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The Nile River Valley (Ancient Egypt)

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The Nile River Valley (Ancient Egypt) Essential Questions What effect did geography have on the development of the ancient Egyptian civilization? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Nile River Valley (Ancient Egypt)


1
The Nile River Valley(Ancient Egypt)
2
Essential Questions
  • What effect did geography have on the development
    of the ancient Egyptian civilization?
  • What contributions did people in Egypt make to
    civilization?
  • What was the importance of religion in Egypt?

3
Geography of the Nile
  • Fertile soil surrounds the Nile
  • Predictable flooding
  • Nile Delta
  • Protected from the outside
  • Cataracts (rapids)
  • Deserts on both sides

4
Religion
  • Polytheistic
  • Sun gods
  • Atum human form
  • Ra human body, head of falcon
  • River and land gods
  • Osiris resurrection, new life through the Nile
  • Isis

5
Major Egyptian Gods
Osiris
Ra
Atum
Isis
6
The Old Kingdom
  • _at_ 3100 B.C. King Menes united Upper and Lower
    Egypt (started dynasties)
  • _at_ 2700 2200 B.C.
  • Pharaohs
  • Absolute power, seen as a god on earth
  • Bureaucracy
  • Pyramids
  • Mummification
  • Great Pyramid (Khufu _at_ 2540 B.C.)

7
Middle Kingdom
  • _at_ 2050 1652 B.C.
  • Expanded territories
  • Lower Nubia
  • Palestine and Syria
  • Pharaohs take more public role
  • Ended by the invasion of the Hyksos (Asia)
  • Horse-drawn chariots
  • Bronze weapons

8
New Kingdom
  • _at_ 1567 1085 B.C.
  • Queen Hatshepsut (first female leader)
  • Thutmose III invaded Syria, Palestine, Libya
  • Amenhotep IV
  • Monotheistic worship of Aton (sun disk)
  • Destroyed old gods
  • Tutankhamen restored old gods
  • Ramses tried to expand again (1279 1213 B.C.)

9
Society and Daily Life
  • Pyramid Class Structure
  • Pharaoh owned all the land
  • Upper class of merchants and artisans
  • Family Life
  • Male-dominated but women had more equal rights
    than Mesopotamia

10
Writing and Education
  • _at_ 3000 B.C. Egyptian priests develop
    hieroglyphics
  • Created to record religious rituals
  • Papyrus (paper)
  • Scribes
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