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World War II

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Title: World War II


1
World War II
  • Yesterday, December 7, 1941 - a date which will
    live in infamy the United States of America was
    suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and
    air forces of the Empire of Japan.
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt asking for a
    Declaration of War
  • Congressional Record, December 8 , 1941

2
Timeline of Events
  • 1931
  • The Empire State Building opens in New York City
  • Japan conquers Manchuria in northern China

3
Timeline of Events
  • 1932
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected president
  • 1933
  • Adolf Hitler is appointed German chancellor and
    sets up Dachau concentration camp
  • Prohibition ends

4
Timeline of Events
  • 1934
  • Stalin begins great purge in U.S.S.R.
  • Chinese communists flee in the Long March

5
Timeline of Events
  • 1936
  • Jesse Owens wins four gold medals in Olympics in
    Berlin, Germany
  • Ethiopias Halle Selassie asks League of Nations
    for help against Italian invasion
  • General Francisco Franco leads a fascist
    rebellion in Spain
  • Roosevelt is reelected

6
Timeline of Events
  • 1937
  • Amelia Earhart mysteriously disappears attempting
    solo round the world flight
  • 1938
  • Orson Welles broadcasts The War of the Worlds, a
    fictional alien invasion
  • Kristallnacht Nazis riot, destroying Jewish
    neighborhoods

7
Timeline of Events
  • 1939
  • Germany invades Poland, Britain and France
    declare war on Germany
  • 1940
  • Roosevelt is elected to a third term
  • Italy, Germany, and Japan sign a mutual defense
    pact becoming the Axis Powers
  • Selective Service begins

8
Timeline of Events
  • 1941
  • Lend-Lease Act is passed by Congress
  • Japan bombs Pearl Harbor
  • United States enters World War II
  • A. Philip Randolph demands that war industries
    hire African Americans
  • Hitler invades the Soviet Union

9
Timeline of Events
  • 1942
  • Roosevelt creates the War Production Board to
    coordinate mobilization
  • Japanese Americans are sent to relocation centers
  • In the Pacific, the Battle of Midway turned the
    tide in favor of the Allies

10
Timeline of Events
  • 1942
  • Nazis develop the final solution for
    exterminating Jews.
  • Womens Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) is founded
  • Manhattan Project begins

11
Timeline of Events
  • 1943
  • Zoot-suit riots rock Los Angeles
  • Rommels forces surrender in North Africa
  • 1944
  • On June 6, the Allies launch D-Day, a massive
    invasion of Europe
  • Roosevelt is elected to a fourth term

12
Timeline of Events
  • 1945
  • U.S. marines take Iwo Jima
  • Harry S Truman becomes president when Roosevelt
    dies
  • Nazi retreat begins after the Battle of the Bulge
  • Japan surrenders after atomic bombing of
    Hiroshima and Nagasaki

13
Failures of the World War I Peace Settlement
  • The Treaty of Versailles caused anger and
    resentment
  • Germany was angry that they were blamed for
    starting the war, and were forced to pay
    reparations
  • These problems overwhelmed the Weimar
    Republicthe democratic government put in place
    after WWI
  • The Soviets were also angry with the carving up
    of their territories

14
Europe 1914---Europe 1919
15
Failures of the World War I Peace Settlement
  • The world was still not safe for democracy
  • New democratic governments that emerged
    floundered
  • Without a democratic tradition, people turned to
    authoritarian leaders to solve their economic and
    social problems
  • Eventually many democratic governments collapsed
  • Dictators seized power

16
Emerging Superpowers
17
Joseph Stalin transforms Soviet Union
  • In Russia, democracy gave way to civil war
  • The result a communist state officially called
    the Soviet Union
  • 1922Lenin died
  • 1924Joseph Stalin took control of the country
  • He focused on creating a model communist country
  • He made agricultural and industrial growth the
    prime economic goals

18
Joseph Stalin transforms Soviet Union
  • He abolished all privately owned farms and
    replaced them with collectiveslarge government
    owned farmseach worked by hundreds of families
  • By 1939, Stalin had established a totalitarian
    government that tried to exert complete control
    over its citizens
  • In a totalitarian state, individuals have no
    rights and the government suppresses all
    opposition

19
The Rise of Fascist Italy
  • Benito Mussolini was establishing his own
    totalitarian government
  • High unemployment and inflation produced bitter
    strikes
  • Alarmed by the threats, the middle and upper
    classes demanded stronger leadership
  • Mussolini took advantage of the situation and
    played on fears of economic collapse and
    communism
  • Mussolini easily won the support of Italians

20
The Rise of Fascist Italy
  • 1921Mussolini established the Fascist Party
  • Fascismstressed nationalism and placed the
    interests of the state above those of individuals
  • Power must rest with a single strong leader and a
    small group of devoted party members
  • 1922-Mussolini and thousands of his followers,
    called black shirts, marched on Rome
  • When important government officials, the army,
    and the police sided with the Fascists, the
    Italian king appointed Mussolini head of
    government

21
The Rise of Fascist Italy
  • Calling himself Il Duce, or the leader, he
    extended control to every aspect of Italian life
  • Tourists marveled at how even the trains were on
    time
  • He completed his goals through the crushing of
    all opposition and by making Italy totalitarian

