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Ancient Egypt


Ancient Egypt Mummification OPENING OF THE MOUTH 'Opening of the mouth' tool The ancient Egyptians believed that in order for a person's soul to survive in the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt
  • Mummification

  • 'Opening of the mouth' tool The ancient Egyptians
    believed that in order for a person's soul to
    survive in the afterlife it would need to have
    food and water. A special ritual called the
    'Opening of the Mouth' was performed so that the
    person who died could eat and drink again in the
    afterlife. This tool was probably used in an
    'Opening of the Mouth' ceremony like the one
    shown below.


Embalming the body
  • First, the Pharohs body is taken to the tent
    known as 'ibu' or the 'place of purification'.
    There the embalmers wash his body with
    good-smelling palm wine and rinse it with water
    from the Nile.
  • One of the embalmer's men makes a cut in the
    left side of the body and removes many of the
    internal organs. It is important to remove these
    because they are the first part of the body to
    decompose. The liver, lungs, stomach and
    intestines are washed and packed in natron which
    will dry them out. The heart is not taken out of
    the body because it is the centre of intelligence
    and feeling and the man will need it in the
    afterlife. A long hook is used to smash the brain
    and pull it out through the nose.

  • Hapy the baboon-headed god looks after the

  • Duamutef the jackal-headed god looks after the
  • Qebehsenuef the falcon-headed god looks after the
  • Imsety the human headed god protects the liver.

  • The body is covered and stuffed with natron which
    will dry it out. All of the fluids and rags from
    the embalming process will be saved and buried
    along with the body. After forty days the body is
    washed again with water from the Nile. Then the
    skin is covered in oils.

  • The ancient Egyptians believed that the afterlife
    was very much like the Egypt that they lived in.
    Thus, there was a lot work to be done in the home
    and in the fields.
  • Shabtis were small figures who would magically
    come to life and work instead of their 'master'
    or 'mistress' whenever there was work to be done
    in the afterlife. Some people had enough shabtis
    and 'overseers'(to keep the shabtis in order)
    buried with them so there was one for each day of
    the year.


Wrapping the mummy
  • The arms and legs are wrapped separately.
    Between the layers of wrapping, the embalmers
    place amulets to protect the body in its journey
    through the underworld. This is the 'Isis knot'
    amulet which will protect the body.

Isis knot

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Plummet Amulet
  • This is the 'Plummet' amulet which will keep the
    person balanced in the next life.

  • A priest reads spells out loud while the mummy
    is being wrapped. These spells will help ward off
    evil spirits and help the deceased make the
    journey to the afterlife.

Priest reading spells
  • The arms and legs are tied together. A papyrus
    scroll with spells from the Book of the Dead is
    placed between the wrapped hands.

  • More linen strips are wrapped around the body.
    At every layer, the bandages are painted with
    liquid resin that helps to glue the bandages

  • A cloth is wrapped around the body and a picture
    of the god Osiris is painted on its surface

  • Finally, a large cloth is wrapped around the
    entire mummy. It is attached with strips of linen
    that run from the top to the bottom of the mummy,
    and around its middle. A board of painted wood is
    placed on top of the mummy before the mummy is
    lowered into its coffin. The first coffin is then
    put inside a second coffin. The funeral is held
    for the deceased pharaoh and his sorrowful

  • The early ancient Egyptians buried their dead in
    pits in the desert. The heat and dryness from the
    desert preserved the bodies and left life like
    and natural mummies.

Geography on Ancient Egypt
  • Geography The ancient Egyptians thought of Egypt
    as being divided into two types of land, the
    'black land' and the 'red land'. The 'black land'
    was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile.
    The ancient Egyptians used this land for growing
    their crops. This was the only land in ancient
    Egypt that could be farmed because a layer of
    rich, black silt was deposited there every year
    after the Nile flooded. The 'red land' was the
    barren desert that protected Egypt on two sides.
    These deserts separated ancient Egypt from
    neighbouring countries and invading armies. They
    also provided the ancient Egyptians with a source
    for precious metals and semi-precious stones.

  • From around 3200 B.C. on, Egypt became a powerful
    centre of civilization in the ancient world, and
    exerted a powerful influence on the shaping of
    the history of Palestine.
  • Ancient Egypt geography was centred around the
    Nile River, and its civilization flourished as a
    result of the Nile's nourishment.
  • So ancient was Egypt, that when Abraham fled the
    famine in Palestine, and crossed the Sinai into
    Egypt, the Pharaohs had been ruling for over a
    thousand years.

  • The geography of ancient Egypt is composed of two
    geographical regions, Upper Egypt and Lower
    Egypt, with modern day Cairo acting as the
  • .

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  • CREATED BY Thomas Fitzpatrick
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