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Ancient Rome

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Title: Ancient Rome


1
Ancient Rome Early Christianity600 BC to 500 AD
2
I. Legendary beginnings
  • Romulus Remus, twins raised by a she-wolf,
    are legendary founders of Rome

3
Cast bronze statue of suckling twins sons of
Mars Capitoline Museum, Rome
4
II. Geography
  • Apennine Mts did not divide Italy into many small
    isolated communities (as in Greece)
  • Being located near the ocean and on the Tiber
    River gave easy access to the Mediterranean Sea.
  • More arable land, mild climate
  • larger population

5
II. Geography
  • Italy is located in the midpoint of the
    Mediterranean Sea. The Romans could send out
    ships for trade and war in all directions.
  • In addition, Romes central location between
    North and South allowed for Rome to govern its
    Empire easily once it began to expand.

6
map
7
Rome was built
  • Along the Tiber River
  • On 7 hills w/ fertile soil
  • 18 miles inland from the Med. Sea
  • Near center of Italian peninsula

8
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9
  • Not without reason did gods and men choose this
    sport for the site of our citythe salubrious
    hills, the river to bring us produce from the
    inland regions and sea-borne commerce from
    abroad, the sea itself, near enough for
    convenience yet not so near as to bring danger
    from foreign fleets, out situation in the very
    heart of Italyall these advantages make it of
    all places in the world the best for a city
    destined to grow great.
  • --Livy

10
III. Foreign Influences on Romes beginnings
11
III. Latins
  • Farmer and shepherds who wandered into Italy
  • They built the first settlement in Rome
  • Eventually bring all of Italy into close contact
    with the Greeks

12
III. Greek Influences
  • 750 500 BC, Greeks colonized southern Italy
  • Olives
  • Grapes
  • Religion (myths legends)
  • Same personalities different names
  • Commercial centers

13
Heras temple at Paestum in southern Italy
14
III. Etruscan Influences
  • Alphabet, architecture (especially the use of the
    arch), metal working, pottery
  • Early kings of Rome were Etruscan

15
Etruscan pottery4th century BC
16
Bell Ringer
  • Based on what you know about forms of government,
    what are the differences between a Democracy and
    Republic form of government?

17
IV. Rome becomes a republic
  • Republic established 509 BC
  • when last Etruscan king was overthrown in 509 BC
  • Tarquin The Proud
  • Romans voweled to never be ruled by a king again
  • Republic is born

18
Republic -- Split Society
  • Rome was divided into Patricians (Upper class
    aristocratic land owners) and Plebeians (lower
    class merchants, farmers, artisans, common
    people)

19
Early Republican Virtues
  • Conservative
  • Reverence for tradition
  • Reverence for home, ancestors, gods

20
Governmental Organization
  • The government was made up of 3 branches
    (Executive, Legislative Judicial)
  • Executive 2 consuls
  • Elected by assembly,
    1 year terms
  • Leaders of government
  • Military

21
Government Organization
  • Legislative
  • The Senate (300 members), aristocratic
    landowners. Controlled public funds and foreign
    policy.
  • Centurian Assembly (citizen soldiers appointed
    consuls and made laws
  • Tribal Assembly elected Tribunes (representatives
    of the Plebeians) and made laws for the common
    people.

22
Government organization cont
  • The Judicial Branch- Made up of Praetors (judges)
    that were in charge of the courts and enforcing
    laws.
  • The Laws of the Romans were called the 12 Tables
    placed in the forum, and the later the Law of
    Nations were introduced and added to Roman law.

23
During War Crisis
  • In addition, a dictator may be put in place in
    times of war or crisis. The Dictator would have
    total control of the military and declare martial
    law.
  • He would rule for a 6th month period.

24
Romes Mighty Military
  • The Legion a unit of 4,000-5,000 Roman soldiers
    usually supported by a cavalry (solders mounted
    on horses).
  • The Legion was made up of smaller groups called a
    century. A century had about 80 men in it. The
    strength of the legion was its flexibility. Each
    century could break away and act independently of
    the group.
  • All landowners and public office holders were
    required to serve in the army.