22
Nazis in Germany
  • Hitler followed the same path Mussolini did to
    gain power
  • After WW1, Hitler was a jobless soldier
  • 1919he joined the National Socialist German
    Workers Party (NAZI)
  • He was a powerful public speaker
  • He quickly became the partys leader
  • Calling himself Der Fuhrer, the leader, he
    promised to bring Germany out of chaos

23
Nazis in Germany
  • Adolph Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
  • In the book, Hitler set forth the basic beliefs
    of Nazism that became the plan of action for the
    Nazi Party
  • NazismGerman form of Fascismbased on extreme
    nationalism
  • Hitler was born Austrian and dreamed of uniting
    all German speaking peoples in one empire

24
Nazis in Germany
  • Hitler wanted to enforce racial purification
  • Germansblue-eyed, blond-haired Aryansformed a
    master race destined to rule the world
  • Inferior racesJews, Slavs, and all non-whites
    were deemed only fit to serve the Aryans

25
Nazis in Germany
  • National expansion
  • He believed that for Germany to thrive, it needed
    more living space
  • One of his goals was to secure the land entitled
    to the German people by any means necessary

26
Nazis in Germany
  • The Great Depression helped the Nazis come to
    power
  • War debts and dependence on American loans and
    investments caused Germanys economy was hit hard
  • 6 million Germans were unemployed by 1932
  • Many men out of work joined Hitlers private
    armyStorm Troopers (brown shirts)
  • Germans were desperate and turned to Hitler for
    help

27
Nazis in Germany
  • By mid 1932, the Nazis had become the strongest
    political party in Germany
  • January 1933Hitler appointed Chancellor (prime
    minister)
  • Hitler quickly dismantled Germanys democratic
    republic
  • He established the Third Reich, or Third German
    Empire
  • Hitler said the Third Reich would become the
    Thousand-year Reich

28
Militarists Gain Control in Japan
  • On the other side of the world nationalistic
    military leaders were trying to take control of
    the imperial government of Japan
  • These leaders shared Hitlers belief for more
    living space
  • Ignoring protests from moderate officials, the
    militarists launched a surprise attack and seized
    control of Manchuria in 1931

29
Militarists Gain Control in Japan
  • The attack proved to be the greatest test of the
    newly formed League of Nations
  • Representatives were sent to investigate
  • Their report condemned Japan
  • Japan quit the League
  • The Militarists were now firmly in control of the
    Japanese government

30
Heading For War
31
Aggression in Europe and Africa
  • The League of Nations failed and European
    dictators noticed
  • In 1933, Hitler pulled out of the League
  • In 1935, he began a military buildupviolating
    the Treaty of Versailles
  • He then sent troops into the Rhinelandhad been
    demilitarized as a result of the war
  • The League of Nations did nothing

32
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33
Aggression in Europe and Africa
  • Mussolini also began building his own empire
  • His first target Ethiopia
  • 1935tens of thousands of Italian soldiers were
    ready to march on Ethiopia
  • The League reacted with brave talk of collective
    resistance to all acts of unprovoked aggression
  • When Mussolini attacked, the League reacted with
    an economic boycott
  • The Ethiopian emperor who had been overthrown
    appealed to the League for help, but to no avail
  • He replied to the LeagueIts us today, it will
    be you tomorrow

34
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35
Civil War breaks out in Spain
  • General Francisco Franco and other army officers
    rebelled against the Spanish republic
  • Revolts broke out all over Spain
  • The Spanish Civil War broke out
  • The war aroused passions all over the world
  • 3000 Americans formed the Abraham Lincoln
    Battalion and traveled to Spain to fight against
    Franco and Fascism
  • Among the volunteers were African Americans still
    upset about Italy attacking Ethiopia the year
    before
  • The limited aid was not enough to stop fascism

36
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37
Civil War breaks out in Spain
  • The Western democracies remained neutral
  • The Soviet Union sent equipment and advisers
  • Hitler and Mussolini backed Francos forces with
    troops, weapons, tanks, and fighter planes
  • The war forged a strong alliance between German
    and Italian dictators
  • After a loss of almost 500,000 lives, Francos
    victory in 1939 established him as Spains
    fascist dictator

38
Americans Cling to Isolationism
  • In the 1930s, many books were written arguing
    that the U.S. had been dragged into WW1 by greedy
    bankers and arms dealers
  • Public outcries led to a congressional committee
  • Led by North Dakota Senator Gerald Nye, the
    committee fueled the controversy by documenting
    the large profits that banks and manufacturers
    made during the war
  • As the furor grew over these merchants of
    death, Americans became more determined than
    ever to avoid war

39
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40
Americans Cling to Isolationism
  • to avoid appearing militaristic, the Girl Scouts
    changed their colors from green and khaki
  • American isolationism eventually had an impact on
    Roosevelts foreign policy
  • He officially recognized the Soviet Union in 1933
    and agreed to exchange ambassadors with Moscow

41
Americans Cling to Isolationism
  • He continued the nonintervention in Latin America
    with his Good Neighbor Policy and withdrew armed
    forces stationed there
  • In 1934, he pushed the Reciprocal Trade Agreement
    Act through Congress
  • This act lowered trade barriers by giving the
    president the power to make trade agreements
  • It also aimed at lowering tariffs by as much as
    50
  • Congress then passed a series of Neutrality Acts
    in 1935

42
Americans Cling to Isolationism
  • The first two Neutrality Acts outlawed arms sales
    or loans to nations at war
  • The third act was passed in response to the
    fighting in Spain
  • This act extended the ban on arms sales and loans
    to nations engaged in civil wars

