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The Cold War Begins 1945-1952

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Title: The Cold War Begins 1945-1952


1
Chapter 36
  • The Cold War Begins 1945-1952

2
Postwar Economics
  • Fear of continued Depression
  • Anti-union backlash from Conservative
    Republicans? Taft-Hartley Act
  • Sold off war factories, created Council of
    Economic Advisors
  • Servicemens Readjustment Act (GI Bill)? the
    American Dream
  • 1948GNP ? for 20 years, income doubled

3
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4
Postwar Economics
  • New middle class (saved during war) Culture of
    Consumerism
  • Planned obsolescence and advertising
  • Home ownership ? from 1920s
  • Work for women vs. traditional role of wife and
    mother
  • US in good situation? rest of world destroyed by
    war

5
Postwar Economy
  • permanent war economy massive defense spending
  • High tech and scientific research defense
    spending
  • US control of oil cheap fuel? highway system,
    suburbs etc.
  • Productivity increasing 3 per year increased
    standard of living
  • Agribusiness

6
Coca-Colonizing the World American
consumerismand American productsflooded over
the globe after World War II, as this 1950 cover
from Time magazine illustrates.
7
Advertising Prosperity, 1956
8
Agribusiness Expensive machinery of the sort
shown here made most of American agriculture a
capital intensive, phenomenally productive big
business by the twenty-first centuryand sounded
the death knell for many small-scale family
farms.
9
Population Redistribution
  • New economy 30 million moved each year
  • Isolation from family? Dr. Spock
  • Growth of the Sunbelt
  • Growth of the suburbs- home loans from Federal
    Housing Administration and VA
  • Highways, tax deductions? commuters
  • Levittown on Long Island 1947

10
Distribution of Population Increase, 19502005
11
Moving to the Suburbs
12
Population Redistribution
  • white flight as a result of Southern blacks
    moving to white, northern cities
  • Doughnut Effect- shopping malls
  • FHA often refused loans to blacks segregation
    and cycle of poverty
  • Baby Boom 15-20 years after war with explosion
    in birthrate
  • Boomers created structural problems at every
    stage of development

13
Yalta Conference
  • February 1945 Big Three met at Yalta Conference
  • Divide Germany into 4 zones of occupation
  • Free elections in Poland (and eastern Europe)
  • Create UN as peace keeping organization
  • Soviet Union to enter war against Japan

14
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15
Great Hopes for World Peace with the United
Nations, 1947
16
Start of Cold War
  • US-Soviet relationship out of necessity? trouble
    between 2 Superpowers
  • Ideology conflict (communism vs. democracy)
  • US hadnt recognized USSR until 1933
  • Delay for 2nd front!
  • USSR kept out of atomic bomb
  • End to Lend Lease, denial of loans from US
  • USSR wanted a buffer zone

17
Start of Cold War
  • US angry about nonaggression pact
  • US wanted democracy, demilitarization, end to
    colonization, UN
  • Increasing fear of atomic confrontation Cold War

18
Internationalism
  • Bretton Woods Conference July 1944
  • World Bank
  • International Monetary Fund
  • United Nations Conference April 25, 1945
  • Security Council veto power
  • General Assembly
  • Secretariat
  • UN Trusteeship Council
  • International Court of Justice
  • 1st clash over atomic weapons between US and USSR

19
Growing Rift
  • Nuremberg Trials Crimes against Peace, Crimes
    against Humanity, War Crimes
  • USSR demanding ½ of Poland (nonaggression pact)
    shifted boundaries in Poland and Germany
  • Satellite Nations wanted a buffer zone
  • USSR refused reoccupation keep Germany weak
  • Berlin divided too

20
The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, 1946
21
Growing Rift
  • West Germany vs. East Germany
  • an Iron Curtain
  • Berlin Blockade? Berlin Airlift until 1949
  • George F. Kennan Policy of Containment
  • Truman Doctrine
  • 1947 Marshall Plan with 12.5 billion of
    rebuilding Europe stop communism!
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) vs.
    Warsaw Pact

22
Postwar Partition of Germany
23
Berlin, 1948
24
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25
United States Foreign Aid, Military and Economic,
19451954 Marshall Plan aid swelled the outlay
for Europe. Note the emphasis on the developed
world, with relatively little aid going to
developing.
26
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27
Japan
  • Douglas MacArthur? Japanese reforms and
    democratization (wrote constitution)
  • Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal 1946-48
  • Explosion of USSR Atomic Bomb in 1949? arms race
    to Hydrogen bomb

28
The Hydrogen Bomb, 1954 This test blast at Bikini
Atoll in the Marshall Islands was so powerful
that one Japanese fisherman was killed and all
twenty-two of his crewmates were seriously
injured by radioactive ash that fell on their
vessel some eighty miles away. Fishing boats a
thousand miles from Bikini later brought in
radioactively contaminated catches.
29
Hunt for Commies
  • Loyalty Review Boards 1947
  • House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)
    subversion in government and Hollywood
  • Led to black lists and Hollywood Ten
  • Richard Nixon? Communist? Alger Hiss in state
    department
  • McCarran Internal Securities Bill 1950?
    dictatorship?
  • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg espionage

30
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31
1948 Election
  • Republicans Thomas Dewey
  • Democrats Harry Truman
  • Formation of the States Rights Party (Dixiecrats)
    with Strom Thurmond
  • Progressive Party with Henry Wallace
  • Truman whistle stop campaign? give em hell
    Harry!

32
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33
Korean War
  • Occupation zones at 38th parallel after WWII
  • June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea
  • NSC-68 defense spending!
  • UN action to peace keep Douglas MacArthur
    commander
  • Battle of Inchon? moved beyond 38th up to the
    Yalu River
  • Chinese action (threatened)

34
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35
The Shifting Front in Korea
36
Korean War
  • November 1950 stalemate, MacArthur wanted
    nuclear weapons
  • wrong enemy, wrong war limited war
  • MacArthur attacked Truman in the press dismissed
    from post April 11, 1951
  • Cease fire talks starting 1951, concluded 1953
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