25
Roman Expansion
  • By 265 BCE the Romans had conquered all of Italy
    and began to expand out from there.
  • For the next 500 years they would continue to
    expand their empire that will include most of
    western Europe, Greece, Northern African, and
    Asia Minor

26
Bell Ringer
  • Read Pages 144-146
  • Vocabulary (Pg. 144-147)
  • Hannibal (Long Form ID)
  • Scipio (Long Form ID)

27
V. Punic Wars 264 133 BC
  • Carthage, center of Phoenician (Punic) trading
    empire
  • Commercial threat to Rome
  • Control of Sicily main issue
  • Three major wars, Rome won all

28
Carthage was located near Tunis
29
Punic Wars part 1
  • Following a naval battle
  • Carthage gave Sicily to Rome paid huge fine
  • Carthage annexed Spain

30
Punic Wars part 2
  • Hannibal took an army w/ war elephants to Italy
    for 17 yrs
  • Rome won by
    attacking Carthage
  • Gained Spain as a
    spoil of war

31
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32
Hannibal Barca, General of Carthage
  • Defeated at
  • Battle of Zama
  • Commits Suicide (183 BCE)
    in Turkey

33
Scipio Africanus
  • Hero of
    Punic Wars
  • Defeated
    Hannibal at the
    Battle of Zama

34
Punic Wars part 3
  • Carthage destroyed in 146 BC
  • Became province of Africa
  • Population sold into slavery
  • City burned to the ground

35
Carthage ruins of the acropolis
36
VI. By 133 BC Rome was master of Mediterranean
  • Macedonia the Greek states were annexed
  • Kingdom of Pergamum
    was deeded to Rome

37
Reasons for Romes success
  • Powerful armies were loyal to Rome, not a
    dictator (nationalism)
  • Wise treatment of conquered peoples
  • Ability to move troops quickly

38
the results of Romes success
  • 1 Slavery increased
  • Plantation system developed
  • Farmers (many former soldiers) could not compete
    with slave labor of plantations
  • Farmers sold their lands

39
the results of Romes success
  • 2 Farmers moved to cities
  • Became urban poor
  • Filled ranks of unemployed
  • Discontentment and resentment plant the seeds of
    the republics collapse

40
VII. Emergence of the Empire(133 BC 180 AD)
41
Problems leading to the
collapse of the Roman Republic
  • 1 Poor farmers lost their lands
  • Gracchus brothers attempted land reform
    (p.146)
  • 2 Senate became all powerful
  • 3 Generals involved in politics
  • led to civil wars (p. 147)

42
Civil War in Rome Sets New Precedents.
  • Soldiers swore personal loyalty to generals in
    return for lands
  • 2. Armies fought over Rome,
    gave power to the
    commanders

43
The First Triumvirate
  • Crassus, Pompey Julius Caesar gained military
    command of the empire in 60 BC, dominating Rome
    for ten years

44
Factors leading to Second Civil War
  • Crassus killed in battle in Syria
  • Senate feared Caesars power
  • Appointed Pompey leader
  • Ordered Caesar to give up his legions

45
Pompey the Great
  • Caesars main rival in the civil wars

46
Caesar crosses the Rubicon (49 BC)!
  • Refused order to disband army
  • Crossed Rubicon R.
  • Marched on Rome
  • Civil war erupted
  • Pompey defeated, killed

47
Julius Caesar
  • Appointed Dictator of Rome in 46 BC
  • Copy of portrait bust

48
Julius Caesar wins the civil war
  • 44 BC named dictator for life
  • Reforms
  • Created jobs
  • Started colonies
  • Expanded senate
  • Granted citizenship to provincials

49
Julius Caesar
  • Killed by Senators March 15, 44BC
  • Vatican Museum

50
Caesars Tomb
51
Julius Caesars death mask
  • Powerful senators feared his popularity sensed
    their own loss of influence

52
Cleopatra VII (Liz Taylor) Caesar (Rex Harrison)
53
Will the real Cleopatra please stand up?
  • Plutarch writes that Cleopatra was not beautiful
    in the classical sense
  • Possessed great charm, intelligence and was
    highly educated

