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The Cold War begins 1945 -1948

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1950 s & The Cold War Dwight D. Eisenhower WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR? 4 CAUSES 1. MUTUAL DISTRUST A. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the US tried to overthrow ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War begins 1945 -1948


1
1950s The Cold War
Dwight D. Eisenhower
2
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3
The Cold War 1945-1991
Free powerpoints at http//www.worldofteaching.com
4
Cold War
  • The Cold War was a time after WWII when the USA
    and the Soviet Union were rivals for world
    influence and a time when the two powers built up
    their military and nuclear weapons.
  • NOT A SHOT WAS FIRED DURING THE COLD WAR!

5
Two sides of Cold War
  • NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • USA, France, Great Britain, West Germany
  • CAPITALISM
  • Warsaw Pact pro Soviet countries USSR, and
    all countries controlled by the USSR.
  • COMMUNISM

6
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
7
YALTA (in the USSR) Date Feb 1945 Present
Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
8
THE YALTA CONFERENCE
  • 1. At the Black Sea resort city of Yalta in the
    Soviet Union the Big Three discussed the fate
    of Germany and the postwar world.
  • Stalin favored a harsh approach because of the
    devastation created by Germany. He wanted to
    keep Germany divided into occupation zones so
    that Germany would never again threaten the
    Soviet Union.
  • When Churchill disagreed, Roosevelt acted as a
    mediator between the two.

9
THE YALTA CONFERENCE - OUTCOMES
  • 1. An agreement to temporarily divide Germany
    into four zones American, British, Soviet and
    French. (In time all zones would be brought back
    together to reunite Germany)
  • 2. Stalin agreed to free elections in Poland
    and other soviet-occupied European countries.
  • 3. Stalin agreed to join in the war against
    Japan. (The US kept information about the nuclear
    bomb from the Soviets)
  • 4. The three leaders agreed to the creation of
    the United Nations.
  • 5. They agreed to meet again.

10
POTSDAM (Germany) Date July 1945 Present
Attlee, Truman and Stalin
11
THE POTSDAM CONFERENCE
  • 1. The same countries were present but the
    leaders were different USSR Stalin, USA
    Truman, ENGLAND Attlee
  • 2. They met at the city of Potsdam near Berlin,
    Germany in July 1945.
  • 3. Many of the things that Stalin agreed to in
    the Yalta Conference he was not keeping.

12
THE POTSDAM CONFERNCE - OUTCOMES
  • 1. Stalin refused free elections in Poland.
    Truman wanted free elections in order to spread
    democracy and stop communism.
  • 2. Stalin wanted to take all of Germanys
    resources to pay for damages in Russia. Truman
    wanted free trade and a strong economy in all of
    Europe.
  • 3. NO AGREEMENTS WERE MADE BETWEEN NATIONS!

13
U.S. AIMS VERSUS SOVIET AIMS IN EUROPE
  • THE US WANTED TO
  • 1. Create a world in which nations had the right
    of self-determination
  • 2. Gain access to raw materials and markets for
    its own industries
  • 3. Rebuild European governments to ensure
    stability and to create new markets for American
    goods.
  • 4. Reunite Germany, believing that Europe would
    be more secure if Germany were productive.
  • THE SOVIETS WANTED TO
  • 1. Encourage communism in other countries as
    part of the worldwide struggle between workers
    and the wealthy.
  • 2. Rebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern
    Europes industrial equipment and raw materials.
  • 3. Control Eastern Europe to balance U.S.
    influence in Western Europe.
  • 4. Keep Germany divided and weak so that it
    would never again threaten the Soviet Union.

14
Iron Curtain A term used by Winston Churchill
to describe the separating of Those
communist lands of East Europe from the West.
Divided Germany
15
Improve your knowledge
Divided Berlin
  • The Russians took very high casualties to capture
    Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early
    occupation trying to take over all zones of the
    city but were stopped by German democrats such as
    Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the
    Russians had to admit the Americans, French and
    British to their respective zones.

16
Berlin Wall
  • Berlin is Germanys capital city.
  • The Soviets built the wall to keep communists
    from escaping to the American sector.

17
Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
18
Berlin blockade led to Berlin Airlift
19
CURRENT PHOTOS A BERLIN WALL
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Wall torn down in 1989.
23
THE ARMS RACE DURING THE COLD WAR
  • The Soviet Union did not trust the United States.
    The United States did not trust the Soviet
    Union.
  • In Early 1946 Stalin gave a public speech
    announcing that communism and capitalism were
    incompatible and that another war was inevitable.
  • Each country began to build more and more nuclear
    weapons.

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Nuclear Missiles!
26
Marshall Plan
  • USAs plan to send food, blankets, fuel to Europe
    to help them. AND to keep them from turning
    communist.