43
Neutrality Breaks Down
  • Despite efforts to legislate neutrality,
    Roosevelt found it impossible to remain neutral
  • When Japan formally declared war on China in
    1937, Roosevelt found a way around the neutrality
    acts
  • The U.S. continued sending arms and supplies to
    China
  • A few months later, Roosevelt spoke out against
    isolationism
  • He called on peace-loving nations to quarantine
    aggressor nations in order to stop the spread of
    war

44
Neutrality Breaks Down
  • Isolationist newspapers spoke out claiming
    Roosevelt was leading the nation into war
  • Roosevelt backed off in the face of criticism,
    but his speech began to shift the debate

45
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46
The War in Europe
  • Hitler met with his advisers and declared that
    the only way to solve the German Question is
    through force
  • The first phase was to absorb Austria and
    Czechoslovakia into The Third Reich
  • On March 12, 1938, German troops marched into
    Austria unopposed
  • There were about 3 million Germans living in the
    Sudetenland
  • Hitler charged the Czechs were abusing the
    Sudeten Germans and began massing troops on the
    Czech border

47
The War in Europe
  • France and Britain both swore to protect
    Czechoslovakia
  • Hitler invited both the French premier Edouard
    Daladier and British prime minister Neville
    Chamberlain to Munich
  • When they arrived, Hitler promised this would be
    his last territorial demand
  • They two leaders chose to believe him
  • On September 30, 1938 all three signed the Munich
    Agreement, which turned the Sudetenland over to
    Germany without a single shot being fired

48
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49
The War in Europe
  • Chamberlain returned home proclaiming peace
  • Winston Churchill was not as satisfied with the
    Agreement
  • Churchill believed France and Britain had adopted
    a form of appeasementor giving up principles to
    pacify an aggressor
  • Churchill responded with a warning of war on the
    horizon

50
German Offensive Begins
  • Churchill was right
  • March 15, 1939, Hitler invaded the remaining part
    of Czechoslovakia
  • About two months later, Hitler charged that the
    Poles were mistreating Germans in Poland
  • He began massing an army to invade Poland
  • Some thought he was bluffing
  • An attack on Poland would bring Germany at odds
    with the Soviets
  • At the same time it would also provoke war with
    France and Britain who had promised to protect
    Poland

51
German Offensive Begins
  • As tensions rose over Poland, Stalin signed a
    nonaggression act with Hitler
  • Once bitter enemies, Stalin and Hitler now
    promised not to attack one another
  • They then signed a second agreement promising to
    split Poland between each other
  • With the danger of a two-front war eliminated,
    the fate of Poland was sealed

52
Blitzkrieg in Poland
  • Dawn, September 1, 1939the German Luftwaffe
    began bombing Poland
  • German tanks raced across the countryside
  • This invasion was the first test of Germanys
    blitzkrieg, or lightning war
  • They made use of military technology to take the
    enemy by surprise and then quickly crush all
    opposition
  • Two days later Britain and France declared war on
    Germany

53
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54
Blitzkrieg in Poland
  • The blitzkrieg tactics worked perfectly
  • Major fighting was over before the allies could
    mount an offensive
  • In the last week of fighting, the Soviet Union
    attacked from the east and grabbed a portion of
    Poland
  • By the end, Poland ceased to exist and WW2 had
    begun

55
The Phony War
  • For the next several months, French and British
    soldiers sat on the Maginot Line staring into
    Germany waiting for something to happen
  • A few miles away, the Germans sat on the
    Siegfried Line staring back
  • The Germans called this the sitzkrieg sitting
    war
  • Some newspapers called it the Phony War

56
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57
The Phony War
  • Stalin began annexing the Baltic states of
    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
  • Late in 1939, Stalin sent troops into Finland
  • After three months of fighting Finland
    surrendered
  • In April 1940, Hitler suddenly attacked Denmark
    and Norway in order to protect those
    countries freedom and independence.
  • Hitler really wanted their sea coasts for his
    naval bases
  • Next, Hitler turned on Belgium, Luxembourg, and
    the Netherlands
  • The Phony War had ended

58
The Fall of France
  • The Maginot Line proved to be ineffective
  • The German threatened to bypass the line by going
    through Belgium
  • Hitler sent his generals through the Ardennes
    avoiding British and French troops
  • The Germans marched toward Paris
  • The Germans had trapped almost 400,000 French,
    British and Belgian soldiers
  • They fled to the beaches of Dunkirk and escaped
    the Germans by crossing the Channel on fishing
    barges and small tugboats

59
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60
The Fall of France
  • A few days later, Italy entered the war on the
    German side and began attacking France from the
    south
  • On June 22, 1940, at Compiegne, Hitler handed
    French officers his terms of surrender
  • Germans would occupy the northern part of France,
    and a Nazi-controlled puppet government, headed
    by Marshal Philippe Petain, would be set up at
    Vichy in the south

61
The Fall of France
  • Charles de Gaulle fled to England where he set up
    a government-in-exile and proclaimed France has
    lost a battle, but France has not lost the war.