54
Cleopatra VII
  • Made sole ruler by Caesar
  • Bore his son, Ptolemy Caesarion
  • Egypt a client state of Rome
  • After her reign, Egypt lost independence for
    2,000 years

55
Cleopatra the Peasant by Eugene de la Croix,
1838
56
Struggle for power follows Caesars death
Second Triumvirate
  • Marc Antony Caesars ally
  • Octavian Caesars nephew
  • Lepidus Caesars cavalry commander

57
Romes empire is divided
  • Antony gets the East
  • Allies with Cleopatra
  • Octavian gets the West
  • Obtains backing of the Senate

58
Marc Antony played by Richard Burton, 1963.
59
Greece Naval Battle of Actium, 31 BC
  • Antony Cleopatras forces lose to Octavian
  • Octavian becomes
    supreme ruler of Rome
  • Civil wars end

60
Octavian(31 BC to 14 AD)
  • Senate named him Augustus
  • Created a stable government
  • Took personal control of Romes provinces
  • Became first emperor

61
The prima porta statue of Augustus
  • First emperor of Rome
  • (Julio-Claudian House)
  • 6.9 ft., imitates
  • Alexander the Great
  • Vatican Museum

62
Model of Forum
63
Arch of Augustus model
64
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65
Tomb of Augustus, Rome
66
VIII. The Julio-Claudian Dynasty(31 BC 68 AD)
  • Augustus (Octavian)
  • Tiberius (step-son)
  • Caligula
  • Claudius
  • Nero

67
Elements unifying the empire
  • 207 year period of peace - Pax Romana
  • Silver coinage - denarii
  • Network of roads
  • Trade network

68
House of Livia on Capitoline Hill
  • Wife of Augustus
  • Mural art
    of a Roman
    villa

69
Emperor Tiberiasruled 14 37 AD
  • Roman ruler during the crucifixion of Jesus

70
Emperor Caligular. 37 41 AD
  • Insane, or
  • Mad for power?

71
Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus aka Caligula
  • Deified himself his favorite sister Drusilla
  • Made his horse a senator
  • Forced soldiers to collect sea-shells as spoils
    of the sea
  • Reign was sensationalized
  • Murdered by Praetorians

72
Emperor Claudius(r. 41 54 AD)
  • Expanded empire
    to Britain
  • Supposedly
    murdered by
    his wife

73
Agrippina the Younger, wife of Claudius
mother of Nero.
74
Emperor Nero
  • Considered a
    monster,
    reportedly
    killed his
    own mother.
  • Died by
    suicide

75
Emperor Nero (r. 54-68 AD)
  • Accused of political murder of his relatives
    the burning of Rome.
  • Neglected the armies.
  • Extravagant (Golden House).
  • Appeared in plays in Olympic games.

76
Octagonal Room of Domus Aurea (Neros Palace)
77
Imperial succession
  • Rulers who followed the Julio-Claudians often
    seized power, some were adopted by their
    predecessors.
  • Many emperors were murdered by the Praetorian
    Guard.

78
VIII. Pompeii
  • Located in southern Italy near the (dormant)
    volcano of Mt.Vesuvius
  • Destroyed in 79 AD

79
Bay of Naples, Vesuvius in background
80
Pompeii city view
81
Pompeii House of the Vetii (peristyle)
82
House of the Vetii peristyle garden
83
Pompeii household shrine
84
Mock Triclinium 2
85
See page 178 for banquet foods!
86
Banquet foods!
  • Sows udders stuffed with sea urchins (appetizer)
  • Door mice stuffed with pork pine kernels
    (entre)
  • Fricassee of roses (dessert)

87
Kitchen model, Pompeii
88
Pompeii laundry tubs
89
IX. Changes in the Roman family occurred
w/empire
  • Divorce introduced for both partners
  • Women
  • kept inherited wealth
  • owned property
  • testified in court
  • Social equal to men (nearly)

90
Roman Matron 2nd Century
  • Wealthy women commanded authority respect

91
Sarcaphagus of a Roman Matron
92
Wednesday 10/20
  • Finish the Section 4 WS
  • Bring a disk tomorrow computer lab assignment

