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Cold War: Berlin

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Title: Cold War: Berlin


1
Lesson 22 Cold War Berlin Korea
2
Veterans Day November 11th
If you can read this, thank a teacher
If you are reading this in English, thank a
veteran
3
Lesson Objectives
Build a foundation for understanding the
genesis, issues, and strategies of the Cold
War. Understand the strategy of containment
and become familiar with the conflicts and
confrontations that resulted. Begin to
understand the concept of deterrence in the Cold
War. Understand the causes, conduct, and
consequences of the Berlin Airlift.
Understand the causes, conduct, and consequences
of the Korean War.

4

What was the Cold War?
5
The Cold War
Cold War A bipolar world, stabilized by a
nuclear balance between two superpowers
"The post-post Cold War" Thomas Friedman New York
Times, May 10, 2006
6
The Cold War
Class Definition
A prolonged armed confrontation
between
?
?
Totalitarian Socialism
East
Communism
Democracy
Free Market Capitalism
?
?
West
characterized by intense competition
Economic
Military
Diplomatic
Scientific
Cultural
with local wars fought by proxies
7

When did the Cold War begin?
8
WW II End Game
Western Europe

9
WW II End Game
Southern Europe

10
WW II End Game
Eastern Europe
11
WW II End Game
February 1945

Soviet army poised to begin push to Berlin
12 million men 4 million Allies still
west of Rhine River
12
Cold War Timeline
28 Nov - 1 Dec 43
Tehran Conference
First Face-to-Face Meeting of the Big Three
13
Tehran Conference
November 28 - 1 December 1, 1943
US, Britain agree to open Second Front May
1944 Stalin insists on territory from
Poland Allies agree to coordinate activities
14
Cold War Timeline
28 Nov - 1 Dec 43
Tehran Conference
Yalta Conference
4-11 Feb 45
15
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
16
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
The Big Three
17
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
Each leader had their priorities
Roosevelt Gain Soviet assistance in war with
Japan Obtain Soviet participation in
United Nations
Churchill Restore democratic institutions to
Eastern Europe
Stalin Extend sphere of influence to Eastern
Europe as buffer
18
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
Results
Defined the post-war world
Pursue unconditional surrender of Nazi
Germany Germany to be divided into four
occupation zones Berlin to be subject to
four-power occupation Germany to be
demilitarized and purged of Nazis Reparations
to USSR (forced labor industrial capacity)
Recognition of provisional government and
elections in Poland Poland would cede territory
to USSR but gain from Germany USSR would join
UN provided it had veto in Security Council
USSR to declare war on Japan within 90 days of
German defeat
19
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
Newsreel
20
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
Concerns
Soviets would take Berlin Four Power
Partition of Germany, Berlin Soviets would get
parts of Poland Soviets would receive Japanese
territory Korea divided at 38th parallel
Considered by many the beginning of the Cold War
21
Cold War Timeline
4-11 Feb 45
Yalta Conference
FDR dies, succeeded by Harry Truman
12 Apr 45
22
Transitions
President Franklin D. Roosevelt Died at Warm
Springs, Georgia April 12, 1945
23
Transitions
Harry S. Truman Assumed presidency April 12, 1945

