World War II, Cold War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation

World War II, Cold War


World War II, Cold War & The Postwar World Mr. Ermer World History AP Miami Beach Senior High – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:362
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 39
Provided by: 27684


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: World War II, Cold War

World War II, Cold War The Postwar World
  • Mr. Ermer
  • World History AP
  • Miami Beach Senior High

Origins of World War II
  • Two Alliances
  • Allied Powers
  • Great Britain
  • Empire (India, African colonies, and others)
  • Commonwealth (Canada, Australia, and New Zealand)
  • The Soviet Union
  • France
  • The United States
  • Latin American allies
  • China
  • Axis Powers
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Japan

Japan Empire of the Rising Sun
  • Unhappy with terms of the Paris Peace, Japan
    begins campaign of territorial expansion in Asia
  • Civilians lose control of Japanese government and
  • 1931 Japan invades Manchuria, Japan withdraws
    from League of Nations after the League condemns
    Japans war
  • Japanese begin to expand into northern China
  • China weak and divided due to civil war
  • 1936 Chiang Kai-sheks Nationalist forces join
    with Maos Communists in United Front against
    Japanese, Japan takes capital of Nanjing
  • Raping of Nanjing demonstrates horrors of modern
  • Cheng moves the government upriver

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Italian Aggression
  • Italy felt disrespected after the Great War
  • Gained little territory, economy continued to
  • Benito Mussolini promises glory and power
  • Italy conquers Libya and Ethiopia by 1936
  • Italy annexes Albania with plans to expand in the
  • Italy supports Gen. Franco in Spanish Civil War
  • Few Italians wish to fight, Italys true
    diplomatic intentions remain obscure through
  • Italy never considered a true threat to world

German Expansion
  • 1938 Germany annexes Austria
  • Hitler demands part of Czechoslovakia
  • Munich Conf. grants Hitler the Sudetenland
  • 1939 Hitler takes the rest of western Czech
  • Hitler also controls independent Slovakia
  • Hitler threatens Poland, Britain offers help
  • Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
  • Secret protocol to divide E. Europe into spheres
    of influence
  • September 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland
  • September 3, 1939 The United Kingdom and France
    declare war on Germany
  • Blitzkrieg lightning war 300 tanks supported
    by air and ground support
  • April 9, 1940 Hitler attacks Denmark, Norway
  • May 10 attack Netherlands, Belgium, France
  • June 22 France surrenders, Germans control 3/5
    of France, set up puppet government in Vichy

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
The Battle of Britain Invasion of Russia
  • August 1940 German Luftwaffe launches air attack
    of Great Britainmilitary only
  • Radar provides British early warning
  • British bomb Berlin, Hitler unleashes brutal air
    attack of British citiesLondon
  • Allows Britain to quickly rebuild air force with
    American help
  • Luftwaffe having trouble with new Royal Air Force
  • Hitler postpones invasion of Britain, thinks UK
    hopes for Soviet help
  • Hitler wants British surrender, attacks Soviet
  • Soviets did not have weapons like Germany, Hitler
    expects quick win
  • Hitler originally wanted to invade USSR in March
  • Mussolinis failed invasion of Greece delays
  • Hitler invades USSR June 22, 1941
  • Germany advances quickly, but Soviets stop them
    in early winter
  • Germans unprepared for Russian winter, fail,
    Soviets advance

(No Transcript)
Battle of Stalingrad
America at War War in the Pacific
  • 1940 Japan occupies French Indochina
  • The United States offers support to Britain and
  • Also places a trade embargo on Japan to protest
  • December 7, 1941 Japanese launch surprise attack
    on the U.S. Pacific naval fleet at Pearl Harbor,
  • Japan quickly advances on many targets across the
  • Asia for Asians slogan to unite Asians against
    western powers
  • United States declare war on Japan the following
  • Germany Italy declare war on the United States
    days later
  • East Asia Co-Prosperity Zone
  • Created for easy exploitation of Asian resources
    by Japan

(No Transcript)
Victory in Europe
  • Soviets push Germans back across Eastern Europe
  • Eastern Front disintegrates in midst of heavy
  • American entrance is turning point of war
  • Germany cannot out produce American industry for
  • U.S. and British forces attack German army in N.
  • North Africa the soft underbelly of Axis power,
    launch pad to ItalyAmericans, British, and
    Soviets for Grand Alliance
  • 1943 Allies defeat Axis Powers in North Africa
  • 1944 American and British forces occupy Italy
  • June 6, 1944 Allied D-Day invasion of Normandy
  • Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe
    Dwight D. Eisenhower leads final push toward
  • Soviets enter Berlin first, U.S. and Britain
    close behind
  • May 8, 1945 Germany surrenders to Allies

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Victory in Japan
  • Pearl Harbor attack spares American aircraft
    carrier fleet
  • June 1942 US ambush sinks 4 Japanese carriers at
  • Gen MacArthur begins offensive in Philippines
  • Combined Army, Marine, and Navy island hopping
    force chip away at Japanese Pacific territory
  • Early 1945 US hold Iwo Jima Okinawa, in range
    for invasion of Japanese homeland
  • Japanese employ kamikaze attacks
  • Allies begin constant fire bombing of Japan
  • April 1945 US President Franklin Delano
    Roosevelt dies from stroke, replaced by Vice
    President Harry Truman
  • Allied forces approach Japanese homeland
  • Japanese refuse to surrender
  • Truman must decide to use new atomic bomb
  • August 6, 1945 Atomic bomb dropped on Japanese
    city Hiroshima
  • Emperor refuses to surrender
  • Aug 9, 1945 Soviets declare war on Japan, US
    drops second atom bomb on port city of Nagasaki
  • Japan Surrenders on August 14, 1945