62
The Battle of Britain
  • In the summer of 1940, the Germans assembled an
    invasion fleet along the French coast
  • Even though they could not compete with Britains
    naval power, Germany launched an air war at the
    same time it launched a naval war on Britain
  • The Luftwaffe began making bombing runs over
    Britain
  • Its goal was to control the skies and defeat the
    RAF
  • Hitler had over 2600 planesin one dayAugust
    15he sent over 2000 towards London
  • For two solid months, London was pounded

63
The Battle of Britain
  • The fight lasted through the summer and fall
  • At first the Germans targeted airfields, but then
    went after the cities
  • With the help of radar, the RAF brilliantly
    fought against the Germans
  • On September 15, 1940, the RAF shot down 185
    German planes, and lost only 26 of their own
  • Six weeks later, Hitler called off the invasion
  • But German bombers still continued to bomb
    British cities in order to disrupt production

64
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65
Genocide
66
The Holocaust
  • When Hitler took control, he ordered all
    non-Aryans out of government jobs
  • Jews were not the only victims of the Holocaust,
    but they were the center of the Nazis targets
  • Anti-Semitism, or hatred of Jews, had a long
    history in many European countries
  • For years Germans blamed the Jews for the
    economic struggles
  • Hitler found many willing to share his belief
    that Jews were responsible for Germanys economic
    problems and defeat in WW1

67
Kristallnacht
  • November 9-10, 1938, became known as
    Kristallnacht, or night of broken glass
  • Storm Troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses
    and synagogues across Germany
  • Around 100 Jews were killed
  • Hundreds more injured
  • 30,000 were arrested
  • Afterward, the Germans blamed the Jews for the
    destruction

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69
Jewish Refugees
  • Nazis tried to speed Jewish emigration, but ran
    into difficulty
  • Jews were having trouble finding nations that
    would take them in
  • France already had 40,000 refugees and did not
    want more
  • Britain worried about fueling Anti-Semitism and
    refused to admit more than 80,000 refugees
  • The U.S. allowed 100,000 refugees, but people
    wanted to close the doors

70
Plight of the St. Louis
  • Official indifference to the plight of the Jews
    was evident in the case of the ship St. Louis
  • The German Ocean Liner passed by Miami in 1939
  • 740 of the 943 passengers had U.S. immigration
    papers, the Coast Guard followed the ship in case
    anyone decided to jump ship
  • The ship was forced to return to Europe

71
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72
Final Solution
  • By 1939, only about a quarter million Jews
    remained in Germany
  • Other nations the Nazis occupied had millions
    more
  • Obsessed with ridding Europe of Jews, Hitler
    imposed his Final Solutiona policy of
    genocide, or the systematic killing of an entire
    population

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74
The Condemned
  • To accomplish the preservation of the master
    race Jews and other races were enslaved and
    killed
  • Other groups that were targeted included
  • Gypsies Nazis believed were inferior
  • Freemasons Nazis charged them with supporting
    the Jewish conspiracy to rule the world
  • Jehovahs Witnesses who refused to join the army
    or salute Hitler
  • Other Germans were also targetedthought to be
    unfit to be in the master race

75
The Condemned
  • Hitler began implementing his final solution in
    Poland with special Nazi death squads
  • Hitlers security squadrons rounded up Jews and
    shot them on the spot

76
Forced Relocation
  • Jews were ordered into dismal, overcrowded
    ghettossegregated Jewish areas in certain Polish
    cities
  • The Nazis sealed off the ghettos with barbed wire
    and stone walls
  • Life inside was miserable
  • Bodies of victims piled up faster than they could
    be removed
  • Factories were built alongside the ghettos
  • The people were forced to work in these factories
  • Jews formed resistance movements inside the
    ghettossome public and some underground

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78
Concentration Camps
  • Jews in communities not reached by the killing
    squads were shipped out to concentration camps
  • Families were often separated
  • Originally used to house political opponents and
    protesters
  • Turned over to the SS and expanded to include
    other undesirables

79
Concentration Camps
  • Prisoners were crammed into wooden
    barracks1000/barrack
  • They shared quarters, meals, and fleas
  • Jews worked from dawn till dusk or until they
    collapsed
  • If they were too weak to work, they were killed

80
The Final Stage
  • The Final Solution reached its final stage in
    1942
  • Hitler and his officials instituted the final
    phase of the mass killingspoisonous gas
  • The overwork, beatings, bullets and starvation
    were not killing fast enough for the Nazis
  • 6 death camps were built in Poland

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82
The Final Stage
  • Each camp had several gas chambers where as many
    as 12,000 people could be killed in a day
  • When prisoners arrived at Auschwitz, the largest
    of the camps, they were paraded in front of SS
    doctors
  • The doctors would separate the ones that were
    weak from the ones that were strong
  • They were then told to leave all their belongings
    with a promise of getting them later

83
The Final Stage
  • The ones destined to die were ushered into a room
    next to the chamber and told to undress to
    prepare for a shower
  • The prisoners were even given pieces of soap
  • They were then taken into the chamber and
    poisoned with cyanide gas

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85
The Final Stage
  • The mass extermination was sometimes accompanied
    by cheerful music played by prisoners temporarily
    spared execution
  • At first, the bodies were put in huge pits dug by
    other prisoners
  • But other camps installed crematoriums to better
    hide the evidence of the mass killing
  • If prisoners werent gassed, they were shot,
    hanged or injected with poison

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87
The Final Stage
  • Others died of the horrible medical experiments
    carried out by camp doctors
  • Some were injected with deadly germs in order to
    study the effect of disease on different groups
    of people
  • Many others were used to test methods of
    sterilization as another way of improving the
    master race

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89
Survivors
  • About 6 million Jews were slaughtered or died as
    a result of the concentration camps
  • Still, others escaped deatheither with help or
    because the war ended