27
Marshall Plan
  • The Marshall Plan, officially, was the primary
    plan of the United States for rebuilding the
    allied countries of Europe and repelling
    communism after World War II
  • During that period some 13 billion of economic
    and technical assistance was given to help the
    recovery of the European

28
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Truman Doctrine
  • The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that
    the USA would support free peoples who are
    resisting communism.
  • This led to containment policy of containing
    communism where it is.

30
Truman Doctrine
  • The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign
    policy designed to contain Communism by giving
    Greece and Turkey economic aid.
  • It stated that the U.S. would support Greece and
    Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent
    their falling into the Soviet sphere.
  • The Doctrine shifted American foreign policy
    towards the Soviet Union
  • It is often used by historians as the starting
    date of the Cold War.

On March 12, 1947
31
What is the United Nations?
32
United Nations
  • International Organization where countries try to
    find peaceful solutions

33
United Nations
  • It has no army but uses troops from other
    countries.

34
WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?
  • 4 CAUSES

35
1. MUTUAL DISTRUST
  • A. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the US
    tried to overthrow the government.
  • B. During WWII Stalin was angry at the US and
    Britain over the Second Front created to defeat
    Hitler.
  • C. The US hid information regarding the Atomic
    Bomb from Stalin.
  • D. After WWII Stalin took over Eastern Europe
    and did not hold free elections.

36
2. Two Ideologies
  • A. Communism and Capitalism are opposites of
    each other.
  • B. Communism wants state control of everything.
  • C. Capitalism wants people to control everything
    free elections, private business ownership etc.
    . . .

37
3. The Arms Race
  • A. The US and Soviet Union were always building
    new and more powerful weapons to see who had the
    most.
  • B. The race to see who could put the first man
    in space occurred at this time also.

38
4. Competition in the Third World
  • A. The US and Soviet Union were each trying to
    win the hearts and minds of people in Asia,
    Africa, the Middle East and Latin America.
  • B. The USSR was trying to spread communism and
    the US was trying to stop them.

39
THE COLD WAR HEATS UP
40
THE COLD WAR HEATS UP
  • China becomes communist.
  • During WW2 the US had supported Chiang Kaishek
    against the communist leader Mao Zedong.
  • In 1944 a famine hit China, Chiangs secret
    police arrest people for no reason.
  • Mao Zedong and the Communists encouraged peasants
    to learn to read and helped them to improve food
    production
  • Between 1944 and 1947 China experience civil war.
    During this time many of Chiangs followers
    fled to the island of Taiwan where they
    established the Peoples Republic of China.
  • Mao Zedong was free to rule China as a communist
    country.

41
THE COLD WAR HEATS UP
  • KOREA becomes communist
  • When WW2 ended Japanese troops north of the 38th
    parallel (in Korea) surrendered to the Soviets.
  • Japanese troops south of the parallel surrendered
    to American troops.
  • In 1948 the Republic of Korea (S Korea)
    established a government while at the same time
    the communists formed the Democratic Peoples
    Republic of Korea in the north led by Kim II
    Sung.
  • By 1949 the Soviets were sending North Korea
    tanks, planes and money in an attempt to help the
    North Koreans take over the entire peninsula.

42
THE KOREAN WAR
43
Domino Theory
Communism spreads like a disease BRINKMANSHIP
all out total war short of nuclear war
44
Korea and Vietnam
  • USA tried to contain communism. In both wars,
    communist troops fought armies trained and funded
    by the USA.

45
Communists invaded from the north. China sent a
million troops to help reds.
46
Korean War
  • After the failure of the promise of Korean
    independence by the Allied nations, on June 25,
    1950, communist North Korean troops invaded South
    Korea. Poorly armed, the South Koreans were no
    match for the North. The United Nations ordered
    North Korea to withdraw its troops. General
    MacArthur was appointed to command all UN troops
    in Korea. After three years of fighting a
    stalemate, more than 54,000 American troops
    perished.

47
  • I want to talk plainly to you tonight about what
    we are doing in Korea and about our policy in the
    Far East.
  • In the simplest terms, what we are doing in Korea
    is this We are trying to prevent a third world
    war.
  • It is right for us to be in Korea. It was right
    last June. It is right today.
  • The best time to meet the threat is in the
    beginning. It is easier to put out a fire in the
    beginning when it is small than after it has
    become a roaring blaze.
  • And the best way to meet the threat of aggression
    is for the peace-loving nations to act together.
    If they don't act together, they are likely to be
    picked off, one by one....
  • Why can't we take other steps to punish the
    aggressor? Why don't we bomb Manchuria and China
    itself? Why don't we assist Chinese Nationalist
    troops to land on the mainland of China?

48
How did the USA try to contain communism?
49
Marshall Plan helped countries economically so
they wont go red.
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