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World War I

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Title: World War I


1
World War I World War II1914-1945
  • By Kassidy Durfee, Evan Perez, Emily N.

2
Presidents in this Era
  • Woodrow Wilson in office 1913-1921
  • Democratic Party
  • Persuaded Congress to pass the Federal Reserve
    Act, the Federal Trade Commission Act, the
    Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act,
    and an income tax
  • W. G. Harding in office 1921-1923
  • Republican Party
  • Signed the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921,
    established the Bureau of the Budget, and created
    the General Accounting Office
  • Calvin Coolidge in office 1923-1929
  • Republican Party
  • In 1924, signed the Indian Citizenship Act

3
Presidents in this Era
  • Herbert Hoover in office 1929-1933
  • Republican Party
  • Expanded civil service coverage of Federal
    positions, suggested a Department of Education,
    and instructed the justice department to pursue
    gangsters on tax fraud. Thus effectively trapping
    Al Capone
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt in office 1933-1945
  • Democratic Party
  • Served 4 terms in office, victoriously
    implemented the New Deal program, and pulled the
    US out of depression
  • Harry S Truman in office 1945-1953
  • Democratic Party
  • Dropped both atomic bombs on Japan

4
Platforms
  • Election of 1912
  • President Taft (R)
  • underlined retention of the protective tariff,
    civil service protection, conservation of natural
    resources, restrictions on immigration
  • Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive)
  • call for the strict government regulation of
    monopolies
  • Woodrow Wilson (D)
  • called for limits on campaign contributions by
    corporations, tariff reductions, stronger
    antitrust laws, banking reform, a federal income
    tax, a single term presidency, the independence
    of Philippines
  • Winner- Woodrow Wilson
  • 6,296,284 in Popular vote
  • 435 in Electoral College
  • Election of 1916
  • President Wilson (D)
  • called for military preparedness, a ban on child
    labor, women's suffrage, and prison reform
  • Charles E. Hughes (R)
  • straightforward preparedness program ban on
    child labor
  • Winner- Woodrow Wilson
  • 9,126,868 in Popular vote
  • 277 in Electoral College

5
Platforms
  • Election of 1924
  • President Calvin Coolidge (R)
  • reducing taxes, collect foreign debts, protective
    tariff, opposing farm subsidies for crop prices,
    eight-hour workday, banning child labor, a
    federal anti-lynching law.
  • John W. Davis (D)
  • reduce the tariff, income tax, farm relief with
    easier credit, free Philippines, strict antitrust
    laws, reduce unemployment
  • Robert de La Follette (Progressive)
  • Anti- industrial monopolies, public ownership of
    water resources and railroads, inheritance tax,
    tax relief for farmers
  • Winner- Calvin Coolidge
  • 15,723,789 in Popular vote
  • 382 in Electoral College
  • Election of 1920
  • Warren G. Harding (R)
  • condemned Wilsons handling of World War I,
    opposed the League of Nations, advocated a higher
    protective tariff, supported new immigration
    requirements.
  • James M. Cox (D)
  • reflected the party's determination to continue
    Woodrow Wilson's progressive agenda at home
    idealistic involvement abroad
  • Winner- Warren G. Harding
  • 16,144,093 in Popular vote
  • 404 in Electoral College
  • 1923- Harding dies in office. Vice-President
    Calvin Coolidge takes over.

6
Platforms
  • Election of 1928
  • Herbert Hoover (R)
  • promised lower taxes, a protective tariff,
    opposition to farm subsidies, a new farm agency,
    the vigorous enforcement of Prohibition
  • Al Smith (D)
  • downplayed the tariff issue, support for public
    works projects, a federal farm program, federal
    aid to education, enforcement of Prohibition
  • Winner- Herbert Hoover
  • 21,427,123 in Popular vote
  • 444 in Electoral College
  • Election of 1932
  • President Hoover (R)
  • called for a balanced budget, a protective
    tariff, urged repeal of the 18th Amendment
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt (D)
  • A new deal for the American people.
  • Winner- Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • 15,723,789 in Popular vote
  • 472 in Electoral College

7
Platforms
  • Election of 1936
  • President Roosevelt (D)
  • business and financial monopoly, speculation,
    reckless banking
  • Alf Landon (R)
  • no new deal, preservation of free enterprise,
    private competition, equality of opportunity,
    reemployment, relief
  • Winner- FDR
  • 27,752,648 in Popular vote
  • 523 in Electoral College
  • Election of 1940
  • President Roosevelt (D)
  • still the New Deal
  • Wendell Willkie (R)
  • opposed FDR's public power policies, especially
    the TVA, anti-American involvement in WW2
  • Winner- Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • 27,313,945 in Popular vote
  • 449 in Electoral College

