three sources of prosperity ended (trade,
    plunder, farms)
  • Disruption of trade
  • Caused by raids from hostile tribes by pirates
    on the Mediterranean

The Fall of the Roman Empire The Economy Weakens
  • Gold silver drain
  • Caused by fewer lands to conquer and resources to
  • Rome does not produce anything so their money
    goes to other countries, as a result the empire
    will exploit the countryside.
  • Forcing peasants and townspeople to work

The Fall of the Roman Empire The Economy Weakens
  • Inflation
  • To pay off debts, the government raised taxes
    coined more money with less silver, which led to

The Fall of the Roman Empire The Economy Weakens
  • Poor harvests
  • Decline in the population due to disease and
    people fleeing leaves land uncultivated
  • Tax burden
  • With a dwindling population there are less people
    to share the economic burden of the empire and
    taxes must be raised.
  • Invasions by the Sassanid (Persian Empire) and
    the attempt of Gaul to secede led to
  • cities being pillaged
  • Farmland destroyed
  • Trade disrupted
  • In an attempt to supply the military, emperors
  • confiscated goods
  • Exacted forced labor

The Fall of the Roman Empire Military Reasons
  • Threat from northern European tribes
  • Low funds for defense
  • Problems recruiting Roman citizens recruiting of
    non-Romans (mercenaries paid soldiers of
    non-Roman descent)
  • Better generals are in the eastern portion of the
  • Decline in the population
  • Fewer people were available for military service,
    so emperors hired Germanic tribesmen which
    ultimately made Rome lose its tactical
    superiority over the barbarians

The Fall of the Roman Empire Military Reasons
  • Decline of patriotism loyalty among soldiers
  • Soldiers used their weapons to prey on civilians
    and to make and unmake emperors
  • Generals were driven to seize power and bought
    the loyalty of their soldiers
  • Neglected to defend the borders and disrupted the
    internal life of the Empire

The Fall of the Roman Empire Political Reasons
  • Political office seen as a burden, not a reward
  • Tax collectors are forced to pay the taxes they
    are unable to collect from the people
  • Military interference in politics
  • The Praetorian guard could be paid off in order
    for another emperor to rise up and murder the
    sitting ruler

The Fall of the Roman Empire Political Reasons
  • Civil war and unrest
  • Division of empire
  • Western emperors can no longer rely on financial
    aid from the wealthier East to pay for the
    defense of the borders
  • Slow communications and costly transport
    continued to hamper the empire wide trade
  • Provincial regions begin to grow more self
  • Moving of capital to Byzantium

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The Fall of the Roman Empire Social Reasons
  • The demands of the state sapped the initiative
    and civic spirit of its citizens
  • Many begin to leave the cities or flee to the
    Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)
  • Decline in population leads to a higher tax
    burden for remaining residents
  • Fewer workers were available for agriculture
  • Crushed by the tax/labor demands of the state,
    many peasants simply abandoned their farms and
    sought the protection of large land owners or
    turned to banditry
  • People are fed up with rogue soldiers raiding the
    land and corrupt officials

The Fall of the Roman Empire Reforms of Diocletian
  • A.D. 284
  • Diocletian restored order, divided the empire
    into two
  • Two Emperors
  • One in Greek-speaking East
  • One in Latin-speaking West
  • Also forced unskilled workers and artisans to
    hold their jobs for life and to pass them on to
    their children.
  • Peasants were turned into virtual serfs, bound to
    the land.
  • An army of government agents was formed to hunt
    down peasants who fled the land to escape
    crushing taxes and poverty
  • A.D. 305
  • Diocletian retired
  • Rivals competed for power

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The Fall of the Roman Empire Reforms of
  • A.D. 312
  • Constantine became emperor of the Western Empire
  • A.D. 324
  • Constantine seized the Eastern Empire
  • Moved the capital to Byzantium
  • Renamed Constantinople (City of Constantine)
  • Its location was perfect for linking the trade
    routes of the west with the east.

