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Ancient Egypt: an Overview

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Title: Ancient Egypt: an Overview


1
Ancient Egyptan Overview
2
Timeline
  • Old Kingdom 2650 BC 2134 BC
  • Middle Kingdom 2125 BC 1550 BC
  • New Kingdom 1550 BC 1295 BC
  • http//www.thebanmappingproject.com/resources/time
    line.html

3
Three Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt
1
NEW KINGDOM
MIDDLE KINGDOM
OLD KINGDOM
Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that
reached the Euphrates River. Hatshepsut
encouraged trade. Ramses II expanded Egyptian
rule to Syria. Egyptian power declined.
Large drainage project created arable
farmland. Traders had contacts with Middle East
and Crete. Corruption and rebellions were
common. Hyksos invaded and occupied the delta
region.
Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were
absolute rulers, and were considered
gods. Egyptians built pyramids at Giza. Power
struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids
contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom.
4
Geography
  • Egypt is located in northeastern Africa
  • The Nile River runs the length of the country
    flowing south to north
  • The river begins in the mountains of Africa and
    empties into the Mediterranean Sea
  • The climate is hot and dry, part of the Sahara
    Desert

http//www.worldcountries.info/Maps/GoogleMap-Egyp
t.php http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/geography/expl
ore/ter.html
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Geography
  • Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions Upper
    and Lower Egypt
  • Lower (northern) Egypt consisted of the Nile
    River's delta made by the river as it empties
    into the Mediterranean.
  • Upper Egypt was the long, narrow strip of ancient
    Egypt located south of the Delta.

http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/geography/home.html
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The Nile River
  • The Nile was the lifeblood of ancient Egypt
  • It made life possible in the otherwise barren
    desert of Egypt.
  • It is the longest river in the world (over 4,000
    miles).
  • It served as a source of food for the people of
    ancient Egypt
  • It was the major source of water for bathing and
    drinking
  • The Nile was crucial for farming

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Blue Nile
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White Nile
14
White Blue Nile Meet in Sudan
15
Floodplain
16
Floodplain
  • The low strip of fertile land located on either
    side of the Nile River
  • The river flooded during the annual inundation
  • When the inundation subsided, it left the earth
    soaked and overlaid with a fresh layer of black
    silt.
  • Most of the farming occurred here

17
Nile Delta
  • Located in northern Egypt where the Nile River
    spreads out and empties into the Mediterranean
    Sea
  • 240 km of coastline, 106 km in length
  • Rich agricultural region
  • Most fertile soil in Africa

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  • Bordered on the south, east and west by
    the Sahara Desert, and on the north by the sea,
    ancient Egypt was protected from outside
    influences.

20
Great Sahara Desert
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Facts About the Nile River
Length 4,184 miles
2 Sources Lake Victoria, Uganda (White Nile) Lake Tana, Ethiopia (Blue Nile)
Mouth Mediterranean Sea, off Egypt
Countries Flows Through Egypt, Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Zaire, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi
Name Origin Greek word Nelios, which means "River Valley"

23
Religion
  • Belief that many gods and goddesses ruled the
    world and the afterlife
    Amon-Re
    sun god
    Osiris god of the underworld
    and of the Nile
  • The pharaoh was believed to be a god as well as a
    ruler

Falcon Headed Sun God
24
Religion
  • Belief in eternal life after death.
  • Relied on the Book of the Dead to help them
    through the afterworld.
  • Practiced mummification, the preservation of the
    body for use in the next life.


25
Book of the Dead
Collection of spells, hymns, and prayers intended
to secure a safe passage to the underworld for
the deceased
26
Writing
Making paper from papyrus
27
What is hieroglyphics?
  • Hieroglyphics is the picture writing used in
    ancient Egypt. The word hieroglyphics is made up
    of two Greek words - hieros, which means sacred,
    and glyphe, which means carving.
  • The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system consists
    of several hundred picture signs. The signs can
    be divided into two classes, phonograms and
    ideograms

28
Phonograms represent sounds, much as alphabet
letters do. Ideograms are signs that represent
whole words or concepts.
29
Pyramids
30
The Great Sphinx
31
Mythology
Egyptian goddess Isis, tomb painting, ca. 1360 BC.
32
Social Classes
2
PHARAOH Earthly leader considered a god
HIGH PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSES Served gods and
goddesses
NOBLES Fought pharaohs wars
MERCHANTS, SCRIBES, AND ARTISANS Made furniture,
jewelry, and fabrics for pharaohs and nobles, and
provided for other needs
PEASANT FARMERS AND SLAVES Worked in the fields
and served the pharaoh
33
Daily Life
  • The Egyptians - Daily Life
  • Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
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