8
Platforms
  • Election of 1944
  • President Roosevelt (D)
  • get through the war and continue to utilize
    implemented New Deal programs, equal pay for
    equal work regardless of sex
  • Thomas E. Dewey (R)
  • end the war promptly, promote world-wide
    stability after the war, develop Pan-American
    solidarity reestablishing liberty at home
  • Winner- FDR
  • 25,612,916 in Popular vote
  • 432 in Electoral College
  • April 12, 1945- Franklin D. Roosevelt dies in
    office. His Vice-President Harry Truman resumes
    the rest of the term in his place.

9
Setting the Stage For War
  • In 1914 tensions in Europe were at an all-time
    high. Eventually WWI could not be stopped.
  • M.A.N.I.A. (causes of world war 1)
  • Militarism
  • Alliances
  • Nationalism
  • Imperialism
  • Assassination

10
Causes Of WWI
  • Militarism- the policy of building up strong
    military forces to prepare for war.
  • From 1910-1914 defense expenditures increases
    significantly.
  • France- 10
  • Britain- 13
  • Russia- 39
  • Germany- 73
  • The European powers modernized and equipped their
    armies and navies, bringing the continent closer
    to war.

11
Causes Of WWI
  • Alliances-
  • Triple Entente- Britain, France, and Russia
  • Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and
    Italy (at first anyway)
  • Nationalism- Each European superpower had
    developed a firm but excessive belief in its own
    cultural, economic, and military supremacy.
  • This sense of invincibility led to interesting
    confrontations as things heated up before the
    first World War.

Dont worry there will be pictures eventually, I
promise. D
12
Causes Of WWI
  • Imperialism- In the late 19th and early 20th
    centuries, colonies were both a sign of prestige
    and a source of great wealth.
  • Germany, France, and Britain began competing for
    foreign markets and territory in Africa, which
    increased tension between the countries.
  • Assassination- June 28, 1914
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his pregnant wife
    Sophie are murdered by the Black Hand while
    visiting Sarajevo, the Bosnian capital, and
    participating in a parade.
  • This was the spark that ignited the Great War or
    World War I.

13
Domino Effect
  • July 28, 1914- Austria-Hungary declares war on
    Serbia
  • Germany supports Austria-Hungary
  • Russia backs Serbia
  • August 1- Germany declares war on Russia
  • August 2- France pledges support for Russia
  • August 3- Germany declares war on France
  • On the way to France, Germany invades Belgium,
    which angers Great Britain.

14
Dont Worry, It Continues
  • August 4- Great Britain supports Belgium and
    declares war on Germany
  • August 6- Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia
    and Serbia declares war on Germany
  • August 19- US President Wilson declares the
    United States a neutral party in the conflict.
  • August 23- Mons Battle
  • First French and British coop. against Germany
  • Retreat to the Marne River
  • August 26- Battle of Tannenberg
  • Russian and German conflict 90,000 killed or
    wounded

15
Sides Are Taken
Allied Powers Central Powers
VS
16
May the Battle(s) Begin.
  • September 5, 1914 the First Battle of Marne
    begins.
  • Trench warfare is seriously used for the first
    time in the war.
  • Retreated French and British soldiers from the
    Mons Battle against German long range artillery
  • First time air recon and radio interceptions were
    used in a major conflict
  • France learned of German position
  • Called for reinforcements from Paris
  • Soldiers came in taxis and buses to get there

17
See pictures!
18
Major Military Actions
  • October 19, 1914- First Battle of Ypres
  • Attempt to halt German advances
  • November 3- UK blockades Germany from North Sea
  • February 4, 1915- Germany declares waters
    surrounding Great Britain a war zone.
  • Created a submarine blockade, no merchant ship
    was safe
  • February 19- Dardanelles Campaign begins
  • April 22- Second Battle of Ypres begins
  • First recorded time that Germans used poisonous
    gases
  • April 25- Battle of Gallipoli begins

19
Major Military Actions
  • May 7, 1915- RMS Lusitania is sunk by a German
    u-boat.
  • May 23- Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary
  • Betrayed Central Powers and joined Allies
  • September 5- Tsar Nicholas II takes intimate
    control of Russias armies
  • February 21, 1916- Battle of Verdun begins
  • Longest battle of WWI, lasted until December 18th
  • May 4- Germany makes Sussex Pledge
  • May 31- Battle of Jutland
  • Full scale military naval battle
  • July 1- Battle of Somme
  • First time tanks are introduced to battle