93
X. Pax Romana (27 BC 180 AD)
  • 207 years of peace began w/ Augustus
  • Continues with 5 good emperors
  • 1. Nerva 2. Trajan
    3. Hadrian 4. Antoninus Pius
    5.Marcus Aurelius

94
Emperor Trajan r.(98 117)
95
Trajan
  • Known for public works programs and social
    welfare
  • Expanded the empire to its greatest extent

96
Aqueduct called Pont du Gard, France
97
Pont du Gardside view
98
Emperor Hadrian (reigned 117 138)
99
Hadrian
  • Known for his building projects throughout the
    empire
  • Hadrians wall across the north of Britain
  • The Pantheon
  • Hadrians villa near Rome

100
Hadrians wall in England
101
Roman Temple to all the gods Pantheon
102
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103
Pantheon side view
104
Largest dome w/o exterior supports in the ancient
world
105
Coffered shiny bronze panels line the ceiling
106
The oculus symbolized the all-seeing eye of
heaven
107
Empress Sabinawife of Hadrian
108
Antinous
109
ROME Hadrians Tomb,aka Castel Sant Angelo
110
Antoninus Pius was adopted as heir to the throne
in 138
  • Governed well frugally
  • Established programs to help his people
  • Returned his salary to the government

111
Antoninus Pius
  • r.(138 161)

112
Temple of Antoninus Faustina
  • Dedicated to the deified
    royal pair

113
Temple reconstruction model
  • Temple of Antoninus and Faustina
  • Dedicated to this emperor's love for his
    beautiful wife

114
Marcus Aureliusr.(161-180)
  • Considered
  • excellent ruler,
  • but had a terrible
  • family

115
Marcus Aurelius



116
Column of Marcus Aurelius
  • Rome

117
180 ADEnd of the good old days
  • Marcus Aurelius succeeded by his insane son,
    Commodus
  • Period of good imperial rule ended

118
Commodus r. 180 - 192
  • Dressed as
  • Hercules and performed as a gladiator
  • Strangled in his bath, aged 31

119
Early Empire was a time of prosperity.
  • Trade and commerce linked the empire.
  • Luxury goods arrived in Rome from as far away as
    China.

120
Ostia Forum of the Corporations
121
Roman Glassware
122
Agriculture dominated the economy
  • Large landed estates worked by slaves provided
    Rome with food.
  • Food was
    imported from Egypt.

123
XI. Culture Society in the Roman World
Law
  • Law was based on standards that applied to all
  • Twelve Tables
  • Codified
  • Evidence weighed carefully
  • Innocent until proven otherwise

124
Literature
  • Vergil Aenid (epic linking Troy with Rome).
  • Horace satires
  • Livy History of the Roman Empire

125
XI. Slavery
  • Based on war captives
  • Badly treated
  • Source dried up during Pax Romana
  • Revolts common after 100 AD

126
Roman women slaves
  • Slavery allowed greater freedom and more of a
    social life for Roman women as the numbers of
    domestic slaves increased.

127
XI. Education
  • Limited to wealthy boys
  • Teachers were mainly Greek slaves
  • Curriculum reading, writing, morals, law, Latin
    Greek, physical training

128
XII. Entertainment
  • Elaborate public structures were built for
    amusement. It occupied Romans, forestalled
    revolt
  • Public Baths
  • Colosseum
  • Circus Maximus

129
Public Bathing
  • Work out
  • Bathe/ steam
  • Massage
  • Eat
  • Socialize

130
Ye Olde Bath of Bath
131
Latrine seating
  • Water flow
  • was constant
  • (flush toilets)

132
Latrines
133
Roman Colosseum
134
50,000 Spectators
  • Begun by Vespasian after 70 AD
  • Built on site of Neros lake gardens
  • Built w/plunder from Jewish wars

135
Exterior View from East
136
Roman Colosseum interior view
137
Another Interior View (photo by Jaime
Clark-Soles)
138
Gladiators were the super stars of Roman life
139
Thumbs up
140
Gladiator and leopard from a Roman mosaic 
141
The Emperor Commodus as Hercules
  • Son of the good emperor Marcus Aurelius
  • Probably insane