24
Cold War Timeline
4-11 Feb 45 12 Apr 45
Yalta Conference FDR dies, succeeded by Harry
Truman
8 May 45
VE Day
Potsdam Conference
17 Jul - 2 Aug 45
25
Potsdam Conference
July 17 - August 2, 1945
Potsdam Berlin suburb
Big 3 allies gathered to discuss administration
of Germany and other issues involving transition
from war to peace
26
Potsdam Conference
July 17 - August 2, 1945
Cecillenhof Palace, Potsdam
Big 3 allies gathered to discuss administration
of Germany and other issues involving transition
from war to peace
President Truman presided as the only head of
state
27
Potsdam Conference
July 17 - August 2, 1945
Big Three early in Potsdam Conference
28
Transitions
Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill
Conservative Party voted out of office July 27,
1945
Clement Attlee Prime Minister, July 1945 -
October 1951
29
Potsdam Conference
July 17 - August 2, 1945
Big Three late in Potsdam Conference
30
Potsdam Agreement
August 1, 1945
Key Points
Political Democratization, Disarmament,
Demilitarization, Elimination of all Nazi
influence. Economic Destruction of all
war-making industry Focus of economy to be
agriculture and light industry Reparations to
USSR from Soviet zone plus 10 of industrial
capability from Western zone Dispersal of German
navy and merchant marine War crimes Established
mechanism for Nuremberg Trials Provisions for
governments of Austria and Poland Provisions for
peace treaties and admission to United
Nations Transfer of populations
Source PBS
31
German Zones of Occupation
32
Potsdam Conference
Truman tells Stalin about A-bomb July 24, 1945
Comment on back of photograph In which I tell
Stalin we expect to drop the most powerful
explosive ever on the Japanese. He smiled and
said he appreciated my telling him but he did not
know what I was talking - about - the Atomic
Bomb! HST
Department of Energy
Source
33
Potsdam Declaration
July 25, 1945
Key Points
Resolution of Pacific War
Militarism must end in Japan Japanese Army to be
disarmed Democracy to be established Industry to
be allowed but no capability to rearm Territory
taken from China to be returned Korea to become a
free and independent nation War criminals to be
punished Japan to be occupied until these
provisions are complied with
"We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim
now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese
armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate
assurances of their good faith in such action.
The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter
destruction.
34
Roots of the Cold War
The Three Conferences
Tehran Conference November 28 - 1 December 1, 1943
First meeting of Big 3 Allies agree to
coordinate war activities
Yalta Conference 4-11 February 1945
Yalta Conference 4-11 February 1945
Defined post-war world
Defined post-war world
Potsdam Conference July 17 - August 2, 1945
Discussed issues in transition from war to peace
35
Cold War Timeline
4-11 Feb 45 12 Apr 45 8 May 45 17 Jul - 2 Aug 45
Yalta Conference FDR dies, succeeded by Harry
Truman VE Day Potsdam Conference
6, 9 Aug 45 8 Aug 45 15 Aug 45
Atomic bombings of Japan USSR declares war on
Japan VJ Day
Communist regime declared in Albania
11 Jan 46
22 Feb 46
George Kennan Long Telegram from Moscow
36
The Long Telegram
February 22, 1946 from Moscow
Deputy Chief of US Mission in Moscow
Was responding to US Treasury inquiry
Why is USSR not supporting world monetary
system?
George F. Keenan
His response is hailed as the defining document
of Cold War
Characterized Soviet mindset and coming
confrontation with West
Document served as foundation for Containment
Policy
Text of Message Wikisource
37
The Long Telegram
February 22, 1946 from Moscow
Highlights
The USSR perceived itself at perpetual war with
capitalism Socialism and social democracy are
enemies, not allies USSR would use Marxists
in the capitalist world as allies Soviet
aggression aligned with historic Russian
xenophobia and paranoia Soviet system
prohibited objective view of reality.
Soviet power impervious to logic of reason, but
highly sensitive to logic of force.
Roots of Containment
38
Cold War Timeline
4-11 Feb 45 12 Apr 45 8 May 45 17 Jul - 2 Aug
45 6, 9 Aug 45 8 Aug 45 15 Aug 45 11 Jan 46 22
Feb 46
Yalta Conference FDR dies, succeeded by Harry
Truman VE Day Potsdam Conference Atomic bombings
of Japan USSR declares war on Japan VJ
Day Communist regime declared in Albania George
Kennan Long Telegram from Moscow
Mar 46
Civil war erupts in Greece - Communists vs.
conservatives
39
Iron Curtain
March 5, 1946
Winston Churchill Westminster College, Fulton, MO
From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the
Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across
the Continent. Behind that line lie all the
capitals of the ancient states of Central and
Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna,
Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia all
these famous cities and the populations around
them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere,
and all are subject, in one form or another, not
only to Soviet influence but to a very high and
in some cases increasing measure of control from
Moscow.
Alt ?? (051)
40
Cold War Timeline
Churchill Iron Curtain speech Bulgaria deposes
king, establishes Peoples Republic Referendum in
Poland brings Communist government Truman
Doctrine announced
5 Mar 46 8 Sep 46 19 Jan 47 12 Mar 47
41
Truman Doctrine
March 12, 1947
US foreign policy designed to stop spread of
Communism
Pledged to provide economic and military aid to
Greece and Turkey
US foreign policy transitioned from détent to
containment
Some sources cite this as the beginning of the
Cold War
Alt ?? (230)
42
George C. Marshall
Soldier - Statesman
Graduate of VMI (1901)
Army Chief of Staff (1939)
Time Man of the Year (1943)
1880-1959
43
George C. Marshall
Soldier - Statesman
Graduate of VMI (1901)
Army Chief of Staff (1939)
Time Man of the Year (1943)
General of the Army (5 stars - 1944)
Retired as Army Chief of Staff (1945)
Secretary of State (1947 - 1949)
1880-1959
the true architect of victory in Western
Europe
Winston Churchill
44
Marshall Plan
April 3, 1948
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948
(Also referred to as the Economic Cooperation Act
and the European Recovery Act)
Grew from realization that slow recovery from
war devastation in Western Europe would leave the
region weak and subject to Communist incursion
US leadership did not want a repeat of post-
World War One conditions that contributed to the
Great Depression and rise of Fascism.
Marshall publicly presented idea in Harvard
commencement address (June 5, 1947)
Provided 12 B in recovery aid (Value in 2005
555 B per GDP share)
Major factor in Western European resistance to
Communism
45
George C. Marshall
Soldier - Statesman
Graduate of VMI (1901)
Army Chief of Staff (1939)
Time Man of the Year (1943)
General of the Army (5 stars - 1944)
Retired as Army Chief of Staff (1945)
Secretary of State (1947 - 1949)
Secretary of Defense (1950 - 1951)
1880-1959
Nobel Peace Prize (1953)
46
Cold War Timeline
Churchill Iron Curtain speech Bulgaria deposes
king, establishes Peoples Republic Referendum in
Poland brings Communist government Truman
Doctrine announced
5 Mar 46 8 Sep 46 19 Jan 47 12 Mar 47
5 Jun 47 25 Feb 48 3 Apr 48 10 May 48 24 Jun 48
Sec State George Marshall outlines European aid
plan Communist Party takes control of
Czechoslovakia Truman signs Foreign Assistance
Act (Marshall Plan) Republic of Korea proclaimed,
Syngman Rhee president Stalin orders blockade of
Berlin allies respond with airlift
47
Berlin
48
Berlin
49
Berlin Blockade
Soviets wanted Western Allies out of Berlin
June 24, 1948 Blocked all ground access to
Berlin
Ground access rights never formally guaranteed
50
Berlin Airlift
June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949
Western response
supply city by air
Air corridors guaranteed by Four Power agreement
on Berlin
First significant confrontation of the Cold War
51
Berlin Airlift
June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949
52
Berlin Airlift
June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949
Major General William H. Tunner, USAF
53
Berlin Airlift
June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949
Douglas C-54 Skymaster
54
Berlin Airlift
June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949
Berlin Air Corridor Profile
55
Berlin Airlift
June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949
Approach to Tempelhof
56
Berlin Airlift
June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949
RAF Sunderland flying boat Operating on Havel
River
Carried general cargo plus bulk salt
57
Berlin Airlift
June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949
58
North Atlantic Treaty
April 4, 1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Formed
Military alliance to protect Western Europe
Original members Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom,
United States
Greece, Turkey joined in 1952
West Germany joined following ratification of
Paris Peace Treaties (May 1955)
USSR responded with Warsaw Pact (May 14, 1955)
Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East
Germany, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, Soviet Union
59
Cold War Timeline
Stalin declares PDRK legitimate government of all
Korea North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
established Berlin Blockade lifted Federal
Republic of Germany created from Western
Zone Soviet Union detonates first nuclear device
9 Sep 48 4 Apr 49 11 May 49 23 May 49 29 Aug 49
60
Soviet A-bomb

