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Ancient Near East

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Ancient Near East Egypt, Mesopotamia, & The Hebrews Egypt Nile: World s longest river Herodotus: Egypt= gift of the Nile Overflowed on regular, annual basis ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Near East


1
Ancient Near East
  • Egypt, Mesopotamia, The Hebrews

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Egypt
  • Nile Worlds longest river
  • Herodotus Egyptgift of the Nile
  • Overflowed on regular, annual basis
  • Fertile land
  • Sense of order
  • Egypt protected by desert sea
  • From about 3100 BCE, for 3000 yrs.

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Mesopotamia
  • Tigris and Euphrates RiversFertile Crescent
  • Mesopotamiathe land between the two rivers
  • Overflow unpredictable
  • Sense of instability
  • Exposed plains
  • Open to invasion

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Mesopotamia
  • Beginning with Sumer, about 3500 BCE
  • First cities Uruk, Ur, Kish, Nippur, Lagash
  • Unlike Egypt, Mesopotamia was a series of
    civilizations

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Hebrews
  • Tribal people who migrated from Fertile Crescent
    to Canaan (Israel) after 2000 BCE
  • After 1700 BCE migrated to Egypt, and enslaved
  • Around 1300 BCE returned to Canaan (the Exodus)

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Religion
  • God Creation

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Egypt God Creation
  • At beginning of time, Nile produced mound of silt
    and sun god emerged from it
  • this sun god (Amon, Re, Aten) gave birth to the
    other gods (19)
  • Amon gives ankh (life)

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Egypt God Creation
  • Akhentatens Reform (30) monotheism
  • The power of the suns rays in 1.17 the rays
    end in hands
  • marked by a change in the visual arts, movement
    toward realism

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Queen Nefertiti
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Mesopotamia God Creation
  • Man created through violence strife
  • Apsu (sweet waters) and Tiamat (bitter waters)
    give birth to Lahmu and Lahamu (Note As in
    Egypt, silt precipitates)
  • Anshar and Kishar (horizon of sky and earth) give
    birth to Anu (god of sky) who gives birth to Ea
    (wisdom).

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Mesopotamia God Creation
  • Tiamat prepares for war.
  • Marduk is Supreme Commader to fight Tiamat
    (bitter waters).
  • Upon slaying Tiamat, Marduk splits open Tiamats
    body to make sky and earth.
  • Marduk makes man as a work of cosummate art for
    the faithful service of the gods.

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Statuettes, Abu Temple, Iraq

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Ziggurat
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Hebrews God Creation
  • Supreme Creator, who existed before the physical
    world, with ethical charge (47) ethical
    monotheism (48)

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Genesis
  • Genesis 1 God created man last. God created
    man male and female put them over the earth to
    subdue/master it.
  • Genesis 2 God creates man first (out of the
    soil), then the garden, the animals, then the
    woman.

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Religion
  • Morality Afterlife

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Egypt Polytheism
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Anubis

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Egypt Isis Osiris
  • IsisOsiris Set (Osiris evil brother)
    chopped Osiris into pieces and threw in Nile
  • Isis puts Osiris back together again and brings
    him back to life
  • Horus revenge on Setbecomes ruler of Egypt

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Osiris king of the dead
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Isis mother goddess
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Horus the falcon god
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The Eye of Horus
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Myth of Isis Osiris
  • Pharaohs associated with Horus, the avenging son
    of Isis Osiris
  • The myth supported a belief in resurrection of
    the deadnot only for the pharaoh but for
    commoners as well

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The Step Pyramid
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Pyramids at Giza
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The Valley of Kings
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Book of the Dead
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Mesopotamia Epic of Gilgamesh
  • Gilgamesh, 2/3 god and 1/3 man, has lost his best
    friend Enkidu.
  • Gilgamesh is heartbroken, and he also fears his
    own death, so goes on a journey to his father
    Utnapishtim, who has eternal life, to see if he
    can gain it too.

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Epic of Gilgamesh (2)
  • First he needs to seek out the permission of
    Man-Scorpion to pass through the mountain
  • He hangs out with Siduri, maker of wine, for a
    while, then eventually reaches Utnapishtim, who
    informs Gilgamesh that all is impermanent.

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Epic of Gilgamesh (3)
  • Gilgamesh asks Utnapishtim how he got everlasting
    life, and Utnapishtim relates the story of the
    flood and how he managed to survive and save
    mankind.
  • Gilgamesh goes with Urshanabi the Ferryman to
    check out the plant that brings everlasting
    youth, but in the end a serpent snatches it away.

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Hebrews Morality Afterlife
  • Ten commandments the consequences for bad
    behavior are not in an afterlife but in this life
    and in future generationssee 49 See also
    Jeremiah on 51.
  • eye for eye, tooth for tooth (49)
  • responsibility to enemies (49)

43
Hebrews Afterlife
  • Hebrew attitude toward the afterlife was
    uncertain see Job 53

44
Government Social Order
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Egypt Gov/Society
  • Union of Upper and Lower Egypt shown on Palette
    of Narmer (22-23).
  • Narmer was the first pharaoh. Pharaoh great
    house
  • Theocracy pharaoh ruled in the name of the sun
    god
  • Pharaoh identified with Horus and symbolized by
    the falcon

46
Horus? sky god god of Egypt
47
Egypt Gov/Society
  • Land was sacred ruled by the pharaohs in the
    name of the godsworked by the peasants and
    slaves.
  • System theocratic socialism harvest shared by
    community

48
Egypt Gov/Society
  • Authority went from the pharaoh to the husband of
    the pharaohs daughterthus sometimes sons would
    marry their sisters in order to get the thrown.
    (Property passed through women)

49
Egypt Social Structure
  • Pharaoh
  • Vizier top bureaucratic official
  • Merchants traders, builders, scribes (middle
    class)
  • Peasants
  • Slaves unfree captured enemies, criminals,
    debtors

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Canon of Proportion
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Mesopotamia Gov/Society
  • City-states united under Sargon I, creator of
    first empire

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Sargon I
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Stele of Hammurabi
  • c. 1760 BCE

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The Standard of Ur (ca. 2700 BCE)
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Hebrews Gov/Society
  • after 2000 BCE Abraham covenant I will be
    your God you will be my people
  • Chosen People
  • Abraham, Isaac, Jacob (aka Israelsoldier of
    God)

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Hebrews
  • After 1700 BCE into Egypt
  • C. 1300 BCE Moses leads out of Egypt to Canaan,
    but Canaan is occupied
  • Samuel, Saul, and David battle the Canaanites
    David conquers them

62
Hebrews Gov/Society
  • 960-920 BCESolomon establishes Jerusalem, builds
    a temple for the Ark of the Covenant (50)
  • Israel divided North and South
  • North Israel
  • South Judah

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Babylonian Captivity
  • Nebuchadnezza invades Jerusalem, takes Hebrews
    (Jews) into captivity in Babylon (586-538 BCE)
  • Book of Job probablywritten during this time

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Hebrews
  • 538 BCE return from captivity
  • Jews later ruled by Persians, Greeks, andafter a
    short independenceby the Romans
  • 70 CE Temple destroyed again, this time by
    Romans after Jewish revolt
  • 1948 CE state of Israel established

67
Hebrews Gov/Society
  • Social order reflects covenant between God and
    the Hebrews.
  • The Jewish father has a patriarchal bond with his
    family the Hebrew king represents God, divinely
    appointed
  • Prophets (50)
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