142
Mosaic of fighting gladiators
143
Roman Ampitheater in Arles, France
144
Ruins of Circus Maximus, Rome
145
XIII. Art in Ancient Rome
  • Realistic
  • conveyed simple human dignity
  • admired copied Greek sculpture
  • Created for paying patrons

146
Portrait 1st century AD
147
Emperor Elagabalus
  • Imperial realism
  • Teen emperor imported from Syria
  • 3rd century AD

148
Architecture
  • Greek models (columns, rectangles)
  • Introduced curved lines (arch, vault and dome)
  • Developed used concrete

149
Temple of Fortuna Virilis Greek inspiration
150
Temple of Hercules curves
151
Colosseum arches, curves, concrete
152
Pantheon curves, columns and the dome
153
Art Architecture
  • Interiors of buildings were highly decorated
  • Landscapes
  • Mythology

154
Pompeii villa bedroom
155
Cupid riding a crab
  • Interior decoration from Pompeii
  • House of the Vetii

156
House of Livia Garlands of the triclinium
157
XIV. Religion in Romes Empire
  • Focus on ritual (priests)
  • Paterfamilias made offerings to Vesta (hearth)
  • No spiritual, emotional, redemptive qualities
  • Very tolerant of other religions but.

158
Portrait of a man dressed as a
priest/paterfamilias
  • Had complete authority over family members

159
VestaAedes Temple Reconstruction
160
Temple of Vesta
161
House of the Vestalsinterior pools, looking South
162
The Vestal Virgins
  • 6 vestal virgins from old patrician families.
    Served 10 years as novices, 10 performing the
    actual duties, 10 years teaching novices.
  • Lived in a palatial building next to temple of
    Vesta at the forum. Main duty was to guard the
    sacred fire in the temple. Other duties included
    performing rituals and baking the sacred salt
    cake to be used at numerous ceremonies
  • Punishment was harsh--if they let the flame go
    out, a whipping, for breaking their vow of
    chastity - walled up alive underground.
  • Honor and privilege surrounding the vestal
    virgins was enormous. In fact any criminal who
    was condemned to death and saw a vestal virgin
    was automatically pardoned.

163
Cicero (first century BC)
  • Romans owe our supremacy over all other peoples
    to our piety and religious observances and to our
    wisdom in believing that the spirit of the gods
    rules and directs everything.

164
Mythology
  • Romans absorbed Greek gods into their own
    pantheon
  • continued to assimilate deities from conquered
    lands

165
Asian Mystery Religions
  • Offered more personal involvement
  • Focused on a moral code of conduct with a promise
    of an afterlife.

166
Mystery Religion 1 Cult of Cybele
  • Asian goddess of Nature
  • Cult focused on the annual death and resurrection
    of her consort, Attis

167
Mystery Religion 2 Cult of Bacchus
  • God of wine and revelry
  • Drunken rites were too frenzied stories
    frightened the Senate
  • Banned in 186 BC.

168
Mystery Religion 3 Cult of Isis
  • Egyptian fertility goddess
  • Focus on death, resurrection and immortality
  • Popular with women
  • Initiation was expensive
  • Banned at times

169
Isis
  • Her worship symbolized resurrection

170
Mystery Religion 4 Cult of Mithras (Persian)
  • personified truth, light eternal struggle
    against evil
  • Rituals restricted to men
  • popular w/Roman soldiers

171
Mithras killing the Taurus bull
172
OSTIA Mosaic dedicated to Felicissimuson the
floor of the Mithreum
173
Some parallels between Mithraism Christianity
  • Celebration of the birth of Dec 25
  • Cakes w/ cross were traditionally eaten at a cult
    meal (Communion)
  • Idea of immortality

174
Christianity
  • Offered salvation, personal relationship with God
  • No expensive or painful initiation rites (Isis,
    Mithras)
  • Fulfilled human need to belong