Soviet Nuclear Test (US code name Joe 1) August
29, 1949
61
NSC-68
April 14, 1950
Classified National Security Council document
Full analysis of US-USSR relationship
Defined initial US Cold War strategy
Containment
Implemented the Truman Doctrine
62
Cold War Timeline
Stalin declares PDRK legitimate government of all
Korea North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
established Berlin Blockade lifted Federal
Republic of Germany created from Western
Zone Soviet Union detonates first nuclear device
9 Sep 48 4 Apr 49 11 May 49 23 May 49 29 Aug 49
1 Oct 49 7 Oct 49 12 Jan 50 14 Feb 50 25 Jun
50 27 Jun 50
Mao Zedong declares Peoples Republic of
China German Democratic Republic created from
Eastern Zone Sec State Acheson speech omits Korea
as US interest area USSR PRC sign mutual
defense pact North Korea (PDRK) invades South
Korea (ROK) United Nations votes to use military
force to assist ROK
63
Korea War
64
Korea
Annexed by Japan in 1910
Big 3 pledged independence for Korea at Potsdam
Divided into zones of occupation at 38th parallel
after WW II USSR occupied north, US the south
65
Korea
Ignored strategically by US after WW II
From the standpoint of military security, the
United States has little strategic interest in
maintaining the present troops and bases in
Korea.
Joint Chiefs of Staff to President Truman 25
September 1947
Soviets announced plan to withdraw their troops
by 1 January 1949
28 September 1948
Korea omitted from countries in US Pacific
defense perimeter
Secretary of State Dean Acheson Speech on the Far
East National Press Club 12 January 1950
66
Korea
Ignored strategically by US after WW II
The defensive perimeter runs along the Aleutians
to Japan and then goes to the Ryukyus
and from the Ryukyus to the Philippine
Islands.
Secretary of State Dean Acheson Speech on the Far
East National Press Club 12 January 1950
Source
67
Korean War
June 25, 1950 - (July 27, 1953)
June 25, 1950
North Korean forces crossed 38th parallel
100,000 troops supported by tanks and aircraft
68
Korean War
North Korea Attacks 25 June 1950
http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/maps/koreat
xt.html
69
Korean War
June 25, 1950 - (July 27, 1953)
UN Security Council voting to use military force
in Korea June 27,1950
USSR absent (boycotting UN)
70
Parallels
Korea and Gulf War
Both were declared non-vital to US
These were the only two time the UN authorized
military force (up to 1991)
71
Korean War
June 25, 1950 - (July 27, 1953)
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur Placed in
command of UN forces
72
Korean War
Pusan Perimeter July-August 1950
73
Korean War
Inchon Landing 15 September 1950
74
Inchon Landing
September 15, 1950
Operation Chromite
MacArthur proposed bold strategic stroke in enemy
rear
75
Inchon Landing
September 15, 1950
Operation Chromite
Inchon 10 miles from Seoul and lightly defended
76
Inchon Landing
September 15, 1950
Problem 30 foot tides
77
Inchon Landing
September 15, 1950
Operation Chromite
78
Inchon Landing
September 15, 1950
Operation Chromite
79
Korean War
Approaching the Yalu River October-November 1950
80
Korean War
Memory of this haunted presidents during the
Vietnam War
China Enters the War November 1950 - January 1951
81
Truman MacArthur
Meeting at Wake Island, October 14, 1950
82
Truman MacArthur
Truman concerned about MacArthurs freelancing
Statements about expanding the war Did not
seem to understand political implications of war
From the Far East I send you one message,
written in blood on every beachhead from
Australia to Tokyo There is no substitute for
victory!
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur
83
Firing Message
"With deep regret I have concluded that General
of the Army Douglas MacArthur is unable to give
his wholehearted support to the policies of the
U.S. Government and of the U.N. in matters
pertaining to his official duties. In view of
the specific responsibilities imposed upon me by
the Constitution of the U.S. and the added
responsibilities entrusted to me by the U.N. I
have decided that I must make a change in command
in the Far East. I have, therefore, relieved
General MacArthur of his command and have
designated Lt. Gen. Matthew Ridgway as his
successor".
Truman Statement on MacArthur April 6, 1951
84
Korean War
US Battle Deaths36,940
Stalemate January 1951 - 27 July 1953
85
Korean War
June 25, 1950 - (July 27, 1953)
November 1952 Dwight Eisenhower elected
president
Visited Korea as president-elect
Hinted at use of nuclear weapons to end war
Chinese got serious about negotiations Cease
fire signed July 27, 1953
86
Next
Lesson 24 Cold War Living on the Brink
87
Lesson Objectives
Build a foundation for understanding the
genesis, issues, and strategies of the Cold
War. Understand the strategy of containment
and become familiar with the conflicts and
confrontations that resulted. Be able to
describe and discuss the concepts of countervalue
and counterforce targeting. Begin to
understand the concept of deterrence in the Cold
War. Understand the impact of the Cold War
nuclear standoff on US society.

88
End
89
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90
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If you are reading this in English, thank a
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