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Ancient Egypt

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Title: Ancient Egypt


1
Ancient Egypt
2
Geography
  • Gift of the Nile
  • Offered protection from invasion
  • limited where people could settle
  • Black Land- fertile
  • Red Land- desert

3
What was it about Egypts topography that
promoted peace and prosperity?
  • Nile Valley was protected on 3 sides by desert
  • natural barriers to invaders
  • didnt have to use as much of their wealth for
    defense
  • Irrigationcooperation

4
Why is Egypt referred to as Gift of the Nile?
  • Animals
  • Fish, ducks, geese, edible fowl
  • Papyrus-baskets, paper, sandals
  • Food-grains
  • Influenced art, religion etc.
  • Provided for basic survival
  • inspired civilization

5
What is a Shaduf?
  • Raised water from Nile to irrigate
  • Prevented salt from building up destroying
    fertility of soil

6
How did flood patterns effect Egypt?
  • Emerged from south
  • Spring rains sent water downstream into Nile
  • Rich silt deposited
  • Cooperation was essential
  • Dikes, reservoirs, irrigation ditches channeled
    river stored water for dry season

7
  • Lower
  • Upper

8
What were the environmental challenges?
  • Small changes in amount of water led could lead
    to starvation or destruction
  • Deserts reduced interaction with other cultures
  • Led to self-sufficiency

9
How was Upper and Lower Egypt Unified?
10
Who was Narmer?
  • 3100 BCE, King of Upper Egypt united the two
    regions
  • Linked north south
  • First united state
  • Significant trade with rest of Africa, Middle
    East Mediterranean world
  • Sailboats, barges

11
What is a dynasty?
  • A ruling family
  • Power passed from family member
  • If no family member, then another was chosen
  • Pharaoh-great house

12
Who/What was Pharaoh?
  • Claimed divine support
  • Living God
  • Absolute power
  • Owned ruled over all the land

13
What was Pharaohs job?
  • Preserve justice social order- Maat
  • Depended on vizier or chief minister to supervise
    government

14
What did the Vizier do?
  • Managed the bureaucracy
  • Tax collection
  • Farming
  • Irrigation system
  • Thousands of scribes carried out his instructions.

15
Who was Ptah-hotep?
  • Trained many young officials
  • Wrote Instruction of Ptah-hotep
  • Advised his son how to avoid errors.

16
Timeline of Three Kingdoms
17
Old Kingdom (2700 BCE - 2200 BCE)
  • Pharaohs organize strong government
  • Khufu harsh ruler, built Great Pyramid
  • Pyramid Age
  • giant pyramids at Giza
  • New developments in agriculture
  • Increased trade
  • Development of cities
  • Power struggles, crop failures, cost of pyramids
    caused collapse

18
Djoser2630 2611 BCE
  • fought off invaders and expanded territory
  • New developments in agriculture, increased trade,
    development of cities
  • constructed Step Pyramid at Saqqara
  • Ended a famine

19
Khufu2551-2528 BCE
  • Ruled a united Egypt
  • Used his relatives to help him
  • Harsh ruler who treated his subjects cruelly
  • Built the Great Pyramid at Giza

20
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21
Middle Kingdom (2050 BCE 1800 BCE)
  • Corrupt government
  • Frequent rebellions
  • Food shortages
  • People rebel
  • land drained for farming
  • Hyksos conquer Egypt

22
Senusret I(1971 1926 BCE)
  • fought against Nubia Libya
  • built fortresses
  • Protected gold, copper, granite resources in
    Sinai
  • Encouraged cultural development
  • Supervised construction of buildings
  • created elaborate improvements to existing
    shrines temples
  • Jubilee Chapel at Karnak
  • Craftwork literature

23
Ramses IIThe Great(1290 -1224 BCE)
  • Most powerful ruler of the period
  • Battle of Kadesh- fought to standoff against much
    larger Hittite force
  • Signed 1st known peace treaty

24
New Kingdom Period
  • Time of Reunification
  • Hyksos expelled
  • Pharaohs created large empire
  • Traded w/ lands along eastern Mediterranean Red
    Sea
  • Great temples built
  • Nubians, then others invaded