Origins of the Cold War
  • U.S. Soviets have different views of how
    postwar world should look
  • The Atlantic Charter (1941) Nations should solve
    problems through diplomacythrough an
    international organizationand nations of the
    world should be free w/ self determination
  • Signed by United States, Great Britain, and
    Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.)
  • Soviets secretly want to take control of Eastern
    Europe after war
  • British nervous about what A.C. means for their
    worldwide empire
  • Churchill and Stalin want the great powers to
    control different spheres of influence
  • Casablanca Conf Agree for total surrender of
  • Teheran Conf Soviets agree to help with Japan
    after European war ends, disagreement over
    Polands future

The Yalta Conference
  • The Big Three meet in February 1945
  • Roosevelt seeks Soviet help with Japan
  • Promises Japanese land to Stalin in exchange
  • Creation of a new United Nations
  • Security Council US, UK, France, USSR, China
  • First meeting set for April 1945 in San Francisco
  • After war Germany to be split into four sectors
    controlled by US, UK, USSR France, based on
    troop placement at the end of the war
  • Berlin too would be divided into four sectors
  • Future of Poland left uncertain
  • Soviets already held Poland, installed
    pro-communist govt

(No Transcript)
Potsdam and New Struggles
  • Truman, now president, not as familiar with
    international politics as FDR, uses Get Tough
  • FDR believed Stalin would ultimately listen to
    reason, Truman did not trust Russians in general,
    and was suspicious of Stalin
  • July 1945 Potsdam Conference, Germany
  • Truman demands elections for all of Europe, fails
  • Stalin wins battle to move Polish border into
    German territory
  • Truman convinces Stalin to accept no reparations
    from Allied controlled parts of Germany, assuring
    Germany would stay split
  • Big Three agree to trials of Nazi war criminals
    in Nuremberg, Germany(1945-1946)
  • Churchill iron curtain has descended on the
    continent splitting Europe east/west

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Two Super Powers
  • After WWII, USA and USSR emerge as superpowers
    (military political power)
  • Disagreements over how to rebuild Europe
  • 1947Truman Doctrine
  • U.S. will help any country fight Communism
  • Fear of the spread of Soviet influence

The Marshall Plan
  • U.S. Gen. George C. Marshall offers plan to help
    Europe recover from World War II
  • Soviet satellite states refuse the help
  • Soviet plans to help failed, not enough money
  • Policy of Containment United States vow to keep
    Communism from spreading past its current
    boundaries, fight against Soviet aggression.

Division of Germany
  • After war, Germany divided into four parts
  • U.S., U.S.S.R., U.K. France split control
  • Berlin, German capital, also split in four
  • Berlin was located deep in Soviet East Germany
  • West Germany united, Soviets blockade
  • Soviets block supplies from reaching W. Berlin
  • Berlin Air Lift supplies are flown into West
    Berlin by U.S. Air Force

(No Transcript)
Cold War Heats Up
  • 1949 Communists take control of China
  • Americans worried about Communisms spread
  • Soviets detonate an atomic bomb
  • Arms Race Soviets and Americans build up
    militaries and weapons, improve bombs
  • Both superpowers had the power to destroy each
    other with nuclear weapons, so neither risked
    using them alliances build

The Bi-Polar World
  • The world splits into Communist and
    Anti-Communist alliances
  • NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) U.S.,
    U.K., Belgium, Lux, France, The Neth., Italy,
    Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Iceland, Canada, W.
    Germany, Turkey, Greece
  • Warsaw Pact U.S.S.R. Eastern Block
  • By 1950s, USA allied with 42 nations against

(No Transcript)
Berlin Wall
  • Arms race builds steam with hydrogen bomb, ICBMs
    and stronger nukes
  • 1957 Soviet Sputnik I reaches space
  • USA believes its losing space race/arms race
  • Nikita Khrushchev, new Soviet leader, sees
    problem with East Germans escaping to the much
    richer, freer West Berlin
  • Soviets build a wall around West Berlin

(No Transcript)
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1959 Fidel Castro gains power in Cuba
  • Kennedys Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba fails
  • 1962 Soviets send nuclear missiles to Cuba
  • To answer for US missiles in Turkey
  • Oct. 1962 Russian ships, carrying missiles,
    headed for Cuba Kennedy orders blockade
  • Soviets agree to leave Cuba, US promises not to
    invade Cuba
  • To avoid nuclear war, a hotline was created
    between Washington D.C. and Moscow

(No Transcript)
Domino Theory
  • Domino Theory If Vietnam falls to Communism, the
    rest of Asia will fall like dominos one after
    the other
  • Vietnam fighting civil war North vs. South
  • North Vietnam Communist (w/ Soviets China)
  • South Vietnam Democratic (helped by USA)
  • 1973 President Nixon withdraws from conflict
  • North wins, domino theory unfounded, limits to
    American power made clear
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)