20
Major Military Actions
  • January 19, 1917- Germany sends Zimmerman
    telegram to Mexico
  • March- Germany violates pledge to suspend
    Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • April 2- President Wilson goes before Congress to
    request a declaration of war.
  • April 6, 1917- United States of America declares
    war on Germany
  • July 30- Third Battle of Ypres begins
  • November 7- Bolsheviks overthrow Russian
    government in revolution
  • December 17- Armstice between Russia and Central
    Powers goes into effect

21
More of Them.
  • January 8, 1918- President Wilson issues his 14
    Points
  • March 21- Germany launches its Spring Offensive
  • April 21- Baron Manfred von Richthofen (Red
    Baron) is shot down
  • July 15- Second Battle of Marne begins
  • November 9- Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates and flees
    Germany
  • November 11- Germany signs armstice
  • June 28, 1919- Treaty of Versailles is signed.
    WWI is over

22
Treaties
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Demilitarized Germany, Germany had to take full
    responsibility for the war, many territories were
    taken from Germany and distributed, and the
    League of Nations was established to keep the
    peace
  • Treaty of St. Germain
  • Ended the war with Austria and dismantled
    Austrian Empire
  • Treaty of Trianon
  • Treaty between allies and Hungary. Greatly
    reduced Hungarys atomic might
  • Treaty of Neuilly
  • Bulgaria was to pay 100 million in reparations
    and demilitarized to an army of 20,000 men only.
    They also gave up a few territories
  • Treaty of Serves
  • Peace treaty with the Ottoman Empire. Thought to
    be extremely harsh. the Allies were given the
    power to control their finances, Armenia was
    established, the Kingdom of Hejaz was recognized

23
Technology From the War
  • Machine Gun
  • Poison Gases
  • Tanks
  • Submarines
  • Airplanes
  • Gas Masks
  • Longer Range Artillery

24
Effects of WW1
  • World War 2
  • Prosperity of USA
  • Dismantling of Europes monarchies
  • German resentment
  • New super weapons (for the time)
  • US recognized entirely as a global power
  • Womens liberation
  • Global Trade increase

25
The Roaring Twenties
  • Post-war, the economy of the United States soared
    partially due to inflation.
  • Womens skirts became shorter and morals became
    looser.
  • Gang activity ran ramped. Bootleggers in Chicago
    and New York.
  • Jazz and dancing characterized the age.
  • Parties and illegal drinking were heavy
  • Speakeasies and Flappers
  • Cinema and Radio
  • CARS!! AIRPLANES!! AL CAPONE!!

26
(No Transcript)
27
Publications
  • The Great Gatsby- F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • Winnie-the-Pooh- A.A. Milne
  • All Quiet on the Western Front- Erich Maria
    Remarque
  • The Sun Also Rises- Ernest Hemingway
  • This Side of Paradise- F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • The Hobbitt- J.R.R. Tolkien
  • Gone With the Wind-
  • Of Mice and Men- John Steinbeck
  • The Grapes of Wrath- John Steinbeck

28
Harlem Renissance
  • African-American literary and artistic cultural
    Revolution in 1921.
  • The first black recording house opened in 1921.
  • African Americans had their own musicals in 1921.
  • In 1923, the Harlem Globetrotters were created.
  • Langston Hughes
  • Zora Neale Hurston
  • Rise of jazz.

29
The Dirty Thirties
  • The Great Depression
  • Causes-
  • Stock Market Crash
  • Over speculation
  • Bank Failures
  • Reduction of Consumers
  • Economic Policy with Europe
  • Drought

30
World War 2
  • Causes
  • Hitler dictators
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Failure of Appeasement
  • Failure of the League of Nations

31
Highlights
  • March 1935- Germany begins rearmament
  • March 1936- German troops re-occupy the Rhineland
  • March 1938- German forces annex Austria
  • September- Germany annexes Sudetenland and signs
    the Munich Agreement with Britain and France.
  • March 1939- Germany annexes all of Czechoslovakia
  • August- Germany and Russia sign a 10
    non-aggression pack
  • September- Germans begin attacking Poland
  • Britain and France declare war on Germany
  • So does Canada
  • Russian Armies invade poland

32
WW2 Highlights
  • March 1940- Soviet Union conclude a peace girl
    Treaty
  • April- German Troops invade Denmark
  • May- Main Dutch Army surrenders to Germany.
    Belgium surrenders
  • June- Norway surrenders to Germany. Italy
    declares war on Britain and France. France
    surrenders to Germany
  • July- Battle of Britain begins