90
America Joins the War Effort
91
America Moves Towards War
  • 1939Roosevelt asked Congress to pass a
    cash-and-carry provision that allowed warring
    nations to buy U.S. arms as long as they paid
    cash and transported them in their own ships
  • Roosevelt argued it would help France and Britain
    defeat Germany but keep the U.S. out of the war
  • Congress passed the Neutrality Act of
    1939cash-and-carry act

92
Axis Threat
  • The cash-and-carry policy was nearly too little
    to late
  • By 1940, France had fallen and Britain was under
    siege
  • By September 1940, the U.S. had provided Britain
    with hundreds of thousands of weapons and over 50
    ships for leases on British bases
  • Churchill later remarked that this was a
    decidedly unneutral act

93
Axis Threat
  • September 27Germany, Italy, and Japan signed a
    mutual defense treaty, the Tripartite Pact
  • They became known as the Axis Powers
  • This treaty aimed at keeping the U.S. out of the
    war
  • If the U.S. did enter the war, they would be
    fighting a two ocean war

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95
Building U.S. Defenses
  • Meanwhile, Roosevelt asked Congress to increase
    military spending
  • In spite of years of isolationism, Nazi victories
    in 1940 changed minds
  • Congress also passed the nations first
    peace-time draftSelective Training and Service
    Act
  • 16 million men between 21 and 35 were drafted for
    one year and served only in the Western Hemisphere

96
Roosevelt Runs for a Third Term
  • 1940Roosevelt broke the tradition of a two-term
    presidency and decided to run for a third term
    (T.R. had done this nearly 40 years before with
    non-consecutive terms)
  • The Republican candidate, Wendell Willkie,
    supported Roosevelts policies and they both
    promised to keep us out of the war
  • Since there was very little difference between
    the two, the majority of voters chose the only
    one they knew best

97
Roosevelt Wendell Willkie
98
Lend-Lease Plan
  • After the election, Roosevelt explained that it
    would be impossible to negotiate a peace with
    Hitler
  • By late 1940, Britain had no more money for the
    war
  • Roosevelt suggested the Lend-Lease Policy
  • Under this plan, the president lends or leases
    arms and other supplies to any country whose
    defense was vital to the U.S.

99
Lend-Lease Plan
  • Isolationists argued against the plan, but most
    Americans favored it
  • Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act in March 1941

100
Supporting Stalin
  • In June 1941, Hitler broke his agreement with
    Stalin
  • Roosevelt began sending lend-lease supplies to
    the S.U.
  • Some Americans opposed working with Stalin
  • Roosevelt agreed with Churchill when he said, if
    Hitler invaded Hell, Britain would be willing to
    work with the devil himself.

101
German Wolf Packs
  • To send the supplies, supply lines had to be kept
    open
  • Hitler tried to stop the lend-lease supplies by
    sending U-Boats to attack the convoys
  • From spring to fall of 1941, individual surface
    attacks by individual U-boats gave way to what
    became known as the wolf pack attack
  • U-boats were successful in sinking as much as
    350,000 tons of shipments in a single month
  • September 1941Roosevelt gave the navy permission
    to attack German U-boats in self-defense

102
German Wolf Packs
  • By late 1943, the submarine menace was contained
    by electronic detection techniques and by
    airborne antisubmarine patrols

103
Atlantic Charter
  • In 1941, the House extended the term of draftees
  • Roosevelt began planning for the war he knew
    would come
  • Roosevelt and Churchill met secretly at a summit
    aboard the USS Augusta
  • Both agreed to the Atlantic Charterboth
    countries pledged collective security,
    disarmament, self-determination, economic
    cooperation, and freedom of the seas
  • Roosevelt told Churchill he could not ask
    Congress to declare war on Germany, but that he
    would do everything to force an incident

104
Atlantic Charter
  • The charter became the basis of a new documentA
    Declaration of the United Nations
  • The term United Nations was suggested by
    Roosevelt to express the common purpose of the
    Allies
  • The declaration was signed by 26 nations

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106
Shoot on Sight
  • When German U-boats fired on the U.S. destroyer
    Greer in the Atlantic September 4, 1941,
    Roosevelt ordered the navy to shoot on sight
  • Two weeks later, the Pink Star, a merchant ship,
    was sunk off the coast of Greenland
  • Again in October, U-boats sank the U.S. destroyer
    Kearny and 11 lives were lost
  • Days later, Germans sank the Reuben James killing
    more than 100 sailors
  • history has recorded who fired the first shot.

107
Japans Ambitions in the Pacific
  • Japans expansion began with Manchuria
  • Only U.S. territories remained in their way
  • Japan began with French military bases in
    Indochina
  • U.S. responded by cutting off trade with Japan
  • The embargoed goods included oilJapan could be
    defeated without oil
  • Japan had a choicepersuade the U.S. to end its
    oil embargo or seize the oil fields in the Dutch
    East Indies

108
Peace Talks are Questioned
  • Hideki Tojo (prime minister) met with the emperor
    Hirohito
  • He promised to preserve peace with the U.S.
  • But on November 5, 1941, Tojo ordered the
    Japanese navy to prepare for an attack on the
    U.S.
  • The U.S. had broken Japanese codes and learned
    they were preparing for attack, but didnt know
    where
  • Late NovemberRoosevelt sent out a war warning
    to the commanders in the Pacific
  • Roosevelt wanted Japan to commit the first act