The Fall of the Roman Empire Reforms of
Diocletian Constantine
  • Ultimately, their reforms led to the decline of
    the Roman Empire

The Fall of the Roman Empire Germanic Invasions
(Immediate cause of the fall.)
  • Nomads from Asia (Huns) invaded the northern
    borders of the empire
  • A.D. 410
  • Germanic tribes flee Huns, enter Roman lands, and
    sack Rome

The Fall of the Roman Empire Military Reasons
Tribal Migrations and Invasions
  • Huns were on the move west
  • Ostrogoths, a Germanic tribe settle in Ukraine
    forcing the Visogoths to seek refuge in Rome
  • They are mistreated after being loyal soldiers
    for the Romans
  • They take up arms and devastate the city leaving
    it vulnerable to future attacks
  • Later the Vandals, Alans, and other Germanic
    tribes will attack the empire
  • These attacks aggravated Romes internal
    pressures and forced them to impose high taxes
    and labor services on its citizens causing
    discontent among the masses

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The Fall of the Roman Empire Germanic Invasions
  • A.D. 444
  • Attila the Hun united the Huns and plundered 70
    cities in East
  • Attacked Rome in A.D. 452

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Fall of the Roman Empire An Empire No More
  • Last Roman emperor falls to Germans in 476 A.D.
  • End of the Western Empire
  • The East thrives for another thousand years
  • Called the Byzantine Empire

Warm Up
  1. Describe the long term causes for the collapse of
    the Roman Empire in detail. (MEPS)
  2. What were the immediate causes for the fall of
    the empire?
  3. What were Diocletian and Constantines reforms?
    What was their effect on the empire?
  4. What role did Emperor Constantine play in the
    rise of Christianity?
  5. Why were Dictators appointed for six months?
  6. What was the outcome of the Punic Wars?
  7. What is the most important political and social
    tension towards the end of the Roman Republic?
  8. What religion is the foundation or root of
  9. Why did Germanic peoples invade the Roman Empire?
  10. What were the teachings of Zoroaster?
  11. What is the Torah?
  12. What is the relationship between Hinduism and the
    caste system?
  13. What was the first form of writing?

The Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization
  • New Culture
  • Romans adopt aspects of Greek Hellenistic
  • Results in Greco-Roman culture, or classical

The Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization
  • Art continued the Hellenistic ideals of realism
    in art. They showed individuals how they truly
  • Roman Fine Arts
  • Romans developed bas-relief sculptures to tell
  • Artists created mosaics painted frescoes
  • We know this because Pompeii, a Roman town, was
    covered in ash from a volcano eruption in A.D. 79
  • It preserved the art

The Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization
  • Learning Literature
  • Romans borrowed ideas from Greek philosophy
  • The poet, Virgil, wrote the epic, Aeneid, which
    was modeled after Homers Greek epics
  • Roman historian Tacitus excelled in writing
    factually accurate history
  • Annals and Histories provided a comprehensive
    look into Roman life

Roman Empire Literature
  • Sharing in the humanist outlook of the Greeks,
    they valued human achievement and expressed
    themselves in a graceful and eloquent style.
  • Virgil wrote the Aeneid, which was a long poem
    recounting the tale of Aeneas and the founding of
    Rome. Also praised Augustus in his work and
    stated that only the Romans knew how to govern
    and empire.
  • Livy wrote History of Rome glorifying Roman
    virtues. Failed to utilize important sources of
    information and relied on biased authorities
  • Tacitus wrote Histories and Annals. Denounced
    Roman Emperors and the imperial system.
  • Juvenal satirist who attacked the evils of Roman

The Legacy of Rome Latin Language
  • Latin was the official language of the Roman
    Catholic Church until the 1900s
  • Developed into French, Spanish, Portuguese,
    Italian, Romanian
  • More than ½ the words in English stem from Latin

The Legacy of Rome Master Builders
  • Pioneered the use of the arch
  • Concrete
  • Used the arch concrete in the construction of
    the Colosseum
  • Aqueducts
  • Structures that brought water into cities towns

The Legacy of Rome Master Builders
  • Domes
  • Roman Baths
  • Complex system of roads

The Legacy of Rome Roman System of Law
  • Took on the stoic ideals of if everyone was born
    capable of reasoning then all people are equal
    under the law.
  • Principles of Roman law form the basis of modern
    legal systems
  • All persons had the right to equal treatment
    under the law
  • Person was considered innocent until proven
  • Burden of proof rested with the accuser rather
    than the accused
  • Person should be punished only for actions, not
  • Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly
    unfair could be set aside

The Legacy of Rome Romes Enduring Influence
  • By preserving and adding to Greek civilization,
    Rome strengthened the Western cultural tradition
  • Rome never fell because it turned into something
    even greater an idea and achieved
  • R.H. Barrow, Historian

Warm Up
  • After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire,
    the eastern half of the empire would be known as
    the ________________.
  • What was the most important lasting legacy of the
  • For what were each of the following used?
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