175
Official reaction to Christianity
  • Christians refused to worship the state gods and
    the emperors
  • Viewed as threat to the state
  • Punishment was death and persecution

176
Christian appeal was widespread
  • Promise of eternal life
  • Embraced everyone
  • Gave hope to the powerless
  • Personal relationship w/ God

177
Why Christianity spread
  • Good roads
  • Latin Greek languages
  • Missionaries welcomed converts
  • Loving God who promised eternal life gave hope

178
Apostles spread teachings of Jesus
  • Peter
  • Missionary to Rome
  • First pope
  • Paul
  • Roman official, Christian enemy
  • Martyred by Nero in 64 w/ Peter

179
Conversion of St. Paul
  • Caravaggio
  • 1600-01
  • Church of St. Maria del Popolo

180
St. Peter
  • Crucified (like a slave)
  • upside down as he felt unworthy

181
Triumph of Christianity was main cultural trend
of the late Roman period
182
The TetrarchyEastern Empire Western Empire
  • Diocletian
  • (Augustus)
  • Galerius (Caesar)
  • Maximian (Augustus)
  • Constantius Chlorus (Caesar)

183
Diocletian divided Romesempire in
285 AD
  • Last to persecute Christians
  • Restored prestige to the throne

184
Galerius,the Eastern Caesar
  • Viciously attacked Christians in 303 AD

185
The Western Augustus, Maximian
186
Constantius ChlorusWestern Caesar
187
Edict of Milan in the year 313granted toleration
to Christians
  • Emperor
    Constantine
  • Baptized on
  • his death-bed.

188
Emperor Constantines role
  • Christians made up about 5 of the population or
    less
  • His conversion ensured the success of the new
    faith.

189
XV. WESTERN EMPIRE DECLINES Political Reasons
  • Civil war was a constant threat due to
  • Lack of clear succession laws
  • Resort to violent overthrows
  • No legal method for reform

190
Economic Reasons for the Decline.
  • Slaves were abused, worked too hard, did not
    reproduce
  • Less food was produced to feed the towns
  • Barbarian invasions

191
Population dropped by 1/3!
  • Birth rate declined
  • Recurring plagues decimated the population.
    Cities declined
  • Manpower shortages, no technological advances

192
Few were willing to work hard for the public good!
  • No unifying spirit
  • Disinterest
  • Demoralization
  • Social stratification

193
Emperor Constantine reunited the empire
194
Constantine moved the capital
  • 324 AD New Rome established
  • Constantinople (modern Istanbul)
  • Power shifted locations
  • from the West (Rome)
  • to East (Constantinople)

195
Constantinople on the Bosphorus
196
Christianity became thegreatest shaping force
in the development of western civilization.
197
Hagia Sophia
198
Hagia Sophia, largest Christian Church
  • Now a mosque
    in Istanbul

199
Theodosius the Great r.(378 395) made
Christianity the official religion of the empire
  • Rome was under constant assault from invaders
    during his rule

200
Military Problems VISIGOTHS
  • Fled to Romes empire when Huns invaded Europe
  • Revolted due to poor treatment
  • 378 Battle of Adrianople
  • Roman armies defeated
  • Emperor Valens killed

201
Christian Rome attacked!
  • 410 Visigoths under Alaric sacked Rome
  • Shocked contemporaries
  • Ravenna now western capital
  • 455 Vandals crossed from North Africa sacked
    Rome

202
Invasion Paths of Attila the Hun
203
Collapse in the West, 476
  • German Commander Odoacer deposed the Western
    Emperor (Romulus Augustulus)
  • Odoacer crowned King of Rome
  • Ended the Western Empire

204
Romes Contributions to Civilization
  • Pax Romana Historical Writing
  • Roman Law Science
  • Architecture Language
  • Literature

205
Conclusion Eastern Empire
  • Remained powerful political force for hundreds of
    years
  • Byzantine Empire
  • Seat of Eastern Christianity
  • Overtaken by the forces of Islam in 1453
  • Western Christendom would not help

206
TEST Rome Part II
  • After the testdefine all the terms on page 269
    place these with new notes on Byzantines
  • READ Chapter 11 Section 1
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