109
Peace Talks are Questioned
  • The Peace talks went on for a month
  • On December 6, 1941, Roosevelt received a decoded
    message that instructed Japans peace envoy to
    reject all American peace proposals
  • This means war, Roosevelt declared

110
Pearl Harbor
  • December 7, 1941
  • Early in the morning, a Japanese dive-bomber
    swooped low over Pearl Harbor
  • Followed by more than 180 Japanese warplanes
    launched from six aircraft carriers
  • For an hour and a half, the Japanese planes were
    barely disturbed by antiaircraft guns
  • In less than 2 hours, the Japanese had killed
    2,403 Americans and wounded 1,178 more
  • They sank 21 ships and severely damaged or
    destroyed 300 aircraft

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Pearl Harbor
  • The Pacific Fleet was nearly wiped out
  • Only three aircraft carriers escaped the
    destructionthis proved vital to the outcome of
    the war

113
Pearl Harbor
  • In Washington, Roosevelt listened to report after
    report realizing we now had to fight a war on two
    fronts
  • December 8Roosevelt gave his famous Infamy
    speech
  • The greatest damage done by Pearl Harbor was to
    the cause of isolationism
  • Now, Americans felt that war was the only way

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Americans Join the War Effort
  • After Pearl Harbor, Japan boasted that the U.S.
    was now reduced to a third-rate power and was
    trembling in her shoes
  • Americans set out to prove Japan wrong
  • Eager young Americans jammed recruiting offices
  • 5 million volunteered, but this was not enough
    for all-out war
  • The Selective Service System expanded the draft
    and provided another 10 million soldiers
  • After 8 weeks of basic training the 15 million
    soldiers were ready for the fight

117
The Home Front
118
Expanding the Military
  • The militarys work force needs were so great
    that Gen. George Marshall pushed for the
    formation of the Womens Auxiliary Army Corps
    (WAAC)
  • Women would serve in non-combat positions
  • Some in Congress thought it to be the silliest
    piece of legislation
  • The law gave women salary and status but few of
    the benefits granted to men
  • In 1943, the Army dropped the Auxiliary part and
    granted full Army benefits to WACs

119
Recruiting and Discrimination
  • For many minority groups, they questioned whether
    this was their fight
  • why die for democracy for some foreign country
    when we dont even have it here?
  • On receiving his draft notice, an African
    American responded unhappily, Just carve on my
    tombstone, Here lies a black man killed fighting
    a yellow man for the protection of a white man

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Dramatic Contributions
  • Despite discrimination, more than 300,000 Mexican
    Americans joined the armed forces
  • 1 million African Americans servedthey lived and
    worked in segregated units and were limited
    mostly to non-combat roles until 1943
  • 46,000 Asian Americans served as spies and
    interpreters in the Pacific
  • 25,000 Native Americans enlisted too, including
    800 women

122
Production
  • Early 1942, newspapers reported the end of car
    production for private use
  • The nations automobile plants had been retooled
    to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars
  • Other factories across the nation were converted
    as well
  • A maker of mechanical pencils turned out bomb
    parts
  • A bedspread manufacturer made mosquito netting
  • A soft drink company filled shells with explosives

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Labors Contribution
  • By 1944, despite the draft, nearly 18 million
    workers were laboring in war industries, three
    times as many as in 1941
  • More than 6 million of the new workers were women
  • Industries feared that women lacked the necessary
    stamina for factory work
  • Once women proved they could operate welding
    torches or riveting guns as well as men,
    employers could not hire enough of them
  • Women would only earn about 60 percent as much as
    men doing the same jobs

125
Labor Contribution
  • Defense plants hired more than 2 million minority
    workers (janitors) during the war years
  • To protest discrimination, A. Philip Randolph,
    founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
    Porters, organized a march on Washington
  • July 1, 1941marched under the banner We Loyal
    Colored Americans Demand the Right to Work and
    Fight for Our Country
  • Roosevelt called Randolph in and asked him to
    back down
  • In the end, it was Roosevelt who backed down

126
Labor Contribution
  • The president issued an executive order calling
    on employers and labor unions to provide African
    Americans and other minorities jobs without
    discrimination

127
Mobilization of Scientists
  • 1941Roosevelt created the Office of Scientific
    Research and Development
  • OSRD spurred improvements in radar and sonar
  • It encouraged the use of pesticides like DDT
  • As a result, U.S. soldiers were probably the
    first in history to be free of body lice
  • It also pushed the development of miracle
    drugs, such as penicillin

128
Mobilization of Scientists
  • The most significant achievementatomic bomb
  • Interest in such a weapon began in 1939, after
    German scientists succeeded in splitting uranium
    atoms
  • Albert Einstein, German refugee, wrote a letter
    to Roosevelt warning that Germans could construct
    a weapon of enormous destructive power

129
Mobilization of Scientists
  • Roosevelt created an Advisory Committee on
    Uranium
  • In 1941, the committee told Roosevelt it would
    take 3-5 years to build an atomic bomb
  • The OSRD set up an intensive program in 1942 to
    develop the bomb as quickly as possible
  • Much of the early research was done at Columbia
    University in Manhattan giving it the code name
    the Manhattan project