25
Queen Hatshepsut(1540-1482 BCE)
  • Daughter of one Pharaoh/ widow of another
  • Ruled in stepsons name but then declared herself
    Pharaoh
  • Encouraged trade
  • Brought back ivory, spices, incense

Hatshepsuts Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahri-
26
Akhenaten (Amenhotep)1353 1335 BCE
  • Created new religion of one god-Aten
  • Controversy, disputes over his religious beliefs
  • Abandon Thebes built new city
  • New spectacular, buildings, elaborate
    ceremonies, works of art
  • Married to Nefertiti
  • After death he was so unpopular that his city was
    abandoned- destroyed

El Amarna
27
Akhenaten Rebel
28
Nile Tour of the Pharaohs Tombs
29
Nubia
  • Also known as Kush
  • Egyptians traded/ fought w/them
  • Gold, Ivory, cattle, slaves
  • Nubians served in Egyptian armies
  • Egyptian art shows Nubians as soldiers,
    musicians, prisoners
  • As Egypt declined, Nubia regained its
    independence
  • 750 BCE Nubian kings took control
  • Saw themselves as restorers of Egyptian glory
  • Ruled like earlier pharaohs-respected traditions
  • 650 BCE Assyrians w/ iron weapons conquered Egypt
    pushed Nubians south

30
Religion
31
How did religious beliefs shape the lives of
Egyptians?
  • Each soul had to pass test to win eternal life
  • Dead soul would be ferried across a lake of fire
    to the hall of Osiris
  • Osiris would weight the soul against feather of
    truth
  • Sinners would be fed to the crocodile-shaped
    Eater of the Dead
  • Worthy souls would enter the Happy Field of Food

32
Book of the Dead
  • Spells, charms, formulas for the dead to use in
    the afterlife
  • I have made no man to suffer hunger. I have made
    no one to week. I have done no murderI have not
    encroached upon the fields of another. I have
    not added to the wrights of the scales to cheat
    the sellerI have not turned back water when it
    should flow I am pure. I am pure. I am pure.

33
Mummification
  • Afterlife was same as life
  • Body must be preserved
  • Originally a privilege for rulers and nobles
  • Eventually ordinary people won the right to
    mummify their dead
  • Led to knowledge of human anatomy

34
Egyptian Society
35
Egyptian Writing
  • Hieroglyphics a form of picture writing used for
    important records
  • Ideograms symbolized an idea or action
  • Demotic-simpler form of script for everyday
  • Papyrus

36
What was the Rosetta Stone?
  • Black basalt slab bearing an inscription dating
    from the year 196 BCE
  • Crucial key to the deciphering of Egyptian
    hieroglyphs, and the foundation of modern
    Egyptology.
  • discovered in 1799 by the French troops in
    Napoleon's military expedition
  • Deciphered by Jean Champollion
  • Hieroglyphics, demotic and Greek

37
Medicine
  • Belief in magic
  • Knew human body
  • Observed symptoms, diagnosed illness
  • Surgery, medicines

38
Science
  • Priest astronomers studied heavens, mapped
    constellations
  • Charted movement of planets
  • Practical geometry to survey land
  • Engineers for the pyramids and irrigation systems

39
Egyptian Painting and Sculpture
  • Statues, wall paintings
  • Everyday scenes of trade, farming, family life,
    religious ceremonies
  • Military victories
  • Unchanged style for thousands of years
  • Pharaohs gods larger
  • Heads limbs in profile
  • Eyes shoulders facing viewer
  • Some humans have animal heads showing special
    qualities

40
Story of Sinuhe Popular Egyptian Folk Tale
  • His majesty said, Behold thou art come. Thou
    has trodden the foreign countries and made a
    flight. But now elderliness has attach thee thou
    has reached old age Do not live in exile any
    lonegI answer What is it that my lord says to
    me? Behold, I am before thee may thy majesty do
    as he pleases
  • Tells us how Egyptians viewed both themselves and
    the people of the surrounding desert
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