33
WW2 Highlights
  • September 1940- War in Africa begins. Japan signs
    the Tripartite, joining forces with Germany and
    Italy
  • April 1941- Yugoslavia Greece surrender to
    Germany
  • June- Germany launches a massive attack on the
    Soviet Union
  • December 8, 1941- Pearl Harbor
  • December 9, 1941- USA is in the war

34
WW2 Highlights
  • January 1942- Wannsee Conference is held
  • February- Japanese land in Singapore
  • May- Japanese forces capture the Philippines.
    Battle of Coral Sea.
  • June- Battle at Midway
  • September- German forces begin the battle for
    Stalingrad
  • November- Operation Torch.
  • February 1943- German army surrenders at
    Stalingrad

35
WW2 Highlights.Again
  • August- Allied forces recapture Sicily
  • November- Hitler issues a directive warning of
    Allies landing in western Europe. Battle of
    Berlin begins.
  • March 1944- Allies win Battle of Berlin.
  • June- D-Day. AM forces recapture Rome
  • July-September- tons of small places are
    liberated!
  • October- US returns to the Philippines
  • December- Battle of the Bulge

36
Last Time I Promise
  • March 1945- Allies bomb Tokyo killing 85,000
  • April 30, 1945- Adolf Hitler and his wife commit
    suicide in an underground bunker
  • May- Soviets complete the capture of Berlin
  • August- Atomic Bombs are dropped on Nagasaki and
    Hiroshima in Japan
  • September- Japan signs official surrender

37
Foreign Policy
  • One major factor of United States and Germany
    having tensions was Germanys unrestricted
    warfare. Events such as the sinking of unarmed
    vessel ships Ex The sinking of the RMS Lusitania
  • Another major factor that led to the US joining
    the war was the Zimmerman Telegram, a telegram
    written by German Foreign Minister Arthur
    Zimmerman to the German Ambassador in Mexico
    City, proposing an alliance against U.S. This
    along with the submarine attacks led to the
    public opinion sway from neutrality to war.
  • Even before declaring war, the United States
    helped the allies with supplies on merchant
    ships. The United States declared war on April
    17, 1917.

38
Foreign Policy After WW1
  • After WW1, Wilson developed the League of Nations
    and his Fourteen Points in order to make sure
    that this Great War never happened again.
  • Fourteen Points is rejected and United States
    leaves meetings.
  • Treaty of Versailles put huge financial
    punishments on Central Powers, mainly Germany
  • This inevitably lead to World War 2.

39
Foreign Policy on WW2
  • After news of Germanys aggression, Roosevelt
    started to take steps in order to prepare the
    U.S. for war.
  • The United States remained neutral but helped out
    Britain with acts such as the Lend Lease Act,
    giving Britain old battleships for naval bases in
    North and South America
  • U.S. passed the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936,
    1937, 1939
  • All neutrality was gone after the attack on Pearl
    Harbor.
  • FDR went to Congress the next day December 8,
    1941 and asked for a declaration of war.

40
Major Supreme Court Decisions
  • Korematsu v. United States 1944
  • After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the United
    States feared an attack in the US by Americans of
    Japanese descent might help the enemy, so the
    government put them into internment camps. Fred
    Korematsu challenged this saying that the
    government didnt have the power to issue
    relocation orders and he was being discriminated
    because of his race. The court decided with the
    government because the need to protect the
    country was a greater priority than individual
    rights of the Japanese and the Japanese
    Americans.

41
Major Supreme Court Decisions
  • Takao Ozawa v. United States 
  • Filed for United States citizenship under the
    Naturalization Act of 1906, wanted Japanese to be
    classified as white. The court ruled him
    ineligible for naturalization. Japanese were
    members of an unassailable race , lacking
    provisions in any Naturalization act.

42
Major Supreme Court Decisions
  • De Jonge v. Oregon 1937
  • A case that held that the fourteenth amendment
    due process clause applies to freedom of assembly

43
Amendments
  • 18th Amendment- 1919
  • Made the production, transport, and sale of
    alcohol illegal
  • 19th Amendment- 1920
  • Prohibits denying someone the right to vote based
    on sex. Gave women the right to vote
  • 20th Amendment- 1933
  • Changed the date of when the terms of President,
    Vice-President, and Senators end/begin
  • 21st Amendment- 1933
  • Repealed the 18th Amendment and only amendment to
    ever repeal a previously existing one
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