130
Government takes control of Economy 1942-1945 Government takes control of Economy 1942-1945
Agencies and Laws What they did
Office of Price Administration Fought inflation by freezing wages, prices and rents
National War Labor Board Limited wage increases, allowed negotiated benefits, kept unions stable by forbidding workers to change unions
War Production Board Rationed fuel and materials vital to the war effort
Department of the Treasury Issued war bonds to raise money for the war effort and to fight inflation
Revenue Act of 1942 Raised the top personal-income tax rate to 88
Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act Limited the right to strike, gave the president power to take over striking plants
131
Rationing
  • The OPA set up a system for rationing
  • Under this system, households received ration
    books with coupons to be used for buying such
    scarce goods as meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, and
    gasoline
  • Gas rationing was particularly hard on those who
    lived in western regions
  • Most accepted rationing as a personal
    contribution to the war effort
  • Many carpooled or rode bicycles
  • Others bought scarce goods through the black
    market

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New Strategy on the Western Front
134
War Plans
  • The Allied strategy after 1941
  • First objective Italy and Germany
  • Second objective Japanafter defeat of Hitler
  • Churchill and Roosevelt agreed to the terms of
    the strategy at the White House at the end of 1941

135
Battle of the Atlantic
  • After Pearl Harbor, Hitler ordered sub raids
    against ships along Americas east coast
  • Hitler hoped to starve Britain and the Soviet
    Union by cutting off their supply lines
  • For a while, it looked like Hitler would succeed
  • In the first 4 months of 1942, the Germans sank
    87 ships
  • Seven months into the year, 681 Allied ships were
    sunk

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Battle of the Atlantic
  • Convoys were organized and reversed the damage
  • At the same time, the U.S. launched a crash
    shipbuilding programby mid-1943, 140 Liberty
    ships were produced each month
  • By mid-1943, the tide had turned in the Atlantic
  • The Allies were beginning to sea significant
    victories on land as well as sea

138
Battle of Stalingrad
  • Germans had been fighting in S.U. since 1941
  • Winter 1941stopped short of Moscow and Leningrad
  • Summer 1942Hitler focused his attention on the
    oil fields in Caucasus Mts. and Stalingrad
  • The Russians harvested their fields and burnt
    their own buildings to keep the Germans from
    being successful
  • The Luftwaffe bombed Stalingrad while soldiers
    fought hand-to-hand combat
  • The Germans had taken 9/10 of the city by
    September

139
Battle of Stalingrad
  • Another winter cameSoviets took this opportunity
    to roll fresh tanks in for a massive
    counterattack
  • They cut off German supply lines and surrounded
    the city
  • Hitler ordered the Germans to stay and fight
  • Winter turned Stalingrad into a frozen wasteland
    and the fighting continued
  • January 31, 1943the German commander surrendered
    and two days later his troops did too

140
Battle of Stalingrad
  • In defending Stalingrad, the Russians lost
    1,100,000 soldiers
  • The battle marked a turning point in the war
  • From that point on, the Soviets moved westward
    toward Germany

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North African Front
  • While Stalingrad was being bombarded, the U.S.
    and Britain launched Operation Torch
  • The Allies, commanded by Dwight D. Eisenhower,
    invaded Axis controlled North Africa
  • In November 1942, 107,000 Allied troops landed in
    Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers
  • They sped eastward chasing General Erwin Rommel
    through the desert
  • He surrendered in May 1943

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Italian Campaign
  • Before Africa was won, the Allied powers met at
    Casablanca and agreed to accept the unconditional
    surrender of the Axis powers
  • They also decided their next attack would come on
    the Italian Peninsula
  • In summer 1943, Sicily fell quickly
  • Stunned by the collapse of their army, the
    Italian government forced Mussolini to resign
  • July 25, 1943Mussolini was stripped of his power
    and arrested
  • Italy was not a threat anymore

145
Heroes of War
  • The Tuskegee Airmen registered their first
    victory at Sicily
  • They won two Distinguished Unit Citations for
    their outstanding aerial combat against the
    Luftwaffe
  • The 92nd Infantry Buffaloes, in just 7 months
    of combat, won 7 Legion of Merit awards, 65
    Silver Stars, and 162 Bronze Stars for courage
    under fire

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Heroes of War
  • 17 Mexican Americans were awarded the Medal of
    Honor
  • All Mexican-American unit--Company E of the 141st
    Regiment, 36th division became one of the most
    decorated of the war
  • The 100th Battalion, consisting of 1300 Hawaiian
    Nisei became known as the Purple Heart Battalion
  • Later they formed the all-Nisei 442nd Regimental
    Combat Team and became the most decorated unit in
    U.S. History

148
D-Day
  • June 6, 1944Operation Overlord
  • Turning point of the Western Front
  • 3 million Allied soldiers stormed the beaches of
    Normandy
  • This would be the largest land-air-sea invasion
    in army history
  • German retaliation was brutal, particularly at
    Omaha beach

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The Allies Gain Ground
  • Despite heavy casualties, the Allies held the
    beachheads
  • After 7 days, they held an 80 mile strip of land
  • After a month, they had landed millions of
    soldiers, 567,000 tons of supplies, and 170,000
    vehicles in France
  • Gen. Omar Bradley unleashed massive air and land
    bombardment at St. Lo providing a gap in German
    defenses
  • Gen. George Patton could now advance

151
The Allies Gain Ground
  • On August 23, Patton reached the Seine River
    south of Paris
  • Two days later Paris was liberated from a 4 year
    German occupation
  • By September 1944, the Allies had freed France,
    Belgium and Luxembourg
  • The good news helped elect Roosevelt to his
    fourth term with Harry Truman as his V.P.

152
Battle of the Bulge
  • In October 1944, Americans captured their first
    German town, Aachen
  • Hitler responded with a desperate last-gasp
    offensive
  • He ordered his troops to break through the Allied
    lines and to recapture the Belgian port of
    Antwerp
  • December 16, eight German tank divisions broke
    through weak American defenses
  • Tanks drove 60 miles into Allied territory
    creating a bulge in the lines that gave the
    desperate offensive its name, the Battle of the
    Bulge

153
Battle of the Bulge
  • The Germans captured 120 GIs and mowed them down
    with machine guns
  • The battle raged for a month
  • The Germans lost ground and 120,000 troops, 600
    tanks, and 1600 planes
  • From that point on, the Nazis could do little but
    retreat

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The Pacific Front
156
American Strategy
  • Following the liberation of Europe (D-Day),
    America set its eye toward the Pacific
  • Due to Japans strategy of fight to the death,
    America formed an Island Hopping strategy
  • Formed in order to get closer to Japan
  • For the most part this strategy worked

157
Midway
  • Midway
  • Turning point on the Pacific Front
  • Major Naval battle took place Jun 4-7, 1942
  • The Japanese plan was to lure America's few
    remaining carriers into a trap and sink them.6
    The Japanese also intended to occupy Midway Atoll
    to extend their defensive perimeter. This
    operation was considered preparatory for an
    invasion of Hawaii.
  • Put a stop to Japans advance toward Hawaii

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Iwo Jima
  • February-March 1945
  • The Marine invasion was charged with the mission
    of capturing the airfields on the island
  • Once the bases were secured, they could then be
    of use in the impending invasion of the Japanese
    mainland.
  • One of the first objectives after landing on the
    beachhead was the taking of Mount Suribachi
  • Even after Iwo Jima was declared secured, about
    three thousand Japanese soldiers were left alive
    in the island's caves and tunnels.
  • Eventually most surrendered and were surprised by
    many Americans compassion

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Okinawa
  • March-June 1945
  • was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific
    Theater
  • The battle has been referred to as the "Typhoon
    of Steel
  • The battle has one of the highest casualties
  • Okinawa would serve as a springboard for the
    planned invasion of the mainland islands
  • Japan surrendered before an invasion took place

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Surrender and Liberation
164
Liberation of the Death Camps
  • Meanwhile, Allied troops pressed eastward into
    the German heartland, and the Soviet army pushed
    westward across Poland toward Berlin
  • Soviet troops were the first to enter a death
    camp
  • The German troopers worked to bury and burn all
    evidence of their crimes
  • The Soviets arrived to find a thousand starving
    prisoners, the largest crematory in the world,
    and a store house filled with 800,000 shoes
  • Other death camps were in similar conditions

165
Unconditional Surrender
  • April 25, 1945, the Soviet army had stormed
    Berlin
  • As shells burst overhead, the city panicked
  • Soldiers in hiding ran out in the streets and
    were shot on the spot or hanged from the nearest
    tree
  • On their chests they had placards reading We
    betrayed the Fuhrer (leader)

166
Unconditional Surrender
  • In his underground headquarters in Berlin, Hitler
    prepared for the end
  • On April 29, he married his long time companion,
    Eva Bratun
  • The same day, he wrote out his last address to
    the German people
  • He blamed the Jews for starting the war and his
    Generals for losing it
  • The next day, Hitler shot himself, and Eva drank
    poison
  • The two bodies were dragged out and burned in the
    street

167
Unconditional Surrender
  • A week after Hitlers death, Eisenhower accepted
    the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich
  • May 8, 1945the Allies celebrated V-E-DayVictory
    in Europe

168
Roosevelts Death
  • Roosevelt did not live to see V-E Day
  • He died April 12, 1945, while posing for a
    portrait in Warm Springs, Georgia
  • The President had a stroke and died
  • That night, V.P. Harry S. Truman was sworn in as
    the 33rd president

169
Ending War in the Pacific
  • War still waged between Japan and the U.S.
  • Truman was given two choices
  • Send in troops to fight to the death against
    Japanese soldiers
  • Use a new weapon to end the war (Atomic Bombs)
  • Not wanting to lose so many lives, Truman chose
    to use the weapons created from the Manhattan
    Project

170
Ending War in the Pacific
  • Manhattan Project
  • The project to develop the first nuclear bomb
  • Developed between Canada, United Kingdom, and
    U.S.
  • J. Robert Oppenheimer took nuclear research on
    the fast track

171
Potsdam Conference
  • Potsdam ConferenceGermany
  • July 11, 1945
  • Allied leaders met and agreed upon the
    unconditional surrender of Germany and
    Japanspecifically stating the alternative for
    Japan is prompt and utter destruction if they
    did not surrender (this in part to their
    destruction of Pearl Harbor)

172
Atom Bomb
  • Japan refused to accept the terms of the Potsdam
    Conference
  • Truman ordered the dropping of two atomic bombs
  • The first on August 6, 1945 Little Boy was
    dropped on Hiroshima
  • Japan did not surrender
  • The second on August 9, 1945 Big Boy was
    dropped on Nagasaki

173
A World without War
  • In order to maintain peace
  • The Allies formed the United Nations
  • Decolonization began taking place in many parts
    of the world
  • Germanys lands were divided upeven Berlin, the
    capital of Germany, was split into 4 between the
    Allies
  • Unfortunately, peace would not last
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